LCOV - code coverage report
Current view: top level - src/bin/pgbench - pgbench.c (source / functions) Hit Total Coverage
Test: PostgreSQL 16devel Lines: 2372 2768 85.7 %
Date: 2023-01-27 18:10:33 Functions: 114 119 95.8 %
Legend: Lines: hit not hit

          Line data    Source code
       1             : /*
       2             :  * pgbench.c
       3             :  *
       4             :  * A simple benchmark program for PostgreSQL
       5             :  * Originally written by Tatsuo Ishii and enhanced by many contributors.
       6             :  *
       7             :  * src/bin/pgbench/pgbench.c
       8             :  * Copyright (c) 2000-2023, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
       9             :  * ALL RIGHTS RESERVED;
      10             :  *
      11             :  * Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
      12             :  * documentation for any purpose, without fee, and without a written agreement
      13             :  * is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this
      14             :  * paragraph and the following two paragraphs appear in all copies.
      15             :  *
      16             :  * IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR DISTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR
      17             :  * DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING
      18             :  * LOST PROFITS, ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE AND ITS
      19             :  * DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF THE AUTHOR OR DISTRIBUTORS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE
      20             :  * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
      21             :  *
      22             :  * THE AUTHOR AND DISTRIBUTORS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES,
      23             :  * INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
      24             :  * AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE SOFTWARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER IS
      25             :  * ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND THE AUTHOR AND DISTRIBUTORS HAS NO OBLIGATIONS TO
      26             :  * PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES, ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.
      27             :  *
      28             :  */
      29             : 
      30             : #if defined(WIN32) && FD_SETSIZE < 1024
      31             : #error FD_SETSIZE needs to have been increased
      32             : #endif
      33             : 
      34             : #include "postgres_fe.h"
      35             : 
      36             : #include <ctype.h>
      37             : #include <float.h>
      38             : #include <limits.h>
      39             : #include <math.h>
      40             : #include <signal.h>
      41             : #include <time.h>
      42             : #include <sys/time.h>
      43             : #include <sys/resource.h>     /* for getrlimit */
      44             : 
      45             : /* For testing, PGBENCH_USE_SELECT can be defined to force use of that code */
      46             : #if defined(HAVE_PPOLL) && !defined(PGBENCH_USE_SELECT)
      47             : #define POLL_USING_PPOLL
      48             : #ifdef HAVE_POLL_H
      49             : #include <poll.h>
      50             : #endif
      51             : #else                           /* no ppoll(), so use select() */
      52             : #define POLL_USING_SELECT
      53             : #include <sys/select.h>
      54             : #endif
      55             : 
      56             : #include "common/int.h"
      57             : #include "common/logging.h"
      58             : #include "common/pg_prng.h"
      59             : #include "common/string.h"
      60             : #include "common/username.h"
      61             : #include "fe_utils/cancel.h"
      62             : #include "fe_utils/conditional.h"
      63             : #include "fe_utils/option_utils.h"
      64             : #include "fe_utils/string_utils.h"
      65             : #include "getopt_long.h"
      66             : #include "libpq-fe.h"
      67             : #include "pgbench.h"
      68             : #include "port/pg_bitutils.h"
      69             : #include "portability/instr_time.h"
      70             : 
      71             : /* X/Open (XSI) requires <math.h> to provide M_PI, but core POSIX does not */
      72             : #ifndef M_PI
      73             : #define M_PI 3.14159265358979323846
      74             : #endif
      75             : 
      76             : #define ERRCODE_T_R_SERIALIZATION_FAILURE  "40001"
      77             : #define ERRCODE_T_R_DEADLOCK_DETECTED  "40P01"
      78             : #define ERRCODE_UNDEFINED_TABLE  "42P01"
      79             : 
      80             : /*
      81             :  * Hashing constants
      82             :  */
      83             : #define FNV_PRIME           UINT64CONST(0x100000001b3)
      84             : #define FNV_OFFSET_BASIS    UINT64CONST(0xcbf29ce484222325)
      85             : #define MM2_MUL             UINT64CONST(0xc6a4a7935bd1e995)
      86             : #define MM2_MUL_TIMES_8     UINT64CONST(0x35253c9ade8f4ca8)
      87             : #define MM2_ROT             47
      88             : 
      89             : /*
      90             :  * Multi-platform socket set implementations
      91             :  */
      92             : 
      93             : #ifdef POLL_USING_PPOLL
      94             : #define SOCKET_WAIT_METHOD "ppoll"
      95             : 
      96             : typedef struct socket_set
      97             : {
      98             :     int         maxfds;         /* allocated length of pollfds[] array */
      99             :     int         curfds;         /* number currently in use */
     100             :     struct pollfd pollfds[FLEXIBLE_ARRAY_MEMBER];
     101             : } socket_set;
     102             : 
     103             : #endif                          /* POLL_USING_PPOLL */
     104             : 
     105             : #ifdef POLL_USING_SELECT
     106             : #define SOCKET_WAIT_METHOD "select"
     107             : 
     108             : typedef struct socket_set
     109             : {
     110             :     int         maxfd;          /* largest FD currently set in fds */
     111             :     fd_set      fds;
     112             : } socket_set;
     113             : 
     114             : #endif                          /* POLL_USING_SELECT */
     115             : 
     116             : /*
     117             :  * Multi-platform thread implementations
     118             :  */
     119             : 
     120             : #ifdef WIN32
     121             : /* Use Windows threads */
     122             : #include <windows.h>
     123             : #define GETERRNO() (_dosmaperr(GetLastError()), errno)
     124             : #define THREAD_T HANDLE
     125             : #define THREAD_FUNC_RETURN_TYPE unsigned
     126             : #define THREAD_FUNC_RETURN return 0
     127             : #define THREAD_FUNC_CC __stdcall
     128             : #define THREAD_CREATE(handle, function, arg) \
     129             :     ((*(handle) = (HANDLE) _beginthreadex(NULL, 0, (function), (arg), 0, NULL)) == 0 ? errno : 0)
     130             : #define THREAD_JOIN(handle) \
     131             :     (WaitForSingleObject(handle, INFINITE) != WAIT_OBJECT_0 ? \
     132             :     GETERRNO() : CloseHandle(handle) ? 0 : GETERRNO())
     133             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_T SYNCHRONIZATION_BARRIER
     134             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_INIT(barrier, n) \
     135             :     (InitializeSynchronizationBarrier((barrier), (n), 0) ? 0 : GETERRNO())
     136             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_WAIT(barrier) \
     137             :     EnterSynchronizationBarrier((barrier), \
     138             :                                 SYNCHRONIZATION_BARRIER_FLAGS_BLOCK_ONLY)
     139             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_DESTROY(barrier)
     140             : #elif defined(ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY)
     141             : /* Use POSIX threads */
     142             : #include "port/pg_pthread.h"
     143             : #define THREAD_T pthread_t
     144             : #define THREAD_FUNC_RETURN_TYPE void *
     145             : #define THREAD_FUNC_RETURN return NULL
     146             : #define THREAD_FUNC_CC
     147             : #define THREAD_CREATE(handle, function, arg) \
     148             :     pthread_create((handle), NULL, (function), (arg))
     149             : #define THREAD_JOIN(handle) \
     150             :     pthread_join((handle), NULL)
     151             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_T pthread_barrier_t
     152             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_INIT(barrier, n) \
     153             :     pthread_barrier_init((barrier), NULL, (n))
     154             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_WAIT(barrier) pthread_barrier_wait((barrier))
     155             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_DESTROY(barrier) pthread_barrier_destroy((barrier))
     156             : #else
     157             : /* No threads implementation, use none (-j 1) */
     158             : #define THREAD_T void *
     159             : #define THREAD_FUNC_RETURN_TYPE void *
     160             : #define THREAD_FUNC_RETURN return NULL
     161             : #define THREAD_FUNC_CC
     162             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_T int
     163             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_INIT(barrier, n) (*(barrier) = 0)
     164             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_WAIT(barrier)
     165             : #define THREAD_BARRIER_DESTROY(barrier)
     166             : #endif
     167             : 
     168             : 
     169             : /********************************************************************
     170             :  * some configurable parameters */
     171             : 
     172             : #define DEFAULT_INIT_STEPS "dtgvp"    /* default -I setting */
     173             : #define ALL_INIT_STEPS "dtgGvpf"  /* all possible steps */
     174             : 
     175             : #define LOG_STEP_SECONDS    5   /* seconds between log messages */
     176             : #define DEFAULT_NXACTS  10      /* default nxacts */
     177             : 
     178             : #define MIN_GAUSSIAN_PARAM      2.0 /* minimum parameter for gauss */
     179             : 
     180             : #define MIN_ZIPFIAN_PARAM       1.001   /* minimum parameter for zipfian */
     181             : #define MAX_ZIPFIAN_PARAM       1000.0  /* maximum parameter for zipfian */
     182             : 
     183             : int         nxacts = 0;         /* number of transactions per client */
     184             : int         duration = 0;       /* duration in seconds */
     185             : int64       end_time = 0;       /* when to stop in micro seconds, under -T */
     186             : 
     187             : /*
     188             :  * scaling factor. for example, scale = 10 will make 1000000 tuples in
     189             :  * pgbench_accounts table.
     190             :  */
     191             : int         scale = 1;
     192             : 
     193             : /*
     194             :  * fillfactor. for example, fillfactor = 90 will use only 90 percent
     195             :  * space during inserts and leave 10 percent free.
     196             :  */
     197             : int         fillfactor = 100;
     198             : 
     199             : /*
     200             :  * use unlogged tables?
     201             :  */
     202             : bool        unlogged_tables = false;
     203             : 
     204             : /*
     205             :  * log sampling rate (1.0 = log everything, 0.0 = option not given)
     206             :  */
     207             : double      sample_rate = 0.0;
     208             : 
     209             : /*
     210             :  * When threads are throttled to a given rate limit, this is the target delay
     211             :  * to reach that rate in usec.  0 is the default and means no throttling.
     212             :  */
     213             : double      throttle_delay = 0;
     214             : 
     215             : /*
     216             :  * Transactions which take longer than this limit (in usec) are counted as
     217             :  * late, and reported as such, although they are completed anyway. When
     218             :  * throttling is enabled, execution time slots that are more than this late
     219             :  * are skipped altogether, and counted separately.
     220             :  */
     221             : int64       latency_limit = 0;
     222             : 
     223             : /*
     224             :  * tablespace selection
     225             :  */
     226             : char       *tablespace = NULL;
     227             : char       *index_tablespace = NULL;
     228             : 
     229             : /*
     230             :  * Number of "pgbench_accounts" partitions.  0 is the default and means no
     231             :  * partitioning.
     232             :  */
     233             : static int  partitions = 0;
     234             : 
     235             : /* partitioning strategy for "pgbench_accounts" */
     236             : typedef enum
     237             : {
     238             :     PART_NONE,                  /* no partitioning */
     239             :     PART_RANGE,                 /* range partitioning */
     240             :     PART_HASH                   /* hash partitioning */
     241             : } partition_method_t;
     242             : 
     243             : static partition_method_t partition_method = PART_NONE;
     244             : static const char *PARTITION_METHOD[] = {"none", "range", "hash"};
     245             : 
     246             : /* random seed used to initialize base_random_sequence */
     247             : int64       random_seed = -1;
     248             : 
     249             : /*
     250             :  * end of configurable parameters
     251             :  *********************************************************************/
     252             : 
     253             : #define nbranches   1           /* Makes little sense to change this.  Change
     254             :                                  * -s instead */
     255             : #define ntellers    10
     256             : #define naccounts   100000
     257             : 
     258             : /*
     259             :  * The scale factor at/beyond which 32bit integers are incapable of storing
     260             :  * 64bit values.
     261             :  *
     262             :  * Although the actual threshold is 21474, we use 20000 because it is easier to
     263             :  * document and remember, and isn't that far away from the real threshold.
     264             :  */
     265             : #define SCALE_32BIT_THRESHOLD 20000
     266             : 
     267             : bool        use_log;            /* log transaction latencies to a file */
     268             : bool        use_quiet;          /* quiet logging onto stderr */
     269             : int         agg_interval;       /* log aggregates instead of individual
     270             :                                  * transactions */
     271             : bool        per_script_stats = false;   /* whether to collect stats per script */
     272             : int         progress = 0;       /* thread progress report every this seconds */
     273             : bool        progress_timestamp = false; /* progress report with Unix time */
     274             : int         nclients = 1;       /* number of clients */
     275             : int         nthreads = 1;       /* number of threads */
     276             : bool        is_connect;         /* establish connection for each transaction */
     277             : bool        report_per_command = false; /* report per-command latencies,
     278             :                                          * retries after errors and failures
     279             :                                          * (errors without retrying) */
     280             : int         main_pid;           /* main process id used in log filename */
     281             : 
     282             : /*
     283             :  * There are different types of restrictions for deciding that the current
     284             :  * transaction with a serialization/deadlock error can no longer be retried and
     285             :  * should be reported as failed:
     286             :  * - max_tries (--max-tries) can be used to limit the number of tries;
     287             :  * - latency_limit (-L) can be used to limit the total time of tries;
     288             :  * - duration (-T) can be used to limit the total benchmark time.
     289             :  *
     290             :  * They can be combined together, and you need to use at least one of them to
     291             :  * retry the transactions with serialization/deadlock errors. If none of them is
     292             :  * used, the default value of max_tries is 1 and such transactions will not be
     293             :  * retried.
     294             :  */
     295             : 
     296             : /*
     297             :  * We cannot retry a transaction after the serialization/deadlock error if its
     298             :  * number of tries reaches this maximum; if its value is zero, it is not used.
     299             :  */
     300             : uint32      max_tries = 1;
     301             : 
     302             : bool        failures_detailed = false;  /* whether to group failures in
     303             :                                          * reports or logs by basic types */
     304             : 
     305             : const char *pghost = NULL;
     306             : const char *pgport = NULL;
     307             : const char *username = NULL;
     308             : const char *dbName = NULL;
     309             : char       *logfile_prefix = NULL;
     310             : const char *progname;
     311             : 
     312             : #define WSEP '@'                /* weight separator */
     313             : 
     314             : volatile sig_atomic_t timer_exceeded = false;   /* flag from signal handler */
     315             : 
     316             : /*
     317             :  * We don't want to allocate variables one by one; for efficiency, add a
     318             :  * constant margin each time it overflows.
     319             :  */
     320             : #define VARIABLES_ALLOC_MARGIN  8
     321             : 
     322             : /*
     323             :  * Variable definitions.
     324             :  *
     325             :  * If a variable only has a string value, "svalue" is that value, and value is
     326             :  * "not set".  If the value is known, "value" contains the value (in any
     327             :  * variant).
     328             :  *
     329             :  * In this case "svalue" contains the string equivalent of the value, if we've
     330             :  * had occasion to compute that, or NULL if we haven't.
     331             :  */
     332             : typedef struct
     333             : {
     334             :     char       *name;           /* variable's name */
     335             :     char       *svalue;         /* its value in string form, if known */
     336             :     PgBenchValue value;         /* actual variable's value */
     337             : } Variable;
     338             : 
     339             : /*
     340             :  * Data structure for client variables.
     341             :  */
     342             : typedef struct
     343             : {
     344             :     Variable   *vars;           /* array of variable definitions */
     345             :     int         nvars;          /* number of variables */
     346             : 
     347             :     /*
     348             :      * The maximum number of variables that we can currently store in 'vars'
     349             :      * without having to reallocate more space. We must always have max_vars
     350             :      * >= nvars.
     351             :      */
     352             :     int         max_vars;
     353             : 
     354             :     bool        vars_sorted;    /* are variables sorted by name? */
     355             : } Variables;
     356             : 
     357             : #define MAX_SCRIPTS     128     /* max number of SQL scripts allowed */
     358             : #define SHELL_COMMAND_SIZE  256 /* maximum size allowed for shell command */
     359             : 
     360             : /*
     361             :  * Simple data structure to keep stats about something.
     362             :  *
     363             :  * XXX probably the first value should be kept and used as an offset for
     364             :  * better numerical stability...
     365             :  */
     366             : typedef struct SimpleStats
     367             : {
     368             :     int64       count;          /* how many values were encountered */
     369             :     double      min;            /* the minimum seen */
     370             :     double      max;            /* the maximum seen */
     371             :     double      sum;            /* sum of values */
     372             :     double      sum2;           /* sum of squared values */
     373             : } SimpleStats;
     374             : 
     375             : /*
     376             :  * The instr_time type is expensive when dealing with time arithmetic.  Define
     377             :  * a type to hold microseconds instead.  Type int64 is good enough for about
     378             :  * 584500 years.
     379             :  */
     380             : typedef int64 pg_time_usec_t;
     381             : 
     382             : /*
     383             :  * Data structure to hold various statistics: per-thread and per-script stats
     384             :  * are maintained and merged together.
     385             :  */
     386             : typedef struct StatsData
     387             : {
     388             :     pg_time_usec_t start_time;  /* interval start time, for aggregates */
     389             : 
     390             :     /*----------
     391             :      * Transactions are counted depending on their execution and outcome.
     392             :      * First a transaction may have started or not: skipped transactions occur
     393             :      * under --rate and --latency-limit when the client is too late to execute
     394             :      * them. Secondly, a started transaction may ultimately succeed or fail,
     395             :      * possibly after some retries when --max-tries is not one. Thus
     396             :      *
     397             :      * the number of all transactions =
     398             :      *   'skipped' (it was too late to execute them) +
     399             :      *   'cnt' (the number of successful transactions) +
     400             :      *   'failed' (the number of failed transactions).
     401             :      *
     402             :      * A successful transaction can have several unsuccessful tries before a
     403             :      * successful run. Thus
     404             :      *
     405             :      * 'cnt' (the number of successful transactions) =
     406             :      *   successfully retried transactions (they got a serialization or a
     407             :      *                                      deadlock error(s), but were
     408             :      *                                      successfully retried from the very
     409             :      *                                      beginning) +
     410             :      *   directly successful transactions (they were successfully completed on
     411             :      *                                     the first try).
     412             :      *
     413             :      * A failed transaction is defined as unsuccessfully retried transactions.
     414             :      * It can be one of two types:
     415             :      *
     416             :      * failed (the number of failed transactions) =
     417             :      *   'serialization_failures' (they got a serialization error and were not
     418             :      *                             successfully retried) +
     419             :      *   'deadlock_failures' (they got a deadlock error and were not
     420             :      *                        successfully retried).
     421             :      *
     422             :      * If the transaction was retried after a serialization or a deadlock
     423             :      * error this does not guarantee that this retry was successful. Thus
     424             :      *
     425             :      * 'retries' (number of retries) =
     426             :      *   number of retries in all retried transactions =
     427             :      *   number of retries in (successfully retried transactions +
     428             :      *                         failed transactions);
     429             :      *
     430             :      * 'retried' (number of all retried transactions) =
     431             :      *   successfully retried transactions +
     432             :      *   failed transactions.
     433             :      *----------
     434             :      */
     435             :     int64       cnt;            /* number of successful transactions, not
     436             :                                  * including 'skipped' */
     437             :     int64       skipped;        /* number of transactions skipped under --rate
     438             :                                  * and --latency-limit */
     439             :     int64       retries;        /* number of retries after a serialization or
     440             :                                  * a deadlock error in all the transactions */
     441             :     int64       retried;        /* number of all transactions that were
     442             :                                  * retried after a serialization or a deadlock
     443             :                                  * error (perhaps the last try was
     444             :                                  * unsuccessful) */
     445             :     int64       serialization_failures; /* number of transactions that were
     446             :                                          * not successfully retried after a
     447             :                                          * serialization error */
     448             :     int64       deadlock_failures;  /* number of transactions that were not
     449             :                                      * successfully retried after a deadlock
     450             :                                      * error */
     451             :     SimpleStats latency;
     452             :     SimpleStats lag;
     453             : } StatsData;
     454             : 
     455             : /*
     456             :  * For displaying Unix epoch timestamps, as some time functions may have
     457             :  * another reference.
     458             :  */
     459             : pg_time_usec_t epoch_shift;
     460             : 
     461             : /*
     462             :  * Error status for errors during script execution.
     463             :  */
     464             : typedef enum EStatus
     465             : {
     466             :     ESTATUS_NO_ERROR = 0,
     467             :     ESTATUS_META_COMMAND_ERROR,
     468             : 
     469             :     /* SQL errors */
     470             :     ESTATUS_SERIALIZATION_ERROR,
     471             :     ESTATUS_DEADLOCK_ERROR,
     472             :     ESTATUS_OTHER_SQL_ERROR
     473             : } EStatus;
     474             : 
     475             : /*
     476             :  * Transaction status at the end of a command.
     477             :  */
     478             : typedef enum TStatus
     479             : {
     480             :     TSTATUS_IDLE,
     481             :     TSTATUS_IN_BLOCK,
     482             :     TSTATUS_CONN_ERROR,
     483             :     TSTATUS_OTHER_ERROR
     484             : } TStatus;
     485             : 
     486             : /* Various random sequences are initialized from this one. */
     487             : static pg_prng_state base_random_sequence;
     488             : 
     489             : /* Synchronization barrier for start and connection */
     490             : static THREAD_BARRIER_T barrier;
     491             : 
     492             : /*
     493             :  * Connection state machine states.
     494             :  */
     495             : typedef enum
     496             : {
     497             :     /*
     498             :      * The client must first choose a script to execute.  Once chosen, it can
     499             :      * either be throttled (state CSTATE_PREPARE_THROTTLE under --rate), start
     500             :      * right away (state CSTATE_START_TX) or not start at all if the timer was
     501             :      * exceeded (state CSTATE_FINISHED).
     502             :      */
     503             :     CSTATE_CHOOSE_SCRIPT,
     504             : 
     505             :     /*
     506             :      * CSTATE_START_TX performs start-of-transaction processing.  Establishes
     507             :      * a new connection for the transaction in --connect mode, records the
     508             :      * transaction start time, and proceed to the first command.
     509             :      *
     510             :      * Note: once a script is started, it will either error or run till its
     511             :      * end, where it may be interrupted. It is not interrupted while running,
     512             :      * so pgbench --time is to be understood as tx are allowed to start in
     513             :      * that time, and will finish when their work is completed.
     514             :      */
     515             :     CSTATE_START_TX,
     516             : 
     517             :     /*
     518             :      * In CSTATE_PREPARE_THROTTLE state, we calculate when to begin the next
     519             :      * transaction, and advance to CSTATE_THROTTLE.  CSTATE_THROTTLE state
     520             :      * sleeps until that moment, then advances to CSTATE_START_TX, or
     521             :      * CSTATE_FINISHED if the next transaction would start beyond the end of
     522             :      * the run.
     523             :      */
     524             :     CSTATE_PREPARE_THROTTLE,
     525             :     CSTATE_THROTTLE,
     526             : 
     527             :     /*
     528             :      * We loop through these states, to process each command in the script:
     529             :      *
     530             :      * CSTATE_START_COMMAND starts the execution of a command.  On a SQL
     531             :      * command, the command is sent to the server, and we move to
     532             :      * CSTATE_WAIT_RESULT state unless in pipeline mode. On a \sleep
     533             :      * meta-command, the timer is set, and we enter the CSTATE_SLEEP state to
     534             :      * wait for it to expire. Other meta-commands are executed immediately. If
     535             :      * the command about to start is actually beyond the end of the script,
     536             :      * advance to CSTATE_END_TX.
     537             :      *
     538             :      * CSTATE_WAIT_RESULT waits until we get a result set back from the server
     539             :      * for the current command.
     540             :      *
     541             :      * CSTATE_SLEEP waits until the end of \sleep.
     542             :      *
     543             :      * CSTATE_END_COMMAND records the end-of-command timestamp, increments the
     544             :      * command counter, and loops back to CSTATE_START_COMMAND state.
     545             :      *
     546             :      * CSTATE_SKIP_COMMAND is used by conditional branches which are not
     547             :      * executed. It quickly skip commands that do not need any evaluation.
     548             :      * This state can move forward several commands, till there is something
     549             :      * to do or the end of the script.
     550             :      */
     551             :     CSTATE_START_COMMAND,
     552             :     CSTATE_WAIT_RESULT,
     553             :     CSTATE_SLEEP,
     554             :     CSTATE_END_COMMAND,
     555             :     CSTATE_SKIP_COMMAND,
     556             : 
     557             :     /*
     558             :      * States for failed commands.
     559             :      *
     560             :      * If the SQL/meta command fails, in CSTATE_ERROR clean up after an error:
     561             :      * (1) clear the conditional stack; (2) if we have an unterminated
     562             :      * (possibly failed) transaction block, send the rollback command to the
     563             :      * server and wait for the result in CSTATE_WAIT_ROLLBACK_RESULT.  If
     564             :      * something goes wrong with rolling back, go to CSTATE_ABORTED.
     565             :      *
     566             :      * But if everything is ok we are ready for future transactions: if this
     567             :      * is a serialization or deadlock error and we can re-execute the
     568             :      * transaction from the very beginning, go to CSTATE_RETRY; otherwise go
     569             :      * to CSTATE_FAILURE.
     570             :      *
     571             :      * In CSTATE_RETRY report an error, set the same parameters for the
     572             :      * transaction execution as in the previous tries and process the first
     573             :      * transaction command in CSTATE_START_COMMAND.
     574             :      *
     575             :      * In CSTATE_FAILURE report a failure, set the parameters for the
     576             :      * transaction execution as they were before the first run of this
     577             :      * transaction (except for a random state) and go to CSTATE_END_TX to
     578             :      * complete this transaction.
     579             :      */
     580             :     CSTATE_ERROR,
     581             :     CSTATE_WAIT_ROLLBACK_RESULT,
     582             :     CSTATE_RETRY,
     583             :     CSTATE_FAILURE,
     584             : 
     585             :     /*
     586             :      * CSTATE_END_TX performs end-of-transaction processing.  It calculates
     587             :      * latency, and logs the transaction.  In --connect mode, it closes the
     588             :      * current connection.
     589             :      *
     590             :      * Then either starts over in CSTATE_CHOOSE_SCRIPT, or enters
     591             :      * CSTATE_FINISHED if we have no more work to do.
     592             :      */
     593             :     CSTATE_END_TX,
     594             : 
     595             :     /*
     596             :      * Final states.  CSTATE_ABORTED means that the script execution was
     597             :      * aborted because a command failed, CSTATE_FINISHED means success.
     598             :      */
     599             :     CSTATE_ABORTED,
     600             :     CSTATE_FINISHED
     601             : } ConnectionStateEnum;
     602             : 
     603             : /*
     604             :  * Connection state.
     605             :  */
     606             : typedef struct
     607             : {
     608             :     PGconn     *con;            /* connection handle to DB */
     609             :     int         id;             /* client No. */
     610             :     ConnectionStateEnum state;  /* state machine's current state. */
     611             :     ConditionalStack cstack;    /* enclosing conditionals state */
     612             : 
     613             :     /*
     614             :      * Separate randomness for each client. This is used for random functions
     615             :      * PGBENCH_RANDOM_* during the execution of the script.
     616             :      */
     617             :     pg_prng_state cs_func_rs;
     618             : 
     619             :     int         use_file;       /* index in sql_script for this client */
     620             :     int         command;        /* command number in script */
     621             : 
     622             :     /* client variables */
     623             :     Variables   variables;
     624             : 
     625             :     /* various times about current transaction in microseconds */
     626             :     pg_time_usec_t txn_scheduled;   /* scheduled start time of transaction */
     627             :     pg_time_usec_t sleep_until; /* scheduled start time of next cmd */
     628             :     pg_time_usec_t txn_begin;   /* used for measuring schedule lag times */
     629             :     pg_time_usec_t stmt_begin;  /* used for measuring statement latencies */
     630             : 
     631             :     bool        prepared[MAX_SCRIPTS];  /* whether client prepared the script */
     632             : 
     633             :     /*
     634             :      * For processing failures and repeating transactions with serialization
     635             :      * or deadlock errors:
     636             :      */
     637             :     EStatus     estatus;        /* the error status of the current transaction
     638             :                                  * execution; this is ESTATUS_NO_ERROR if
     639             :                                  * there were no errors */
     640             :     pg_prng_state random_state; /* random state */
     641             :     uint32      tries;          /* how many times have we already tried the
     642             :                                  * current transaction? */
     643             : 
     644             :     /* per client collected stats */
     645             :     int64       cnt;            /* client transaction count, for -t; skipped
     646             :                                  * and failed transactions are also counted
     647             :                                  * here */
     648             : } CState;
     649             : 
     650             : /*
     651             :  * Thread state
     652             :  */
     653             : typedef struct
     654             : {
     655             :     int         tid;            /* thread id */
     656             :     THREAD_T    thread;         /* thread handle */
     657             :     CState     *state;          /* array of CState */
     658             :     int         nstate;         /* length of state[] */
     659             : 
     660             :     /*
     661             :      * Separate randomness for each thread. Each thread option uses its own
     662             :      * random state to make all of them independent of each other and
     663             :      * therefore deterministic at the thread level.
     664             :      */
     665             :     pg_prng_state ts_choose_rs; /* random state for selecting a script */
     666             :     pg_prng_state ts_throttle_rs;   /* random state for transaction throttling */
     667             :     pg_prng_state ts_sample_rs; /* random state for log sampling */
     668             : 
     669             :     int64       throttle_trigger;   /* previous/next throttling (us) */
     670             :     FILE       *logfile;        /* where to log, or NULL */
     671             : 
     672             :     /* per thread collected stats in microseconds */
     673             :     pg_time_usec_t create_time; /* thread creation time */
     674             :     pg_time_usec_t started_time;    /* thread is running */
     675             :     pg_time_usec_t bench_start; /* thread is benchmarking */
     676             :     pg_time_usec_t conn_duration;   /* cumulated connection and disconnection
     677             :                                      * delays */
     678             : 
     679             :     StatsData   stats;
     680             :     int64       latency_late;   /* count executed but late transactions */
     681             : } TState;
     682             : 
     683             : /*
     684             :  * queries read from files
     685             :  */
     686             : #define SQL_COMMAND     1
     687             : #define META_COMMAND    2
     688             : 
     689             : /*
     690             :  * max number of backslash command arguments or SQL variables,
     691             :  * including the command or SQL statement itself
     692             :  */
     693             : #define MAX_ARGS        256
     694             : 
     695             : typedef enum MetaCommand
     696             : {
     697             :     META_NONE,                  /* not a known meta-command */
     698             :     META_SET,                   /* \set */
     699             :     META_SETSHELL,              /* \setshell */
     700             :     META_SHELL,                 /* \shell */
     701             :     META_SLEEP,                 /* \sleep */
     702             :     META_GSET,                  /* \gset */
     703             :     META_ASET,                  /* \aset */
     704             :     META_IF,                    /* \if */
     705             :     META_ELIF,                  /* \elif */
     706             :     META_ELSE,                  /* \else */
     707             :     META_ENDIF,                 /* \endif */
     708             :     META_STARTPIPELINE,         /* \startpipeline */
     709             :     META_ENDPIPELINE            /* \endpipeline */
     710             : } MetaCommand;
     711             : 
     712             : typedef enum QueryMode
     713             : {
     714             :     QUERY_SIMPLE,               /* simple query */
     715             :     QUERY_EXTENDED,             /* extended query */
     716             :     QUERY_PREPARED,             /* extended query with prepared statements */
     717             :     NUM_QUERYMODE
     718             : } QueryMode;
     719             : 
     720             : static QueryMode querymode = QUERY_SIMPLE;
     721             : static const char *QUERYMODE[] = {"simple", "extended", "prepared"};
     722             : 
     723             : /*
     724             :  * struct Command represents one command in a script.
     725             :  *
     726             :  * lines        The raw, possibly multi-line command text.  Variable substitution
     727             :  *              not applied.
     728             :  * first_line   A short, single-line extract of 'lines', for error reporting.
     729             :  * type         SQL_COMMAND or META_COMMAND
     730             :  * meta         The type of meta-command, with META_NONE/GSET/ASET if command
     731             :  *              is SQL.
     732             :  * argc         Number of arguments of the command, 0 if not yet processed.
     733             :  * argv         Command arguments, the first of which is the command or SQL
     734             :  *              string itself.  For SQL commands, after post-processing
     735             :  *              argv[0] is the same as 'lines' with variables substituted.
     736             :  * varprefix    SQL commands terminated with \gset or \aset have this set
     737             :  *              to a non NULL value.  If nonempty, it's used to prefix the
     738             :  *              variable name that receives the value.
     739             :  * aset         do gset on all possible queries of a combined query (\;).
     740             :  * expr         Parsed expression, if needed.
     741             :  * stats        Time spent in this command.
     742             :  * retries      Number of retries after a serialization or deadlock error in the
     743             :  *              current command.
     744             :  * failures     Number of errors in the current command that were not retried.
     745             :  */
     746             : typedef struct Command
     747             : {
     748             :     PQExpBufferData lines;
     749             :     char       *first_line;
     750             :     int         type;
     751             :     MetaCommand meta;
     752             :     int         argc;
     753             :     char       *argv[MAX_ARGS];
     754             :     char       *varprefix;
     755             :     PgBenchExpr *expr;
     756             :     SimpleStats stats;
     757             :     int64       retries;
     758             :     int64       failures;
     759             : } Command;
     760             : 
     761             : typedef struct ParsedScript
     762             : {
     763             :     const char *desc;           /* script descriptor (eg, file name) */
     764             :     int         weight;         /* selection weight */
     765             :     Command   **commands;       /* NULL-terminated array of Commands */
     766             :     StatsData   stats;          /* total time spent in script */
     767             : } ParsedScript;
     768             : 
     769             : static ParsedScript sql_script[MAX_SCRIPTS];    /* SQL script files */
     770             : static int  num_scripts;        /* number of scripts in sql_script[] */
     771             : static int64 total_weight = 0;
     772             : 
     773             : static bool verbose_errors = false; /* print verbose messages of all errors */
     774             : 
     775             : /* Builtin test scripts */
     776             : typedef struct BuiltinScript
     777             : {
     778             :     const char *name;           /* very short name for -b ... */
     779             :     const char *desc;           /* short description */
     780             :     const char *script;         /* actual pgbench script */
     781             : } BuiltinScript;
     782             : 
     783             : static const BuiltinScript builtin_script[] =
     784             : {
     785             :     {
     786             :         "tpcb-like",
     787             :         "<builtin: TPC-B (sort of)>",
     788             :         "\\set aid random(1, " CppAsString2(naccounts) " * :scale)\n"
     789             :         "\\set bid random(1, " CppAsString2(nbranches) " * :scale)\n"
     790             :         "\\set tid random(1, " CppAsString2(ntellers) " * :scale)\n"
     791             :         "\\set delta random(-5000, 5000)\n"
     792             :         "BEGIN;\n"
     793             :         "UPDATE pgbench_accounts SET abalance = abalance + :delta WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
     794             :         "SELECT abalance FROM pgbench_accounts WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
     795             :         "UPDATE pgbench_tellers SET tbalance = tbalance + :delta WHERE tid = :tid;\n"
     796             :         "UPDATE pgbench_branches SET bbalance = bbalance + :delta WHERE bid = :bid;\n"
     797             :         "INSERT INTO pgbench_history (tid, bid, aid, delta, mtime) VALUES (:tid, :bid, :aid, :delta, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);\n"
     798             :         "END;\n"
     799             :     },
     800             :     {
     801             :         "simple-update",
     802             :         "<builtin: simple update>",
     803             :         "\\set aid random(1, " CppAsString2(naccounts) " * :scale)\n"
     804             :         "\\set bid random(1, " CppAsString2(nbranches) " * :scale)\n"
     805             :         "\\set tid random(1, " CppAsString2(ntellers) " * :scale)\n"
     806             :         "\\set delta random(-5000, 5000)\n"
     807             :         "BEGIN;\n"
     808             :         "UPDATE pgbench_accounts SET abalance = abalance + :delta WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
     809             :         "SELECT abalance FROM pgbench_accounts WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
     810             :         "INSERT INTO pgbench_history (tid, bid, aid, delta, mtime) VALUES (:tid, :bid, :aid, :delta, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);\n"
     811             :         "END;\n"
     812             :     },
     813             :     {
     814             :         "select-only",
     815             :         "<builtin: select only>",
     816             :         "\\set aid random(1, " CppAsString2(naccounts) " * :scale)\n"
     817             :         "SELECT abalance FROM pgbench_accounts WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
     818             :     }
     819             : };
     820             : 
     821             : 
     822             : /* Function prototypes */
     823             : static void setNullValue(PgBenchValue *pv);
     824             : static void setBoolValue(PgBenchValue *pv, bool bval);
     825             : static void setIntValue(PgBenchValue *pv, int64 ival);
     826             : static void setDoubleValue(PgBenchValue *pv, double dval);
     827             : static bool evaluateExpr(CState *st, PgBenchExpr *expr,
     828             :                          PgBenchValue *retval);
     829             : static ConnectionStateEnum executeMetaCommand(CState *st, pg_time_usec_t *now);
     830             : static void doLog(TState *thread, CState *st,
     831             :                   StatsData *agg, bool skipped, double latency, double lag);
     832             : static void processXactStats(TState *thread, CState *st, pg_time_usec_t *now,
     833             :                              bool skipped, StatsData *agg);
     834             : static void addScript(const ParsedScript *script);
     835             : static THREAD_FUNC_RETURN_TYPE THREAD_FUNC_CC threadRun(void *arg);
     836             : static void finishCon(CState *st);
     837             : static void setalarm(int seconds);
     838             : static socket_set *alloc_socket_set(int count);
     839             : static void free_socket_set(socket_set *sa);
     840             : static void clear_socket_set(socket_set *sa);
     841             : static void add_socket_to_set(socket_set *sa, int fd, int idx);
     842             : static int  wait_on_socket_set(socket_set *sa, int64 usecs);
     843             : static bool socket_has_input(socket_set *sa, int fd, int idx);
     844             : 
     845             : 
     846             : /* callback functions for our flex lexer */
     847             : static const PsqlScanCallbacks pgbench_callbacks = {
     848             :     NULL,                       /* don't need get_variable functionality */
     849             : };
     850             : 
     851             : static inline pg_time_usec_t
     852       12354 : pg_time_now(void)
     853             : {
     854             :     instr_time  now;
     855             : 
     856       12354 :     INSTR_TIME_SET_CURRENT(now);
     857             : 
     858       12354 :     return (pg_time_usec_t) INSTR_TIME_GET_MICROSEC(now);
     859             : }
     860             : 
     861             : static inline void
     862       10364 : pg_time_now_lazy(pg_time_usec_t *now)
     863             : {
     864       10364 :     if ((*now) == 0)
     865        8320 :         (*now) = pg_time_now();
     866       10364 : }
     867             : 
     868             : #define PG_TIME_GET_DOUBLE(t) (0.000001 * (t))
     869             : 
     870             : static void
     871           2 : usage(void)
     872             : {
     873           2 :     printf("%s is a benchmarking tool for PostgreSQL.\n\n"
     874             :            "Usage:\n"
     875             :            "  %s [OPTION]... [DBNAME]\n"
     876             :            "\nInitialization options:\n"
     877             :            "  -i, --initialize         invokes initialization mode\n"
     878             :            "  -I, --init-steps=[" ALL_INIT_STEPS "]+ (default \"" DEFAULT_INIT_STEPS "\")\n"
     879             :            "                           run selected initialization steps\n"
     880             :            "  -F, --fillfactor=NUM     set fill factor\n"
     881             :            "  -n, --no-vacuum          do not run VACUUM during initialization\n"
     882             :            "  -q, --quiet              quiet logging (one message each 5 seconds)\n"
     883             :            "  -s, --scale=NUM          scaling factor\n"
     884             :            "  --foreign-keys           create foreign key constraints between tables\n"
     885             :            "  --index-tablespace=TABLESPACE\n"
     886             :            "                           create indexes in the specified tablespace\n"
     887             :            "  --partition-method=(range|hash)\n"
     888             :            "                           partition pgbench_accounts with this method (default: range)\n"
     889             :            "  --partitions=NUM         partition pgbench_accounts into NUM parts (default: 0)\n"
     890             :            "  --tablespace=TABLESPACE  create tables in the specified tablespace\n"
     891             :            "  --unlogged-tables        create tables as unlogged tables\n"
     892             :            "\nOptions to select what to run:\n"
     893             :            "  -b, --builtin=NAME[@W]   add builtin script NAME weighted at W (default: 1)\n"
     894             :            "                           (use \"-b list\" to list available scripts)\n"
     895             :            "  -f, --file=FILENAME[@W]  add script FILENAME weighted at W (default: 1)\n"
     896             :            "  -N, --skip-some-updates  skip updates of pgbench_tellers and pgbench_branches\n"
     897             :            "                           (same as \"-b simple-update\")\n"
     898             :            "  -S, --select-only        perform SELECT-only transactions\n"
     899             :            "                           (same as \"-b select-only\")\n"
     900             :            "\nBenchmarking options:\n"
     901             :            "  -c, --client=NUM         number of concurrent database clients (default: 1)\n"
     902             :            "  -C, --connect            establish new connection for each transaction\n"
     903             :            "  -D, --define=VARNAME=VALUE\n"
     904             :            "                           define variable for use by custom script\n"
     905             :            "  -j, --jobs=NUM           number of threads (default: 1)\n"
     906             :            "  -l, --log                write transaction times to log file\n"
     907             :            "  -L, --latency-limit=NUM  count transactions lasting more than NUM ms as late\n"
     908             :            "  -M, --protocol=simple|extended|prepared\n"
     909             :            "                           protocol for submitting queries (default: simple)\n"
     910             :            "  -n, --no-vacuum          do not run VACUUM before tests\n"
     911             :            "  -P, --progress=NUM       show thread progress report every NUM seconds\n"
     912             :            "  -r, --report-per-command report latencies, failures, and retries per command\n"
     913             :            "  -R, --rate=NUM           target rate in transactions per second\n"
     914             :            "  -s, --scale=NUM          report this scale factor in output\n"
     915             :            "  -t, --transactions=NUM   number of transactions each client runs (default: 10)\n"
     916             :            "  -T, --time=NUM           duration of benchmark test in seconds\n"
     917             :            "  -v, --vacuum-all         vacuum all four standard tables before tests\n"
     918             :            "  --aggregate-interval=NUM aggregate data over NUM seconds\n"
     919             :            "  --failures-detailed      report the failures grouped by basic types\n"
     920             :            "  --log-prefix=PREFIX      prefix for transaction time log file\n"
     921             :            "                           (default: \"pgbench_log\")\n"
     922             :            "  --max-tries=NUM          max number of tries to run transaction (default: 1)\n"
     923             :            "  --progress-timestamp     use Unix epoch timestamps for progress\n"
     924             :            "  --random-seed=SEED       set random seed (\"time\", \"rand\", integer)\n"
     925             :            "  --sampling-rate=NUM      fraction of transactions to log (e.g., 0.01 for 1%%)\n"
     926             :            "  --show-script=NAME       show builtin script code, then exit\n"
     927             :            "  --verbose-errors         print messages of all errors\n"
     928             :            "\nCommon options:\n"
     929             :            "  -d, --debug              print debugging output\n"
     930             :            "  -h, --host=HOSTNAME      database server host or socket directory\n"
     931             :            "  -p, --port=PORT          database server port number\n"
     932             :            "  -U, --username=USERNAME  connect as specified database user\n"
     933             :            "  -V, --version            output version information, then exit\n"
     934             :            "  -?, --help               show this help, then exit\n"
     935             :            "\n"
     936             :            "Report bugs to <%s>.\n"
     937             :            "%s home page: <%s>\n",
     938             :            progname, progname, PACKAGE_BUGREPORT, PACKAGE_NAME, PACKAGE_URL);
     939           2 : }
     940             : 
     941             : /* return whether str matches "^\s*[-+]?[0-9]+$" */
     942             : static bool
     943         866 : is_an_int(const char *str)
     944             : {
     945         866 :     const char *ptr = str;
     946             : 
     947             :     /* skip leading spaces; cast is consistent with strtoint64 */
     948         866 :     while (*ptr && isspace((unsigned char) *ptr))
     949           0 :         ptr++;
     950             : 
     951             :     /* skip sign */
     952         866 :     if (*ptr == '+' || *ptr == '-')
     953           6 :         ptr++;
     954             : 
     955             :     /* at least one digit */
     956         866 :     if (*ptr && !isdigit((unsigned char) *ptr))
     957           4 :         return false;
     958             : 
     959             :     /* eat all digits */
     960        1834 :     while (*ptr && isdigit((unsigned char) *ptr))
     961         972 :         ptr++;
     962             : 
     963             :     /* must have reached end of string */
     964         862 :     return *ptr == '\0';
     965             : }
     966             : 
     967             : 
     968             : /*
     969             :  * strtoint64 -- convert a string to 64-bit integer
     970             :  *
     971             :  * This function is a slightly modified version of pg_strtoint64() from
     972             :  * src/backend/utils/adt/numutils.c.
     973             :  *
     974             :  * The function returns whether the conversion worked, and if so
     975             :  * "*result" is set to the result.
     976             :  *
     977             :  * If not errorOK, an error message is also printed out on errors.
     978             :  */
     979             : bool
     980        2448 : strtoint64(const char *str, bool errorOK, int64 *result)
     981             : {
     982        2448 :     const char *ptr = str;
     983        2448 :     int64       tmp = 0;
     984        2448 :     bool        neg = false;
     985             : 
     986             :     /*
     987             :      * Do our own scan, rather than relying on sscanf which might be broken
     988             :      * for long long.
     989             :      *
     990             :      * As INT64_MIN can't be stored as a positive 64 bit integer, accumulate
     991             :      * value as a negative number.
     992             :      */
     993             : 
     994             :     /* skip leading spaces */
     995        2448 :     while (*ptr && isspace((unsigned char) *ptr))
     996           0 :         ptr++;
     997             : 
     998             :     /* handle sign */
     999        2448 :     if (*ptr == '-')
    1000             :     {
    1001           4 :         ptr++;
    1002           4 :         neg = true;
    1003             :     }
    1004        2444 :     else if (*ptr == '+')
    1005           0 :         ptr++;
    1006             : 
    1007             :     /* require at least one digit */
    1008        2448 :     if (unlikely(!isdigit((unsigned char) *ptr)))
    1009           0 :         goto invalid_syntax;
    1010             : 
    1011             :     /* process digits */
    1012        7502 :     while (*ptr && isdigit((unsigned char) *ptr))
    1013             :     {
    1014        5056 :         int8        digit = (*ptr++ - '0');
    1015             : 
    1016        5056 :         if (unlikely(pg_mul_s64_overflow(tmp, 10, &tmp)) ||
    1017        5054 :             unlikely(pg_sub_s64_overflow(tmp, digit, &tmp)))
    1018           2 :             goto out_of_range;
    1019             :     }
    1020             : 
    1021             :     /* allow trailing whitespace, but not other trailing chars */
    1022        2446 :     while (*ptr != '\0' && isspace((unsigned char) *ptr))
    1023           0 :         ptr++;
    1024             : 
    1025        2446 :     if (unlikely(*ptr != '\0'))
    1026           0 :         goto invalid_syntax;
    1027             : 
    1028        2446 :     if (!neg)
    1029             :     {
    1030        2442 :         if (unlikely(tmp == PG_INT64_MIN))
    1031           0 :             goto out_of_range;
    1032        2442 :         tmp = -tmp;
    1033             :     }
    1034             : 
    1035        2446 :     *result = tmp;
    1036        2446 :     return true;
    1037             : 
    1038           2 : out_of_range:
    1039           2 :     if (!errorOK)
    1040           0 :         pg_log_error("value \"%s\" is out of range for type bigint", str);
    1041           2 :     return false;
    1042             : 
    1043           0 : invalid_syntax:
    1044           0 :     if (!errorOK)
    1045           0 :         pg_log_error("invalid input syntax for type bigint: \"%s\"", str);
    1046           0 :     return false;
    1047             : }
    1048             : 
    1049             : /* convert string to double, detecting overflows/underflows */
    1050             : bool
    1051         132 : strtodouble(const char *str, bool errorOK, double *dv)
    1052             : {
    1053             :     char       *end;
    1054             : 
    1055         132 :     errno = 0;
    1056         132 :     *dv = strtod(str, &end);
    1057             : 
    1058         132 :     if (unlikely(errno != 0))
    1059             :     {
    1060           4 :         if (!errorOK)
    1061           0 :             pg_log_error("value \"%s\" is out of range for type double", str);
    1062           4 :         return false;
    1063             :     }
    1064             : 
    1065         128 :     if (unlikely(end == str || *end != '\0'))
    1066             :     {
    1067           4 :         if (!errorOK)
    1068           0 :             pg_log_error("invalid input syntax for type double: \"%s\"", str);
    1069           4 :         return false;
    1070             :     }
    1071         124 :     return true;
    1072             : }
    1073             : 
    1074             : /*
    1075             :  * Initialize a prng state struct.
    1076             :  *
    1077             :  * We derive the seed from base_random_sequence, which must be set up already.
    1078             :  */
    1079             : static void
    1080         596 : initRandomState(pg_prng_state *state)
    1081             : {
    1082         596 :     pg_prng_seed(state, pg_prng_uint64(&base_random_sequence));
    1083         596 : }
    1084             : 
    1085             : 
    1086             : /*
    1087             :  * random number generator: uniform distribution from min to max inclusive.
    1088             :  *
    1089             :  * Although the limits are expressed as int64, you can't generate the full
    1090             :  * int64 range in one call, because the difference of the limits mustn't
    1091             :  * overflow int64.  This is not checked.
    1092             :  */
    1093             : static int64
    1094        5242 : getrand(pg_prng_state *state, int64 min, int64 max)
    1095             : {
    1096        5242 :     return min + (int64) pg_prng_uint64_range(state, 0, max - min);
    1097             : }
    1098             : 
    1099             : /*
    1100             :  * random number generator: exponential distribution from min to max inclusive.
    1101             :  * the parameter is so that the density of probability for the last cut-off max
    1102             :  * value is exp(-parameter).
    1103             :  */
    1104             : static int64
    1105           6 : getExponentialRand(pg_prng_state *state, int64 min, int64 max,
    1106             :                    double parameter)
    1107             : {
    1108             :     double      cut,
    1109             :                 uniform,
    1110             :                 rand;
    1111             : 
    1112             :     /* abort if wrong parameter, but must really be checked beforehand */
    1113             :     Assert(parameter > 0.0);
    1114           6 :     cut = exp(-parameter);
    1115             :     /* pg_prng_double value in [0, 1), uniform in (0, 1] */
    1116           6 :     uniform = 1.0 - pg_prng_double(state);
    1117             : 
    1118             :     /*
    1119             :      * inner expression in (cut, 1] (if parameter > 0), rand in [0, 1)
    1120             :      */
    1121             :     Assert((1.0 - cut) != 0.0);
    1122           6 :     rand = -log(cut + (1.0 - cut) * uniform) / parameter;
    1123             :     /* return int64 random number within between min and max */
    1124           6 :     return min + (int64) ((max - min + 1) * rand);
    1125             : }
    1126             : 
    1127             : /* random number generator: gaussian distribution from min to max inclusive */
    1128             : static int64
    1129           6 : getGaussianRand(pg_prng_state *state, int64 min, int64 max,
    1130             :                 double parameter)
    1131             : {
    1132             :     double      stdev;
    1133             :     double      rand;
    1134             : 
    1135             :     /* abort if parameter is too low, but must really be checked beforehand */
    1136             :     Assert(parameter >= MIN_GAUSSIAN_PARAM);
    1137             : 
    1138             :     /*
    1139             :      * Get normally-distributed random number in the range -parameter <= stdev
    1140             :      * < parameter.
    1141             :      *
    1142             :      * This loop is executed until the number is in the expected range.
    1143             :      *
    1144             :      * As the minimum parameter is 2.0, the probability of looping is low:
    1145             :      * sqrt(-2 ln(r)) <= 2 => r >= e^{-2} ~ 0.135, then when taking the
    1146             :      * average sinus multiplier as 2/pi, we have a 8.6% looping probability in
    1147             :      * the worst case. For a parameter value of 5.0, the looping probability
    1148             :      * is about e^{-5} * 2 / pi ~ 0.43%.
    1149             :      */
    1150             :     do
    1151             :     {
    1152           6 :         stdev = pg_prng_double_normal(state);
    1153             :     }
    1154           6 :     while (stdev < -parameter || stdev >= parameter);
    1155             : 
    1156             :     /* stdev is in [-parameter, parameter), normalization to [0,1) */
    1157           6 :     rand = (stdev + parameter) / (parameter * 2.0);
    1158             : 
    1159             :     /* return int64 random number within between min and max */
    1160           6 :     return min + (int64) ((max - min + 1) * rand);
    1161             : }
    1162             : 
    1163             : /*
    1164             :  * random number generator: generate a value, such that the series of values
    1165             :  * will approximate a Poisson distribution centered on the given value.
    1166             :  *
    1167             :  * Individual results are rounded to integers, though the center value need
    1168             :  * not be one.
    1169             :  */
    1170             : static int64
    1171         420 : getPoissonRand(pg_prng_state *state, double center)
    1172             : {
    1173             :     /*
    1174             :      * Use inverse transform sampling to generate a value > 0, such that the
    1175             :      * expected (i.e. average) value is the given argument.
    1176             :      */
    1177             :     double      uniform;
    1178             : 
    1179             :     /* pg_prng_double value in [0, 1), uniform in (0, 1] */
    1180         420 :     uniform = 1.0 - pg_prng_double(state);
    1181             : 
    1182         420 :     return (int64) (-log(uniform) * center + 0.5);
    1183             : }
    1184             : 
    1185             : /*
    1186             :  * Computing zipfian using rejection method, based on
    1187             :  * "Non-Uniform Random Variate Generation",
    1188             :  * Luc Devroye, p. 550-551, Springer 1986.
    1189             :  *
    1190             :  * This works for s > 1.0, but may perform badly for s very close to 1.0.
    1191             :  */
    1192             : static int64
    1193           6 : computeIterativeZipfian(pg_prng_state *state, int64 n, double s)
    1194             : {
    1195           6 :     double      b = pow(2.0, s - 1.0);
    1196             :     double      x,
    1197             :                 t,
    1198             :                 u,
    1199             :                 v;
    1200             : 
    1201             :     /* Ensure n is sane */
    1202           6 :     if (n <= 1)
    1203           0 :         return 1;
    1204             : 
    1205             :     while (true)
    1206             :     {
    1207             :         /* random variates */
    1208           6 :         u = pg_prng_double(state);
    1209           6 :         v = pg_prng_double(state);
    1210             : 
    1211           6 :         x = floor(pow(u, -1.0 / (s - 1.0)));
    1212             : 
    1213           6 :         t = pow(1.0 + 1.0 / x, s - 1.0);
    1214             :         /* reject if too large or out of bound */
    1215           6 :         if (v * x * (t - 1.0) / (b - 1.0) <= t / b && x <= n)
    1216           6 :             break;
    1217             :     }
    1218           6 :     return (int64) x;
    1219             : }
    1220             : 
    1221             : /* random number generator: zipfian distribution from min to max inclusive */
    1222             : static int64
    1223           6 : getZipfianRand(pg_prng_state *state, int64 min, int64 max, double s)
    1224             : {
    1225           6 :     int64       n = max - min + 1;
    1226             : 
    1227             :     /* abort if parameter is invalid */
    1228             :     Assert(MIN_ZIPFIAN_PARAM <= s && s <= MAX_ZIPFIAN_PARAM);
    1229             : 
    1230           6 :     return min - 1 + computeIterativeZipfian(state, n, s);
    1231             : }
    1232             : 
    1233             : /*
    1234             :  * FNV-1a hash function
    1235             :  */
    1236             : static int64
    1237           2 : getHashFnv1a(int64 val, uint64 seed)
    1238             : {
    1239             :     int64       result;
    1240             :     int         i;
    1241             : 
    1242           2 :     result = FNV_OFFSET_BASIS ^ seed;
    1243          18 :     for (i = 0; i < 8; ++i)
    1244             :     {
    1245          16 :         int32       octet = val & 0xff;
    1246             : 
    1247          16 :         val = val >> 8;
    1248          16 :         result = result ^ octet;
    1249          16 :         result = result * FNV_PRIME;
    1250             :     }
    1251             : 
    1252           2 :     return result;
    1253             : }
    1254             : 
    1255             : /*
    1256             :  * Murmur2 hash function
    1257             :  *
    1258             :  * Based on original work of Austin Appleby
    1259             :  * https://github.com/aappleby/smhasher/blob/master/src/MurmurHash2.cpp
    1260             :  */
    1261             : static int64
    1262          10 : getHashMurmur2(int64 val, uint64 seed)
    1263             : {
    1264          10 :     uint64      result = seed ^ MM2_MUL_TIMES_8;    /* sizeof(int64) */
    1265          10 :     uint64      k = (uint64) val;
    1266             : 
    1267          10 :     k *= MM2_MUL;
    1268          10 :     k ^= k >> MM2_ROT;
    1269          10 :     k *= MM2_MUL;
    1270             : 
    1271          10 :     result ^= k;
    1272          10 :     result *= MM2_MUL;
    1273             : 
    1274          10 :     result ^= result >> MM2_ROT;
    1275          10 :     result *= MM2_MUL;
    1276          10 :     result ^= result >> MM2_ROT;
    1277             : 
    1278          10 :     return (int64) result;
    1279             : }
    1280             : 
    1281             : /*
    1282             :  * Pseudorandom permutation function
    1283             :  *
    1284             :  * For small sizes, this generates each of the (size!) possible permutations
    1285             :  * of integers in the range [0, size) with roughly equal probability.  Once
    1286             :  * the size is larger than 20, the number of possible permutations exceeds the
    1287             :  * number of distinct states of the internal pseudorandom number generator,
    1288             :  * and so not all possible permutations can be generated, but the permutations
    1289             :  * chosen should continue to give the appearance of being random.
    1290             :  *
    1291             :  * THIS FUNCTION IS NOT CRYPTOGRAPHICALLY SECURE.
    1292             :  * DO NOT USE FOR SUCH PURPOSE.
    1293             :  */
    1294             : static int64
    1295          90 : permute(const int64 val, const int64 isize, const int64 seed)
    1296             : {
    1297             :     /* using a high-end PRNG is probably overkill */
    1298             :     pg_prng_state state;
    1299             :     uint64      size;
    1300             :     uint64      v;
    1301             :     int         masklen;
    1302             :     uint64      mask;
    1303             :     int         i;
    1304             : 
    1305          90 :     if (isize < 2)
    1306           2 :         return 0;               /* nothing to permute */
    1307             : 
    1308             :     /* Initialize prng state using the seed */
    1309          88 :     pg_prng_seed(&state, (uint64) seed);
    1310             : 
    1311             :     /* Computations are performed on unsigned values */
    1312          88 :     size = (uint64) isize;
    1313          88 :     v = (uint64) val % size;
    1314             : 
    1315             :     /* Mask to work modulo largest power of 2 less than or equal to size */
    1316          88 :     masklen = pg_leftmost_one_pos64(size);
    1317          88 :     mask = (((uint64) 1) << masklen) - 1;
    1318             : 
    1319             :     /*
    1320             :      * Permute the input value by applying several rounds of pseudorandom
    1321             :      * bijective transformations.  The intention here is to distribute each
    1322             :      * input uniformly randomly across the range, and separate adjacent inputs
    1323             :      * approximately uniformly randomly from each other, leading to a fairly
    1324             :      * random overall choice of permutation.
    1325             :      *
    1326             :      * To separate adjacent inputs, we multiply by a random number modulo
    1327             :      * (mask + 1), which is a power of 2.  For this to be a bijection, the
    1328             :      * multiplier must be odd.  Since this is known to lead to less randomness
    1329             :      * in the lower bits, we also apply a rotation that shifts the topmost bit
    1330             :      * into the least significant bit.  In the special cases where size <= 3,
    1331             :      * mask = 1 and each of these operations is actually a no-op, so we also
    1332             :      * XOR the value with a different random number to inject additional
    1333             :      * randomness.  Since the size is generally not a power of 2, we apply
    1334             :      * this bijection on overlapping upper and lower halves of the input.
    1335             :      *
    1336             :      * To distribute the inputs uniformly across the range, we then also apply
    1337             :      * a random offset modulo the full range.
    1338             :      *
    1339             :      * Taken together, these operations resemble a modified linear
    1340             :      * congruential generator, as is commonly used in pseudorandom number
    1341             :      * generators.  The number of rounds is fairly arbitrary, but six has been
    1342             :      * found empirically to give a fairly good tradeoff between performance
    1343             :      * and uniform randomness.  For small sizes it selects each of the (size!)
    1344             :      * possible permutations with roughly equal probability.  For larger
    1345             :      * sizes, not all permutations can be generated, but the intended random
    1346             :      * spread is still produced.
    1347             :      */
    1348         616 :     for (i = 0; i < 6; i++)
    1349             :     {
    1350             :         uint64      m,
    1351             :                     r,
    1352             :                     t;
    1353             : 
    1354             :         /* Random multiply (by an odd number), XOR and rotate of lower half */
    1355         528 :         m = (pg_prng_uint64(&state) & mask) | 1;
    1356         528 :         r = pg_prng_uint64(&state) & mask;
    1357         528 :         if (v <= mask)
    1358             :         {
    1359         438 :             v = ((v * m) ^ r) & mask;
    1360         438 :             v = ((v << 1) & mask) | (v >> (masklen - 1));
    1361             :         }
    1362             : 
    1363             :         /* Random multiply (by an odd number), XOR and rotate of upper half */
    1364         528 :         m = (pg_prng_uint64(&state) & mask) | 1;
    1365         528 :         r = pg_prng_uint64(&state) & mask;
    1366         528 :         t = size - 1 - v;
    1367         528 :         if (t <= mask)
    1368             :         {
    1369         470 :             t = ((t * m) ^ r) & mask;
    1370         470 :             t = ((t << 1) & mask) | (t >> (masklen - 1));
    1371         470 :             v = size - 1 - t;
    1372             :         }
    1373             : 
    1374             :         /* Random offset */
    1375         528 :         r = pg_prng_uint64_range(&state, 0, size - 1);
    1376         528 :         v = (v + r) % size;
    1377             :     }
    1378             : 
    1379          88 :     return (int64) v;
    1380             : }
    1381             : 
    1382             : /*
    1383             :  * Initialize the given SimpleStats struct to all zeroes
    1384             :  */
    1385             : static void
    1386        3492 : initSimpleStats(SimpleStats *ss)
    1387             : {
    1388        3492 :     memset(ss, 0, sizeof(SimpleStats));
    1389        3492 : }
    1390             : 
    1391             : /*
    1392             :  * Accumulate one value into a SimpleStats struct.
    1393             :  */
    1394             : static void
    1395        8182 : addToSimpleStats(SimpleStats *ss, double val)
    1396             : {
    1397        8182 :     if (ss->count == 0 || val < ss->min)
    1398         302 :         ss->min = val;
    1399        8182 :     if (ss->count == 0 || val > ss->max)
    1400         914 :         ss->max = val;
    1401        8182 :     ss->count++;
    1402        8182 :     ss->sum += val;
    1403        8182 :     ss->sum2 += val * val;
    1404        8182 : }
    1405             : 
    1406             : /*
    1407             :  * Merge two SimpleStats objects
    1408             :  */
    1409             : static void
    1410         268 : mergeSimpleStats(SimpleStats *acc, SimpleStats *ss)
    1411             : {
    1412         268 :     if (acc->count == 0 || ss->min < acc->min)
    1413         268 :         acc->min = ss->min;
    1414         268 :     if (acc->count == 0 || ss->max > acc->max)
    1415         268 :         acc->max = ss->max;
    1416         268 :     acc->count += ss->count;
    1417         268 :     acc->sum += ss->sum;
    1418         268 :     acc->sum2 += ss->sum2;
    1419         268 : }
    1420             : 
    1421             : /*
    1422             :  * Initialize a StatsData struct to mostly zeroes, with its start time set to
    1423             :  * the given value.
    1424             :  */
    1425             : static void
    1426         924 : initStats(StatsData *sd, pg_time_usec_t start)
    1427             : {
    1428         924 :     sd->start_time = start;
    1429         924 :     sd->cnt = 0;
    1430         924 :     sd->skipped = 0;
    1431         924 :     sd->retries = 0;
    1432         924 :     sd->retried = 0;
    1433         924 :     sd->serialization_failures = 0;
    1434         924 :     sd->deadlock_failures = 0;
    1435         924 :     initSimpleStats(&sd->latency);
    1436         924 :     initSimpleStats(&sd->lag);
    1437         924 : }
    1438             : 
    1439             : /*
    1440             :  * Accumulate one additional item into the given stats object.
    1441             :  */
    1442             : static void
    1443        6996 : accumStats(StatsData *stats, bool skipped, double lat, double lag,
    1444             :            EStatus estatus, int64 tries)
    1445             : {
    1446             :     /* Record the skipped transaction */
    1447        6996 :     if (skipped)
    1448             :     {
    1449             :         /* no latency to record on skipped transactions */
    1450          18 :         stats->skipped++;
    1451          18 :         return;
    1452             :     }
    1453             : 
    1454             :     /*
    1455             :      * Record the number of retries regardless of whether the transaction was
    1456             :      * successful or failed.
    1457             :      */
    1458        6978 :     if (tries > 1)
    1459             :     {
    1460           4 :         stats->retries += (tries - 1);
    1461           4 :         stats->retried++;
    1462             :     }
    1463             : 
    1464        6978 :     switch (estatus)
    1465             :     {
    1466             :             /* Record the successful transaction */
    1467        6978 :         case ESTATUS_NO_ERROR:
    1468        6978 :             stats->cnt++;
    1469             : 
    1470        6978 :             addToSimpleStats(&stats->latency, lat);
    1471             : 
    1472             :             /* and possibly the same for schedule lag */
    1473        6978 :             if (throttle_delay)
    1474         402 :                 addToSimpleStats(&stats->lag, lag);
    1475        6978 :             break;
    1476             : 
    1477             :             /* Record the failed transaction */
    1478           0 :         case ESTATUS_SERIALIZATION_ERROR:
    1479           0 :             stats->serialization_failures++;
    1480           0 :             break;
    1481           0 :         case ESTATUS_DEADLOCK_ERROR:
    1482           0 :             stats->deadlock_failures++;
    1483           0 :             break;
    1484           0 :         default:
    1485             :             /* internal error which should never occur */
    1486           0 :             pg_fatal("unexpected error status: %d", estatus);
    1487             :     }
    1488             : }
    1489             : 
    1490             : /* call PQexec() and exit() on failure */
    1491             : static void
    1492         162 : executeStatement(PGconn *con, const char *sql)
    1493             : {
    1494             :     PGresult   *res;
    1495             : 
    1496         162 :     res = PQexec(con, sql);
    1497         162 :     if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
    1498             :     {
    1499           0 :         pg_log_error("query failed: %s", PQerrorMessage(con));
    1500           0 :         pg_log_error_detail("Query was: %s", sql);
    1501           0 :         exit(1);
    1502             :     }
    1503         162 :     PQclear(res);
    1504         162 : }
    1505             : 
    1506             : /* call PQexec() and complain, but without exiting, on failure */
    1507             : static void
    1508          54 : tryExecuteStatement(PGconn *con, const char *sql)
    1509             : {
    1510             :     PGresult   *res;
    1511             : 
    1512          54 :     res = PQexec(con, sql);
    1513          54 :     if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
    1514             :     {
    1515           0 :         pg_log_error("%s", PQerrorMessage(con));
    1516           0 :         pg_log_error_detail("(ignoring this error and continuing anyway)");
    1517             :     }
    1518          54 :     PQclear(res);
    1519          54 : }
    1520             : 
    1521             : /* set up a connection to the backend */
    1522             : static PGconn *
    1523         540 : doConnect(void)
    1524             : {
    1525             :     PGconn     *conn;
    1526             :     bool        new_pass;
    1527             :     static char *password = NULL;
    1528             : 
    1529             :     /*
    1530             :      * Start the connection.  Loop until we have a password if requested by
    1531             :      * backend.
    1532             :      */
    1533             :     do
    1534             :     {
    1535             : #define PARAMS_ARRAY_SIZE   7
    1536             : 
    1537             :         const char *keywords[PARAMS_ARRAY_SIZE];
    1538             :         const char *values[PARAMS_ARRAY_SIZE];
    1539             : 
    1540         540 :         keywords[0] = "host";
    1541         540 :         values[0] = pghost;
    1542         540 :         keywords[1] = "port";
    1543         540 :         values[1] = pgport;
    1544         540 :         keywords[2] = "user";
    1545         540 :         values[2] = username;
    1546         540 :         keywords[3] = "password";
    1547         540 :         values[3] = password;
    1548         540 :         keywords[4] = "dbname";
    1549         540 :         values[4] = dbName;
    1550         540 :         keywords[5] = "fallback_application_name";
    1551         540 :         values[5] = progname;
    1552         540 :         keywords[6] = NULL;
    1553         540 :         values[6] = NULL;
    1554             : 
    1555         540 :         new_pass = false;
    1556             : 
    1557         540 :         conn = PQconnectdbParams(keywords, values, true);
    1558             : 
    1559         540 :         if (!conn)
    1560             :         {
    1561           0 :             pg_log_error("connection to database \"%s\" failed", dbName);
    1562           0 :             return NULL;
    1563             :         }
    1564             : 
    1565         542 :         if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD &&
    1566           2 :             PQconnectionNeedsPassword(conn) &&
    1567           0 :             !password)
    1568             :         {
    1569           0 :             PQfinish(conn);
    1570           0 :             password = simple_prompt("Password: ", false);
    1571           0 :             new_pass = true;
    1572             :         }
    1573         540 :     } while (new_pass);
    1574             : 
    1575             :     /* check to see that the backend connection was successfully made */
    1576         540 :     if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD)
    1577             :     {
    1578           2 :         pg_log_error("%s", PQerrorMessage(conn));
    1579           2 :         PQfinish(conn);
    1580           2 :         return NULL;
    1581             :     }
    1582             : 
    1583         538 :     return conn;
    1584             : }
    1585             : 
    1586             : /* qsort comparator for Variable array */
    1587             : static int
    1588      106390 : compareVariableNames(const void *v1, const void *v2)
    1589             : {
    1590      212780 :     return strcmp(((const Variable *) v1)->name,
    1591      106390 :                   ((const Variable *) v2)->name);
    1592             : }
    1593             : 
    1594             : /* Locate a variable by name; returns NULL if unknown */
    1595             : static Variable *
    1596       15560 : lookupVariable(Variables *variables, char *name)
    1597             : {
    1598             :     Variable    key;
    1599             : 
    1600             :     /* On some versions of Solaris, bsearch of zero items dumps core */
    1601       15560 :     if (variables->nvars <= 0)
    1602         298 :         return NULL;
    1603             : 
    1604             :     /* Sort if we have to */
    1605       15262 :     if (!variables->vars_sorted)
    1606             :     {
    1607        1828 :         qsort((void *) variables->vars, variables->nvars, sizeof(Variable),
    1608             :               compareVariableNames);
    1609        1828 :         variables->vars_sorted = true;
    1610             :     }
    1611             : 
    1612             :     /* Now we can search */
    1613       15262 :     key.name = name;
    1614       15262 :     return (Variable *) bsearch((void *) &key,
    1615       15262 :                                 (void *) variables->vars,
    1616       15262 :                                 variables->nvars,
    1617             :                                 sizeof(Variable),
    1618             :                                 compareVariableNames);
    1619             : }
    1620             : 
    1621             : /* Get the value of a variable, in string form; returns NULL if unknown */
    1622             : static char *
    1623        5272 : getVariable(Variables *variables, char *name)
    1624             : {
    1625             :     Variable   *var;
    1626             :     char        stringform[64];
    1627             : 
    1628        5272 :     var = lookupVariable(variables, name);
    1629        5272 :     if (var == NULL)
    1630           8 :         return NULL;            /* not found */
    1631             : 
    1632        5264 :     if (var->svalue)
    1633        2052 :         return var->svalue;      /* we have it in string form */
    1634             : 
    1635             :     /* We need to produce a string equivalent of the value */
    1636             :     Assert(var->value.type != PGBT_NO_VALUE);
    1637        3212 :     if (var->value.type == PGBT_NULL)
    1638           2 :         snprintf(stringform, sizeof(stringform), "NULL");
    1639        3210 :     else if (var->value.type == PGBT_BOOLEAN)
    1640           2 :         snprintf(stringform, sizeof(stringform),
    1641           2 :                  "%s", var->value.u.bval ? "true" : "false");
    1642        3208 :     else if (var->value.type == PGBT_INT)
    1643        3204 :         snprintf(stringform, sizeof(stringform),
    1644             :                  INT64_FORMAT, var->value.u.ival);
    1645           4 :     else if (var->value.type == PGBT_DOUBLE)
    1646           4 :         snprintf(stringform, sizeof(stringform),
    1647             :                  "%.*g", DBL_DIG, var->value.u.dval);
    1648             :     else                        /* internal error, unexpected type */
    1649             :         Assert(0);
    1650        3212 :     var->svalue = pg_strdup(stringform);
    1651        3212 :     return var->svalue;
    1652             : }
    1653             : 
    1654             : /* Try to convert variable to a value; return false on failure */
    1655             : static bool
    1656        3860 : makeVariableValue(Variable *var)
    1657             : {
    1658             :     size_t      slen;
    1659             : 
    1660        3860 :     if (var->value.type != PGBT_NO_VALUE)
    1661        2988 :         return true;            /* no work */
    1662             : 
    1663         872 :     slen = strlen(var->svalue);
    1664             : 
    1665         872 :     if (slen == 0)
    1666             :         /* what should it do on ""? */
    1667           0 :         return false;
    1668             : 
    1669         872 :     if (pg_strcasecmp(var->svalue, "null") == 0)
    1670             :     {
    1671           2 :         setNullValue(&var->value);
    1672             :     }
    1673             : 
    1674             :     /*
    1675             :      * accept prefixes such as y, ye, n, no... but not for "o". 0/1 are
    1676             :      * recognized later as an int, which is converted to bool if needed.
    1677             :      */
    1678        1738 :     else if (pg_strncasecmp(var->svalue, "true", slen) == 0 ||
    1679        1736 :              pg_strncasecmp(var->svalue, "yes", slen) == 0 ||
    1680         868 :              pg_strcasecmp(var->svalue, "on") == 0)
    1681             :     {
    1682           2 :         setBoolValue(&var->value, true);
    1683             :     }
    1684        1736 :     else if (pg_strncasecmp(var->svalue, "false", slen) == 0 ||
    1685        1736 :              pg_strncasecmp(var->svalue, "no", slen) == 0 ||
    1686        1736 :              pg_strcasecmp(var->svalue, "off") == 0 ||
    1687         868 :              pg_strcasecmp(var->svalue, "of") == 0)
    1688             :     {
    1689           2 :         setBoolValue(&var->value, false);
    1690             :     }
    1691         866 :     else if (is_an_int(var->svalue))
    1692             :     {
    1693             :         /* if it looks like an int, it must be an int without overflow */
    1694             :         int64       iv;
    1695             : 
    1696         860 :         if (!strtoint64(var->svalue, false, &iv))
    1697           0 :             return false;
    1698             : 
    1699         860 :         setIntValue(&var->value, iv);
    1700             :     }
    1701             :     else                        /* type should be double */
    1702             :     {
    1703             :         double      dv;
    1704             : 
    1705           6 :         if (!strtodouble(var->svalue, true, &dv))
    1706             :         {
    1707           4 :             pg_log_error("malformed variable \"%s\" value: \"%s\"",
    1708             :                          var->name, var->svalue);
    1709           4 :             return false;
    1710             :         }
    1711           2 :         setDoubleValue(&var->value, dv);
    1712             :     }
    1713         868 :     return true;
    1714             : }
    1715             : 
    1716             : /*
    1717             :  * Check whether a variable's name is allowed.
    1718             :  *
    1719             :  * We allow any non-ASCII character, as well as ASCII letters, digits, and
    1720             :  * underscore.
    1721             :  *
    1722             :  * Keep this in sync with the definitions of variable name characters in
    1723             :  * "src/fe_utils/psqlscan.l", "src/bin/psql/psqlscanslash.l" and
    1724             :  * "src/bin/pgbench/exprscan.l".  Also see parseVariable(), below.
    1725             :  *
    1726             :  * Note: this static function is copied from "src/bin/psql/variables.c"
    1727             :  * but changed to disallow variable names starting with a digit.
    1728             :  */
    1729             : static bool
    1730        1950 : valid_variable_name(const char *name)
    1731             : {
    1732        1950 :     const unsigned char *ptr = (const unsigned char *) name;
    1733             : 
    1734             :     /* Mustn't be zero-length */
    1735        1950 :     if (*ptr == '\0')
    1736           0 :         return false;
    1737             : 
    1738             :     /* must not start with [0-9] */
    1739        1950 :     if (IS_HIGHBIT_SET(*ptr) ||
    1740        1950 :         strchr("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
    1741        1950 :                "_", *ptr) != NULL)
    1742        1946 :         ptr++;
    1743             :     else
    1744           4 :         return false;
    1745             : 
    1746             :     /* remaining characters can include [0-9] */
    1747       12040 :     while (*ptr)
    1748             :     {
    1749       10096 :         if (IS_HIGHBIT_SET(*ptr) ||
    1750       10096 :             strchr("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
    1751       10096 :                    "_0123456789", *ptr) != NULL)
    1752       10094 :             ptr++;
    1753             :         else
    1754           2 :             return false;
    1755             :     }
    1756             : 
    1757        1944 :     return true;
    1758             : }
    1759             : 
    1760             : /*
    1761             :  * Make sure there is enough space for 'needed' more variable in the variables
    1762             :  * array.
    1763             :  */
    1764             : static void
    1765        1944 : enlargeVariables(Variables *variables, int needed)
    1766             : {
    1767             :     /* total number of variables required now */
    1768        1944 :     needed += variables->nvars;
    1769             : 
    1770        1944 :     if (variables->max_vars < needed)
    1771             :     {
    1772         314 :         variables->max_vars = needed + VARIABLES_ALLOC_MARGIN;
    1773         314 :         variables->vars = (Variable *)
    1774         314 :             pg_realloc(variables->vars, variables->max_vars * sizeof(Variable));
    1775             :     }
    1776        1944 : }
    1777             : 
    1778             : /*
    1779             :  * Lookup a variable by name, creating it if need be.
    1780             :  * Caller is expected to assign a value to the variable.
    1781             :  * Returns NULL on failure (bad name).
    1782             :  */
    1783             : static Variable *
    1784        5888 : lookupCreateVariable(Variables *variables, const char *context, char *name)
    1785             : {
    1786             :     Variable   *var;
    1787             : 
    1788        5888 :     var = lookupVariable(variables, name);
    1789        5888 :     if (var == NULL)
    1790             :     {
    1791             :         /*
    1792             :          * Check for the name only when declaring a new variable to avoid
    1793             :          * overhead.
    1794             :          */
    1795        1950 :         if (!valid_variable_name(name))
    1796             :         {
    1797           6 :             pg_log_error("%s: invalid variable name: \"%s\"", context, name);
    1798           6 :             return NULL;
    1799             :         }
    1800             : 
    1801             :         /* Create variable at the end of the array */
    1802        1944 :         enlargeVariables(variables, 1);
    1803             : 
    1804        1944 :         var = &(variables->vars[variables->nvars]);
    1805             : 
    1806        1944 :         var->name = pg_strdup(name);
    1807        1944 :         var->svalue = NULL;
    1808             :         /* caller is expected to initialize remaining fields */
    1809             : 
    1810        1944 :         variables->nvars++;
    1811             :         /* we don't re-sort the array till we have to */
    1812        1944 :         variables->vars_sorted = false;
    1813             :     }
    1814             : 
    1815        5882 :     return var;
    1816             : }
    1817             : 
    1818             : /* Assign a string value to a variable, creating it if need be */
    1819             : /* Returns false on failure (bad name) */
    1820             : static bool
    1821        1748 : putVariable(Variables *variables, const char *context, char *name,
    1822             :             const char *value)
    1823             : {
    1824             :     Variable   *var;
    1825             :     char       *val;
    1826             : 
    1827        1748 :     var = lookupCreateVariable(variables, context, name);
    1828        1748 :     if (!var)
    1829           4 :         return false;
    1830             : 
    1831             :     /* dup then free, in case value is pointing at this variable */
    1832        1744 :     val = pg_strdup(value);
    1833             : 
    1834        1744 :     free(var->svalue);
    1835        1744 :     var->svalue = val;
    1836        1744 :     var->value.type = PGBT_NO_VALUE;
    1837             : 
    1838        1744 :     return true;
    1839             : }
    1840             : 
    1841             : /* Assign a value to a variable, creating it if need be */
    1842             : /* Returns false on failure (bad name) */
    1843             : static bool
    1844        4140 : putVariableValue(Variables *variables, const char *context, char *name,
    1845             :                  const PgBenchValue *value)
    1846             : {
    1847             :     Variable   *var;
    1848             : 
    1849        4140 :     var = lookupCreateVariable(variables, context, name);
    1850        4140 :     if (!var)
    1851           2 :         return false;
    1852             : 
    1853        4138 :     free(var->svalue);
    1854        4138 :     var->svalue = NULL;
    1855        4138 :     var->value = *value;
    1856             : 
    1857        4138 :     return true;
    1858             : }
    1859             : 
    1860             : /* Assign an integer value to a variable, creating it if need be */
    1861             : /* Returns false on failure (bad name) */
    1862             : static bool
    1863         762 : putVariableInt(Variables *variables, const char *context, char *name,
    1864             :                int64 value)
    1865             : {
    1866             :     PgBenchValue val;
    1867             : 
    1868         762 :     setIntValue(&val, value);
    1869         762 :     return putVariableValue(variables, context, name, &val);
    1870             : }
    1871             : 
    1872             : /*
    1873             :  * Parse a possible variable reference (:varname).
    1874             :  *
    1875             :  * "sql" points at a colon.  If what follows it looks like a valid
    1876             :  * variable name, return a malloc'd string containing the variable name,
    1877             :  * and set *eaten to the number of characters consumed (including the colon).
    1878             :  * Otherwise, return NULL.
    1879             :  */
    1880             : static char *
    1881        3406 : parseVariable(const char *sql, int *eaten)
    1882             : {
    1883        3406 :     int         i = 1;          /* starting at 1 skips the colon */
    1884             :     char       *name;
    1885             : 
    1886             :     /* keep this logic in sync with valid_variable_name() */
    1887        3406 :     if (IS_HIGHBIT_SET(sql[i]) ||
    1888        3406 :         strchr("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
    1889        3406 :                "_", sql[i]) != NULL)
    1890        2492 :         i++;
    1891             :     else
    1892         914 :         return NULL;
    1893             : 
    1894       12926 :     while (IS_HIGHBIT_SET(sql[i]) ||
    1895       12926 :            strchr("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
    1896       12926 :                   "_0123456789", sql[i]) != NULL)
    1897       10434 :         i++;
    1898             : 
    1899        2492 :     name = pg_malloc(i);
    1900        2492 :     memcpy(name, &sql[1], i - 1);
    1901        2492 :     name[i - 1] = '\0';
    1902             : 
    1903        2492 :     *eaten = i;
    1904        2492 :     return name;
    1905             : }
    1906             : 
    1907             : static char *
    1908        2490 : replaceVariable(char **sql, char *param, int len, char *value)
    1909             : {
    1910        2490 :     int         valueln = strlen(value);
    1911             : 
    1912        2490 :     if (valueln > len)
    1913             :     {
    1914        1140 :         size_t      offset = param - *sql;
    1915             : 
    1916        1140 :         *sql = pg_realloc(*sql, strlen(*sql) - len + valueln + 1);
    1917        1140 :         param = *sql + offset;
    1918             :     }
    1919             : 
    1920        2490 :     if (valueln != len)
    1921        2408 :         memmove(param + valueln, param + len, strlen(param + len) + 1);
    1922        2490 :     memcpy(param, value, valueln);
    1923             : 
    1924        2490 :     return param + valueln;
    1925             : }
    1926             : 
    1927             : static char *
    1928        6576 : assignVariables(Variables *variables, char *sql)
    1929             : {
    1930             :     char       *p,
    1931             :                *name,
    1932             :                *val;
    1933             : 
    1934        6576 :     p = sql;
    1935        9388 :     while ((p = strchr(p, ':')) != NULL)
    1936             :     {
    1937             :         int         eaten;
    1938             : 
    1939        2812 :         name = parseVariable(p, &eaten);
    1940        2812 :         if (name == NULL)
    1941             :         {
    1942        2646 :             while (*p == ':')
    1943             :             {
    1944        1764 :                 p++;
    1945             :             }
    1946         882 :             continue;
    1947             :         }
    1948             : 
    1949        1930 :         val = getVariable(variables, name);
    1950        1930 :         free(name);
    1951        1930 :         if (val == NULL)
    1952             :         {
    1953           0 :             p++;
    1954           0 :             continue;
    1955             :         }
    1956             : 
    1957        1930 :         p = replaceVariable(&sql, p, eaten, val);
    1958             :     }
    1959             : 
    1960        6576 :     return sql;
    1961             : }
    1962             : 
    1963             : static void
    1964        3568 : getQueryParams(Variables *variables, const Command *command,
    1965             :                const char **params)
    1966             : {
    1967             :     int         i;
    1968             : 
    1969        6900 :     for (i = 0; i < command->argc - 1; i++)
    1970        3332 :         params[i] = getVariable(variables, command->argv[i + 1]);
    1971        3568 : }
    1972             : 
    1973             : static char *
    1974           8 : valueTypeName(PgBenchValue *pval)
    1975             : {
    1976           8 :     if (pval->type == PGBT_NO_VALUE)
    1977           0 :         return "none";
    1978           8 :     else if (pval->type == PGBT_NULL)
    1979           0 :         return "null";
    1980           8 :     else if (pval->type == PGBT_INT)
    1981           0 :         return "int";
    1982           8 :     else if (pval->type == PGBT_DOUBLE)
    1983           2 :         return "double";
    1984           6 :     else if (pval->type == PGBT_BOOLEAN)
    1985           6 :         return "boolean";
    1986             :     else
    1987             :     {
    1988             :         /* internal error, should never get there */
    1989             :         Assert(false);
    1990           0 :         return NULL;
    1991             :     }
    1992             : }
    1993             : 
    1994             : /* get a value as a boolean, or tell if there is a problem */
    1995             : static bool
    1996         216 : coerceToBool(PgBenchValue *pval, bool *bval)
    1997             : {
    1998         216 :     if (pval->type == PGBT_BOOLEAN)
    1999             :     {
    2000         214 :         *bval = pval->u.bval;
    2001         214 :         return true;
    2002             :     }
    2003             :     else                        /* NULL, INT or DOUBLE */
    2004             :     {
    2005           2 :         pg_log_error("cannot coerce %s to boolean", valueTypeName(pval));
    2006           2 :         *bval = false;          /* suppress uninitialized-variable warnings */
    2007           2 :         return false;
    2008             :     }
    2009             : }
    2010             : 
    2011             : /*
    2012             :  * Return true or false from an expression for conditional purposes.
    2013             :  * Non zero numerical values are true, zero and NULL are false.
    2014             :  */
    2015             : static bool
    2016         886 : valueTruth(PgBenchValue *pval)
    2017             : {
    2018         886 :     switch (pval->type)
    2019             :     {
    2020           2 :         case PGBT_NULL:
    2021           2 :             return false;
    2022          42 :         case PGBT_BOOLEAN:
    2023          42 :             return pval->u.bval;
    2024         840 :         case PGBT_INT:
    2025         840 :             return pval->u.ival != 0;
    2026           2 :         case PGBT_DOUBLE:
    2027           2 :             return pval->u.dval != 0.0;
    2028           0 :         default:
    2029             :             /* internal error, unexpected type */
    2030             :             Assert(0);
    2031           0 :             return false;
    2032             :     }
    2033             : }
    2034             : 
    2035             : /* get a value as an int, tell if there is a problem */
    2036             : static bool
    2037       13168 : coerceToInt(PgBenchValue *pval, int64 *ival)
    2038             : {
    2039       13168 :     if (pval->type == PGBT_INT)
    2040             :     {
    2041       13160 :         *ival = pval->u.ival;
    2042       13160 :         return true;
    2043             :     }
    2044           8 :     else if (pval->type == PGBT_DOUBLE)
    2045             :     {
    2046           4 :         double      dval = rint(pval->u.dval);
    2047             : 
    2048           4 :         if (isnan(dval) || !FLOAT8_FITS_IN_INT64(dval))
    2049             :         {
    2050           2 :             pg_log_error("double to int overflow for %f", dval);
    2051           2 :             return false;
    2052             :         }
    2053           2 :         *ival = (int64) dval;
    2054           2 :         return true;
    2055             :     }
    2056             :     else                        /* BOOLEAN or NULL */
    2057             :     {
    2058           4 :         pg_log_error("cannot coerce %s to int", valueTypeName(pval));
    2059           4 :         return false;
    2060             :     }
    2061             : }
    2062             : 
    2063             : /* get a value as a double, or tell if there is a problem */
    2064             : static bool
    2065         208 : coerceToDouble(PgBenchValue *pval, double *dval)
    2066             : {
    2067         208 :     if (pval->type == PGBT_DOUBLE)
    2068             :     {
    2069         146 :         *dval = pval->u.dval;
    2070         146 :         return true;
    2071             :     }
    2072          62 :     else if (pval->type == PGBT_INT)
    2073             :     {
    2074          60 :         *dval = (double) pval->u.ival;
    2075          60 :         return true;
    2076             :     }
    2077             :     else                        /* BOOLEAN or NULL */
    2078             :     {
    2079           2 :         pg_log_error("cannot coerce %s to double", valueTypeName(pval));
    2080           2 :         return false;
    2081             :     }
    2082             : }
    2083             : 
    2084             : /* assign a null value */
    2085             : static void
    2086           8 : setNullValue(PgBenchValue *pv)
    2087             : {
    2088           8 :     pv->type = PGBT_NULL;
    2089           8 :     pv->u.ival = 0;
    2090           8 : }
    2091             : 
    2092             : /* assign a boolean value */
    2093             : static void
    2094         268 : setBoolValue(PgBenchValue *pv, bool bval)
    2095             : {
    2096         268 :     pv->type = PGBT_BOOLEAN;
    2097         268 :     pv->u.bval = bval;
    2098         268 : }
    2099             : 
    2100             : /* assign an integer value */
    2101             : static void
    2102        8034 : setIntValue(PgBenchValue *pv, int64 ival)
    2103             : {
    2104        8034 :     pv->type = PGBT_INT;
    2105        8034 :     pv->u.ival = ival;
    2106        8034 : }
    2107             : 
    2108             : /* assign a double value */
    2109             : static void
    2110          78 : setDoubleValue(PgBenchValue *pv, double dval)
    2111             : {
    2112          78 :     pv->type = PGBT_DOUBLE;
    2113          78 :     pv->u.dval = dval;
    2114          78 : }
    2115             : 
    2116             : static bool
    2117        6996 : isLazyFunc(PgBenchFunction func)
    2118             : {
    2119        6996 :     return func == PGBENCH_AND || func == PGBENCH_OR || func == PGBENCH_CASE;
    2120             : }
    2121             : 
    2122             : /* lazy evaluation of some functions */
    2123             : static bool
    2124         130 : evalLazyFunc(CState *st,
    2125             :              PgBenchFunction func, PgBenchExprLink *args, PgBenchValue *retval)
    2126             : {
    2127             :     PgBenchValue a1,
    2128             :                 a2;
    2129             :     bool        ba1,
    2130             :                 ba2;
    2131             : 
    2132             :     Assert(isLazyFunc(func) && args != NULL && args->next != NULL);
    2133             : 
    2134             :     /* args points to first condition */
    2135         130 :     if (!evaluateExpr(st, args->expr, &a1))
    2136           2 :         return false;
    2137             : 
    2138             :     /* second condition for AND/OR and corresponding branch for CASE */
    2139         128 :     args = args->next;
    2140             : 
    2141         128 :     switch (func)
    2142             :     {
    2143          88 :         case PGBENCH_AND:
    2144          88 :             if (a1.type == PGBT_NULL)
    2145             :             {
    2146           0 :                 setNullValue(retval);
    2147           0 :                 return true;
    2148             :             }
    2149             : 
    2150          88 :             if (!coerceToBool(&a1, &ba1))
    2151           0 :                 return false;
    2152             : 
    2153          88 :             if (!ba1)
    2154             :             {
    2155           6 :                 setBoolValue(retval, false);
    2156           6 :                 return true;
    2157             :             }
    2158             : 
    2159          82 :             if (!evaluateExpr(st, args->expr, &a2))
    2160           0 :                 return false;
    2161             : 
    2162          82 :             if (a2.type == PGBT_NULL)
    2163             :             {
    2164           0 :                 setNullValue(retval);
    2165           0 :                 return true;
    2166             :             }
    2167          82 :             else if (!coerceToBool(&a2, &ba2))
    2168           0 :                 return false;
    2169             :             else
    2170             :             {
    2171          82 :                 setBoolValue(retval, ba2);
    2172          82 :                 return true;
    2173             :             }
    2174             : 
    2175             :             return true;
    2176             : 
    2177           8 :         case PGBENCH_OR:
    2178             : 
    2179           8 :             if (a1.type == PGBT_NULL)
    2180             :             {
    2181           0 :                 setNullValue(retval);
    2182           0 :                 return true;
    2183             :             }
    2184             : 
    2185           8 :             if (!coerceToBool(&a1, &ba1))
    2186           0 :                 return false;
    2187             : 
    2188           8 :             if (ba1)
    2189             :             {
    2190           2 :                 setBoolValue(retval, true);
    2191           2 :                 return true;
    2192             :             }
    2193             : 
    2194           6 :             if (!evaluateExpr(st, args->expr, &a2))
    2195           0 :                 return false;
    2196             : 
    2197           6 :             if (a2.type == PGBT_NULL)
    2198             :             {
    2199           0 :                 setNullValue(retval);
    2200           0 :                 return true;
    2201             :             }
    2202           6 :             else if (!coerceToBool(&a2, &ba2))
    2203           0 :                 return false;
    2204             :             else
    2205             :             {
    2206           6 :                 setBoolValue(retval, ba2);
    2207           6 :                 return true;
    2208             :             }
    2209             : 
    2210          32 :         case PGBENCH_CASE:
    2211             :             /* when true, execute branch */
    2212          32 :             if (valueTruth(&a1))
    2213          22 :                 return evaluateExpr(st, args->expr, retval);
    2214             : 
    2215             :             /* now args contains next condition or final else expression */
    2216          10 :             args = args->next;
    2217             : 
    2218             :             /* final else case? */
    2219          10 :             if (args->next == NULL)
    2220           6 :                 return evaluateExpr(st, args->expr, retval);
    2221             : 
    2222             :             /* no, another when, proceed */
    2223           4 :             return evalLazyFunc(st, PGBENCH_CASE, args, retval);
    2224             : 
    2225           0 :         default:
    2226             :             /* internal error, cannot get here */
    2227             :             Assert(0);
    2228           0 :             break;
    2229             :     }
    2230           0 :     return false;
    2231             : }
    2232             : 
    2233             : /* maximum number of function arguments */
    2234             : #define MAX_FARGS 16
    2235             : 
    2236             : /*
    2237             :  * Recursive evaluation of standard functions,
    2238             :  * which do not require lazy evaluation.
    2239             :  */
    2240             : static bool
    2241        6870 : evalStandardFunc(CState *st,
    2242             :                  PgBenchFunction func, PgBenchExprLink *args,
    2243             :                  PgBenchValue *retval)
    2244             : {
    2245             :     /* evaluate all function arguments */
    2246        6870 :     int         nargs = 0;
    2247             :     PgBenchValue vargs[MAX_FARGS];
    2248        6870 :     PgBenchExprLink *l = args;
    2249        6870 :     bool        has_null = false;
    2250             : 
    2251       20536 :     for (nargs = 0; nargs < MAX_FARGS && l != NULL; nargs++, l = l->next)
    2252             :     {
    2253       13670 :         if (!evaluateExpr(st, l->expr, &vargs[nargs]))
    2254           4 :             return false;
    2255       13666 :         has_null |= vargs[nargs].type == PGBT_NULL;
    2256             :     }
    2257             : 
    2258        6866 :     if (l != NULL)
    2259             :     {
    2260           2 :         pg_log_error("too many function arguments, maximum is %d", MAX_FARGS);
    2261           2 :         return false;
    2262             :     }
    2263             : 
    2264             :     /* NULL arguments */
    2265        6864 :     if (has_null && func != PGBENCH_IS && func != PGBENCH_DEBUG)
    2266             :     {
    2267           6 :         setNullValue(retval);
    2268           6 :         return true;
    2269             :     }
    2270             : 
    2271             :     /* then evaluate function */
    2272        6858 :     switch (func)
    2273             :     {
    2274             :             /* overloaded operators */
    2275        3386 :         case PGBENCH_ADD:
    2276             :         case PGBENCH_SUB:
    2277             :         case PGBENCH_MUL:
    2278             :         case PGBENCH_DIV:
    2279             :         case PGBENCH_MOD:
    2280             :         case PGBENCH_EQ:
    2281             :         case PGBENCH_NE:
    2282             :         case PGBENCH_LE:
    2283             :         case PGBENCH_LT:
    2284             :             {
    2285        3386 :                 PgBenchValue *lval = &vargs[0],
    2286        3386 :                            *rval = &vargs[1];
    2287             : 
    2288             :                 Assert(nargs == 2);
    2289             : 
    2290             :                 /* overloaded type management, double if some double */
    2291        3386 :                 if ((lval->type == PGBT_DOUBLE ||
    2292        3386 :                      rval->type == PGBT_DOUBLE) && func != PGBENCH_MOD)
    2293           0 :                 {
    2294             :                     double      ld,
    2295             :                                 rd;
    2296             : 
    2297          62 :                     if (!coerceToDouble(lval, &ld) ||
    2298          62 :                         !coerceToDouble(rval, &rd))
    2299          62 :                         return false;
    2300             : 
    2301          62 :                     switch (func)
    2302             :                     {
    2303           2 :                         case PGBENCH_ADD:
    2304           2 :                             setDoubleValue(retval, ld + rd);
    2305           2 :                             return true;
    2306             : 
    2307          20 :                         case PGBENCH_SUB:
    2308          20 :                             setDoubleValue(retval, ld - rd);
    2309          20 :                             return true;
    2310             : 
    2311          16 :                         case PGBENCH_MUL:
    2312          16 :                             setDoubleValue(retval, ld * rd);
    2313          16 :                             return true;
    2314             : 
    2315           4 :                         case PGBENCH_DIV:
    2316           4 :                             setDoubleValue(retval, ld / rd);
    2317           4 :                             return true;
    2318             : 
    2319           8 :                         case PGBENCH_EQ:
    2320           8 :                             setBoolValue(retval, ld == rd);
    2321           8 :                             return true;
    2322             : 
    2323           4 :                         case PGBENCH_NE:
    2324           4 :                             setBoolValue(retval, ld != rd);
    2325           4 :                             return true;
    2326             : 
    2327           4 :                         case PGBENCH_LE:
    2328           4 :                             setBoolValue(retval, ld <= rd);
    2329           4 :                             return true;
    2330             : 
    2331           4 :                         case PGBENCH_LT:
    2332           4 :                             setBoolValue(retval, ld < rd);
    2333           4 :                             return true;
    2334             : 
    2335           0 :                         default:
    2336             :                             /* cannot get here */
    2337             :                             Assert(0);
    2338             :                     }
    2339             :                 }
    2340             :                 else            /* we have integer operands, or % */
    2341             :                 {
    2342             :                     int64       li,
    2343             :                                 ri,
    2344             :                                 res;
    2345             : 
    2346        3324 :                     if (!coerceToInt(lval, &li) ||
    2347        3322 :                         !coerceToInt(rval, &ri))
    2348        3324 :                         return false;
    2349             : 
    2350        3322 :                     switch (func)
    2351             :                     {
    2352          88 :                         case PGBENCH_ADD:
    2353          88 :                             if (pg_add_s64_overflow(li, ri, &res))
    2354             :                             {
    2355           2 :                                 pg_log_error("bigint add out of range");
    2356           2 :                                 return false;
    2357             :                             }
    2358          86 :                             setIntValue(retval, res);
    2359          86 :                             return true;
    2360             : 
    2361         298 :                         case PGBENCH_SUB:
    2362         298 :                             if (pg_sub_s64_overflow(li, ri, &res))
    2363             :                             {
    2364           2 :                                 pg_log_error("bigint sub out of range");
    2365           2 :                                 return false;
    2366             :                             }
    2367         296 :                             setIntValue(retval, res);
    2368         296 :                             return true;
    2369             : 
    2370        2820 :                         case PGBENCH_MUL:
    2371        2820 :                             if (pg_mul_s64_overflow(li, ri, &res))
    2372             :                             {
    2373           2 :                                 pg_log_error("bigint mul out of range");
    2374           2 :                                 return false;
    2375             :                             }
    2376        2818 :                             setIntValue(retval, res);
    2377        2818 :                             return true;
    2378             : 
    2379          54 :                         case PGBENCH_EQ:
    2380          54 :                             setBoolValue(retval, li == ri);
    2381          54 :                             return true;
    2382             : 
    2383          10 :                         case PGBENCH_NE:
    2384          10 :                             setBoolValue(retval, li != ri);
    2385          10 :                             return true;
    2386             : 
    2387          10 :                         case PGBENCH_LE:
    2388          10 :                             setBoolValue(retval, li <= ri);
    2389          10 :                             return true;
    2390             : 
    2391          24 :                         case PGBENCH_LT:
    2392          24 :                             setBoolValue(retval, li < ri);
    2393          24 :                             return true;
    2394             : 
    2395          18 :                         case PGBENCH_DIV:
    2396             :                         case PGBENCH_MOD:
    2397          18 :                             if (ri == 0)
    2398             :                             {
    2399           2 :                                 pg_log_error("division by zero");
    2400           2 :                                 return false;
    2401             :                             }
    2402             :                             /* special handling of -1 divisor */
    2403          16 :                             if (ri == -1)
    2404             :                             {
    2405           6 :                                 if (func == PGBENCH_DIV)
    2406             :                                 {
    2407             :                                     /* overflow check (needed for INT64_MIN) */
    2408           4 :                                     if (li == PG_INT64_MIN)
    2409             :                                     {
    2410           2 :                                         pg_log_error("bigint div out of range");
    2411           2 :                                         return false;
    2412             :                                     }
    2413             :                                     else
    2414           2 :                                         setIntValue(retval, -li);
    2415             :                                 }
    2416             :                                 else
    2417           2 :                                     setIntValue(retval, 0);
    2418           4 :                                 return true;
    2419             :                             }
    2420             :                             /* else divisor is not -1 */
    2421          10 :                             if (func == PGBENCH_DIV)
    2422           4 :                                 setIntValue(retval, li / ri);
    2423             :                             else    /* func == PGBENCH_MOD */
    2424           6 :                                 setIntValue(retval, li % ri);
    2425             : 
    2426          10 :                             return true;
    2427             : 
    2428           0 :                         default:
    2429             :                             /* cannot get here */
    2430             :                             Assert(0);
    2431             :                     }
    2432             :                 }
    2433             : 
    2434             :                 Assert(0);
    2435           0 :                 return false;   /* NOTREACHED */
    2436             :             }
    2437             : 
    2438             :             /* integer bitwise operators */
    2439          28 :         case PGBENCH_BITAND:
    2440             :         case PGBENCH_BITOR:
    2441             :         case PGBENCH_BITXOR:
    2442             :         case PGBENCH_LSHIFT:
    2443             :         case PGBENCH_RSHIFT:
    2444             :             {
    2445             :                 int64       li,
    2446             :                             ri;
    2447             : 
    2448          28 :                 if (!coerceToInt(&vargs[0], &li) || !coerceToInt(&vargs[1], &ri))
    2449           0 :                     return false;
    2450             : 
    2451          28 :                 if (func == PGBENCH_BITAND)
    2452           2 :                     setIntValue(retval, li & ri);
    2453          26 :                 else if (func == PGBENCH_BITOR)
    2454           4 :                     setIntValue(retval, li | ri);
    2455          22 :                 else if (func == PGBENCH_BITXOR)
    2456           6 :                     setIntValue(retval, li ^ ri);
    2457          16 :                 else if (func == PGBENCH_LSHIFT)
    2458          14 :                     setIntValue(retval, li << ri);
    2459           2 :                 else if (func == PGBENCH_RSHIFT)
    2460           2 :                     setIntValue(retval, li >> ri);
    2461             :                 else            /* cannot get here */
    2462             :                     Assert(0);
    2463             : 
    2464          28 :                 return true;
    2465             :             }
    2466             : 
    2467             :             /* logical operators */
    2468          32 :         case PGBENCH_NOT:
    2469             :             {
    2470             :                 bool        b;
    2471             : 
    2472          32 :                 if (!coerceToBool(&vargs[0], &b))
    2473           2 :                     return false;
    2474             : 
    2475          30 :                 setBoolValue(retval, !b);
    2476          30 :                 return true;
    2477             :             }
    2478             : 
    2479             :             /* no arguments */
    2480           2 :         case PGBENCH_PI:
    2481           2 :             setDoubleValue(retval, M_PI);
    2482           2 :             return true;
    2483             : 
    2484             :             /* 1 overloaded argument */
    2485           4 :         case PGBENCH_ABS:
    2486             :             {
    2487           4 :                 PgBenchValue *varg = &vargs[0];
    2488             : 
    2489             :                 Assert(nargs == 1);
    2490             : 
    2491           4 :                 if (varg->type == PGBT_INT)
    2492             :                 {
    2493           2 :                     int64       i = varg->u.ival;
    2494             : 
    2495           2 :                     setIntValue(retval, i < 0 ? -i : i);
    2496             :                 }
    2497             :                 else
    2498             :                 {
    2499           2 :                     double      d = varg->u.dval;
    2500             : 
    2501             :                     Assert(varg->type == PGBT_DOUBLE);
    2502           2 :                     setDoubleValue(retval, d < 0.0 ? -d : d);
    2503             :                 }
    2504             : 
    2505           4 :                 return true;
    2506             :             }
    2507             : 
    2508         168 :         case PGBENCH_DEBUG:
    2509             :             {
    2510         168 :                 PgBenchValue *varg = &vargs[0];
    2511             : 
    2512             :                 Assert(nargs == 1);
    2513             : 
    2514         168 :                 fprintf(stderr, "debug(script=%d,command=%d): ",
    2515         168 :                         st->use_file, st->command + 1);
    2516             : 
    2517         168 :                 if (varg->type == PGBT_NULL)
    2518           4 :                     fprintf(stderr, "null\n");
    2519         164 :                 else if (varg->type == PGBT_BOOLEAN)
    2520          38 :                     fprintf(stderr, "boolean %s\n", varg->u.bval ? "true" : "false");
    2521         126 :                 else if (varg->type == PGBT_INT)
    2522          94 :                     fprintf(stderr, "int " INT64_FORMAT "\n", varg->u.ival);
    2523          32 :                 else if (varg->type == PGBT_DOUBLE)
    2524          32 :                     fprintf(stderr, "double %.*g\n", DBL_DIG, varg->u.dval);
    2525             :                 else            /* internal error, unexpected type */
    2526             :                     Assert(0);
    2527             : 
    2528         168 :                 *retval = *varg;
    2529             : 
    2530         168 :                 return true;
    2531             :             }
    2532             : 
    2533             :             /* 1 double argument */
    2534          10 :         case PGBENCH_DOUBLE:
    2535             :         case PGBENCH_SQRT:
    2536             :         case PGBENCH_LN:
    2537             :         case PGBENCH_EXP:
    2538             :             {
    2539             :                 double      dval;
    2540             : 
    2541             :                 Assert(nargs == 1);
    2542             : 
    2543          10 :                 if (!coerceToDouble(&vargs[0], &dval))
    2544           2 :                     return false;
    2545             : 
    2546           8 :                 if (func == PGBENCH_SQRT)
    2547           2 :                     dval = sqrt(dval);
    2548           6 :                 else if (func == PGBENCH_LN)
    2549           2 :                     dval = log(dval);
    2550           4 :                 else if (func == PGBENCH_EXP)
    2551           2 :                     dval = exp(dval);
    2552             :                 /* else is cast: do nothing */
    2553             : 
    2554           8 :                 setDoubleValue(retval, dval);
    2555           8 :                 return true;
    2556             :             }
    2557             : 
    2558             :             /* 1 int argument */
    2559           4 :         case PGBENCH_INT:
    2560             :             {
    2561             :                 int64       ival;
    2562             : 
    2563             :                 Assert(nargs == 1);
    2564             : 
    2565           4 :                 if (!coerceToInt(&vargs[0], &ival))
    2566           2 :                     return false;
    2567             : 
    2568           2 :                 setIntValue(retval, ival);
    2569           2 :                 return true;
    2570             :             }
    2571             : 
    2572             :             /* variable number of arguments */
    2573           8 :         case PGBENCH_LEAST:
    2574             :         case PGBENCH_GREATEST:
    2575             :             {
    2576             :                 bool        havedouble;
    2577             :                 int         i;
    2578             : 
    2579             :                 Assert(nargs >= 1);
    2580             : 
    2581             :                 /* need double result if any input is double */
    2582           8 :                 havedouble = false;
    2583          28 :                 for (i = 0; i < nargs; i++)
    2584             :                 {
    2585          24 :                     if (vargs[i].type == PGBT_DOUBLE)
    2586             :                     {
    2587           4 :                         havedouble = true;
    2588           4 :                         break;
    2589             :                     }
    2590             :                 }
    2591           8 :                 if (havedouble)
    2592             :                 {
    2593             :                     double      extremum;
    2594             : 
    2595           4 :                     if (!coerceToDouble(&vargs[0], &extremum))
    2596           0 :                         return false;
    2597          12 :                     for (i = 1; i < nargs; i++)
    2598             :                     {
    2599             :                         double      dval;
    2600             : 
    2601           8 :                         if (!coerceToDouble(&vargs[i], &dval))
    2602           0 :                             return false;
    2603           8 :                         if (func == PGBENCH_LEAST)
    2604           4 :                             extremum = Min(extremum, dval);
    2605             :                         else
    2606           4 :                             extremum = Max(extremum, dval);
    2607             :                     }
    2608           4 :                     setDoubleValue(retval, extremum);
    2609             :                 }
    2610             :                 else
    2611             :                 {
    2612             :                     int64       extremum;
    2613             : 
    2614           4 :                     if (!coerceToInt(&vargs[0], &extremum))
    2615           0 :                         return false;
    2616          16 :                     for (i = 1; i < nargs; i++)
    2617             :                     {
    2618             :                         int64       ival;
    2619             : 
    2620          12 :                         if (!coerceToInt(&vargs[i], &ival))
    2621           0 :                             return false;
    2622          12 :                         if (func == PGBENCH_LEAST)
    2623           6 :                             extremum = Min(extremum, ival);
    2624             :                         else
    2625           6 :                             extremum = Max(extremum, ival);
    2626             :                     }
    2627           4 :                     setIntValue(retval, extremum);
    2628             :                 }
    2629           8 :                 return true;
    2630             :             }
    2631             : 
    2632             :             /* random functions */
    2633        3074 :         case PGBENCH_RANDOM:
    2634             :         case PGBENCH_RANDOM_EXPONENTIAL:
    2635             :         case PGBENCH_RANDOM_GAUSSIAN:
    2636             :         case PGBENCH_RANDOM_ZIPFIAN:
    2637             :             {
    2638             :                 int64       imin,
    2639             :                             imax,
    2640             :                             delta;
    2641             : 
    2642             :                 Assert(nargs >= 2);
    2643             : 
    2644        3074 :                 if (!coerceToInt(&vargs[0], &imin) ||
    2645        3072 :                     !coerceToInt(&vargs[1], &imax))
    2646           2 :                     return false;
    2647             : 
    2648             :                 /* check random range */
    2649        3072 :                 if (unlikely(imin > imax))
    2650             :                 {
    2651           2 :                     pg_log_error("empty range given to random");
    2652           2 :                     return false;
    2653             :                 }
    2654        3070 :                 else if (unlikely(pg_sub_s64_overflow(imax, imin, &delta) ||
    2655             :                                   pg_add_s64_overflow(delta, 1, &delta)))
    2656             :                 {
    2657             :                     /* prevent int overflows in random functions */
    2658           2 :                     pg_log_error("random range is too large");
    2659           2 :                     return false;
    2660             :                 }
    2661             : 
    2662        3068 :                 if (func == PGBENCH_RANDOM)
    2663             :                 {
    2664             :                     Assert(nargs == 2);
    2665        3042 :                     setIntValue(retval, getrand(&st->cs_func_rs, imin, imax));
    2666             :                 }
    2667             :                 else            /* gaussian & exponential */
    2668             :                 {
    2669             :                     double      param;
    2670             : 
    2671             :                     Assert(nargs == 3);
    2672             : 
    2673          26 :                     if (!coerceToDouble(&vargs[2], &param))
    2674           8 :                         return false;
    2675             : 
    2676          26 :                     if (func == PGBENCH_RANDOM_GAUSSIAN)
    2677             :                     {
    2678           8 :                         if (param < MIN_GAUSSIAN_PARAM)
    2679             :                         {
    2680           2 :                             pg_log_error("gaussian parameter must be at least %f (not %f)",
    2681             :                                          MIN_GAUSSIAN_PARAM, param);
    2682           2 :                             return false;
    2683             :                         }
    2684             : 
    2685           6 :                         setIntValue(retval,
    2686             :                                     getGaussianRand(&st->cs_func_rs,
    2687             :                                                     imin, imax, param));
    2688             :                     }
    2689          18 :                     else if (func == PGBENCH_RANDOM_ZIPFIAN)
    2690             :                     {
    2691          10 :                         if (param < MIN_ZIPFIAN_PARAM || param > MAX_ZIPFIAN_PARAM)
    2692             :                         {
    2693           4 :                             pg_log_error("zipfian parameter must be in range [%.3f, %.0f] (not %f)",
    2694             :                                          MIN_ZIPFIAN_PARAM, MAX_ZIPFIAN_PARAM, param);
    2695           4 :                             return false;
    2696             :                         }
    2697             : 
    2698           6 :                         setIntValue(retval,
    2699             :                                     getZipfianRand(&st->cs_func_rs, imin, imax, param));
    2700             :                     }
    2701             :                     else        /* exponential */
    2702             :                     {
    2703           8 :                         if (param <= 0.0)
    2704             :                         {
    2705           2 :                             pg_log_error("exponential parameter must be greater than zero (not %f)",
    2706             :                                          param);
    2707           2 :                             return false;
    2708             :                         }
    2709             : 
    2710           6 :                         setIntValue(retval,
    2711             :                                     getExponentialRand(&st->cs_func_rs,
    2712             :                                                        imin, imax, param));
    2713             :                     }
    2714             :                 }
    2715             : 
    2716        3060 :                 return true;
    2717             :             }
    2718             : 
    2719          18 :         case PGBENCH_POW:
    2720             :             {
    2721          18 :                 PgBenchValue *lval = &vargs[0];
    2722          18 :                 PgBenchValue *rval = &vargs[1];
    2723             :                 double      ld,
    2724             :                             rd;
    2725             : 
    2726             :                 Assert(nargs == 2);
    2727             : 
    2728          18 :                 if (!coerceToDouble(lval, &ld) ||
    2729          18 :                     !coerceToDouble(rval, &rd))
    2730           0 :                     return false;
    2731             : 
    2732          18 :                 setDoubleValue(retval, pow(ld, rd));
    2733             : 
    2734          18 :                 return true;
    2735             :             }
    2736             : 
    2737          20 :         case PGBENCH_IS:
    2738             :             {
    2739             :                 Assert(nargs == 2);
    2740             : 
    2741             :                 /*
    2742             :                  * note: this simple implementation is more permissive than
    2743             :                  * SQL
    2744             :                  */
    2745          20 :                 setBoolValue(retval,
    2746          30 :                              vargs[0].type == vargs[1].type &&
    2747          10 :                              vargs[0].u.bval == vargs[1].u.bval);
    2748          20 :                 return true;
    2749             :             }
    2750             : 
    2751             :             /* hashing */
    2752          12 :         case PGBENCH_HASH_FNV1A:
    2753             :         case PGBENCH_HASH_MURMUR2:
    2754             :             {
    2755             :                 int64       val,
    2756             :                             seed;
    2757             : 
    2758             :                 Assert(nargs == 2);
    2759             : 
    2760          12 :                 if (!coerceToInt(&vargs[0], &val) ||
    2761          12 :                     !coerceToInt(&vargs[1], &seed))
    2762           0 :                     return false;
    2763             : 
    2764          12 :                 if (func == PGBENCH_HASH_MURMUR2)
    2765          10 :                     setIntValue(retval, getHashMurmur2(val, seed));
    2766           2 :                 else if (func == PGBENCH_HASH_FNV1A)
    2767           2 :                     setIntValue(retval, getHashFnv1a(val, seed));
    2768             :                 else
    2769             :                     /* cannot get here */
    2770             :                     Assert(0);
    2771             : 
    2772          12 :                 return true;
    2773             :             }
    2774             : 
    2775          92 :         case PGBENCH_PERMUTE:
    2776             :             {
    2777             :                 int64       val,
    2778             :                             size,
    2779             :                             seed;
    2780             : 
    2781             :                 Assert(nargs == 3);
    2782             : 
    2783          92 :                 if (!coerceToInt(&vargs[0], &val) ||
    2784          92 :                     !coerceToInt(&vargs[1], &size) ||
    2785          92 :                     !coerceToInt(&vargs[2], &seed))
    2786           0 :                     return false;
    2787             : 
    2788          92 :                 if (size <= 0)
    2789             :                 {
    2790           2 :                     pg_log_error("permute size parameter must be greater than zero");
    2791           2 :                     return false;
    2792             :                 }
    2793             : 
    2794          90 :                 setIntValue(retval, permute(val, size, seed));
    2795          90 :                 return true;
    2796             :             }
    2797             : 
    2798           0 :         default:
    2799             :             /* cannot get here */
    2800             :             Assert(0);
    2801             :             /* dead code to avoid a compiler warning */
    2802           0 :             return false;
    2803             :     }
    2804             : }
    2805             : 
    2806             : /* evaluate some function */
    2807             : static bool
    2808        6996 : evalFunc(CState *st,
    2809             :          PgBenchFunction func, PgBenchExprLink *args, PgBenchValue *retval)
    2810             : {
    2811        6996 :     if (isLazyFunc(func))
    2812         126 :         return evalLazyFunc(st, func, args, retval);
    2813             :     else
    2814        6870 :         return evalStandardFunc(st, func, args, retval);
    2815             : }
    2816             : 
    2817             : /*
    2818             :  * Recursive evaluation of an expression in a pgbench script
    2819             :  * using the current state of variables.
    2820             :  * Returns whether the evaluation was ok,
    2821             :  * the value itself is returned through the retval pointer.
    2822             :  */
    2823             : static bool
    2824       18192 : evaluateExpr(CState *st, PgBenchExpr *expr, PgBenchValue *retval)
    2825             : {
    2826       18192 :     switch (expr->etype)
    2827             :     {
    2828        7332 :         case ENODE_CONSTANT:
    2829             :             {
    2830        7332 :                 *retval = expr->u.constant;
    2831        7332 :                 return true;
    2832             :             }
    2833             : 
    2834        3864 :         case ENODE_VARIABLE:
    2835             :             {
    2836             :                 Variable   *var;
    2837             : 
    2838        3864 :                 if ((var = lookupVariable(&st->variables, expr->u.variable.varname)) == NULL)
    2839             :                 {
    2840           4 :                     pg_log_error("undefined variable \"%s\"", expr->u.variable.varname);
    2841           4 :                     return false;
    2842             :                 }
    2843             : 
    2844        3860 :                 if (!makeVariableValue(var))
    2845           4 :                     return false;
    2846             : 
    2847        3856 :                 *retval = var->value;
    2848        3856 :                 return true;
    2849             :             }
    2850             : 
    2851        6996 :         case ENODE_FUNCTION:
    2852        6996 :             return evalFunc(st,
    2853             :                             expr->u.function.function,
    2854             :                             expr->u.function.args,
    2855             :                             retval);
    2856             : 
    2857           0 :         default:
    2858             :             /* internal error which should never occur */
    2859           0 :             pg_fatal("unexpected enode type in evaluation: %d", expr->etype);
    2860             :     }
    2861             : }
    2862             : 
    2863             : /*
    2864             :  * Convert command name to meta-command enum identifier
    2865             :  */
    2866             : static MetaCommand
    2867         930 : getMetaCommand(const char *cmd)
    2868             : {
    2869             :     MetaCommand mc;
    2870             : 
    2871         930 :     if (cmd == NULL)
    2872           0 :         mc = META_NONE;
    2873         930 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "set") == 0)
    2874         724 :         mc = META_SET;
    2875         206 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "setshell") == 0)
    2876           8 :         mc = META_SETSHELL;
    2877         198 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "shell") == 0)
    2878          10 :         mc = META_SHELL;
    2879         188 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "sleep") == 0)
    2880          18 :         mc = META_SLEEP;
    2881         170 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "if") == 0)
    2882          30 :         mc = META_IF;
    2883         140 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "elif") == 0)
    2884          16 :         mc = META_ELIF;
    2885         124 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "else") == 0)
    2886          16 :         mc = META_ELSE;
    2887         108 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "endif") == 0)
    2888          24 :         mc = META_ENDIF;
    2889          84 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "gset") == 0)
    2890          58 :         mc = META_GSET;
    2891          26 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "aset") == 0)
    2892           6 :         mc = META_ASET;
    2893          20 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "startpipeline") == 0)
    2894          10 :         mc = META_STARTPIPELINE;
    2895          10 :     else if (pg_strcasecmp(cmd, "endpipeline") == 0)
    2896           8 :         mc = META_ENDPIPELINE;
    2897             :     else
    2898           2 :         mc = META_NONE;
    2899         930 :     return mc;
    2900             : }
    2901             : 
    2902             : /*
    2903             :  * Run a shell command. The result is assigned to the variable if not NULL.
    2904             :  * Return true if succeeded, or false on error.
    2905             :  */
    2906             : static bool
    2907          12 : runShellCommand(Variables *variables, char *variable, char **argv, int argc)
    2908             : {
    2909             :     char        command[SHELL_COMMAND_SIZE];
    2910             :     int         i,
    2911          12 :                 len = 0;
    2912             :     FILE       *fp;
    2913             :     char        res[64];
    2914             :     char       *endptr;
    2915             :     int         retval;
    2916             : 
    2917             :     /*----------
    2918             :      * Join arguments with whitespace separators. Arguments starting with
    2919             :      * exactly one colon are treated as variables:
    2920             :      *  name - append a string "name"
    2921             :      *  :var - append a variable named 'var'
    2922             :      *  ::name - append a string ":name"
    2923             :      *----------
    2924             :      */
    2925          34 :     for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
    2926             :     {
    2927             :         char       *arg;
    2928             :         int         arglen;
    2929             : 
    2930          24 :         if (argv[i][0] != ':')
    2931             :         {
    2932          18 :             arg = argv[i];      /* a string literal */
    2933             :         }
    2934           6 :         else if (argv[i][1] == ':')
    2935             :         {
    2936           2 :             arg = argv[i] + 1;  /* a string literal starting with colons */
    2937             :         }
    2938           4 :         else if ((arg = getVariable(variables, argv[i] + 1)) == NULL)
    2939             :         {
    2940           2 :             pg_log_error("%s: undefined variable \"%s\"", argv[0], argv[i]);
    2941           2 :             return false;
    2942             :         }
    2943             : 
    2944          22 :         arglen = strlen(arg);
    2945          22 :         if (len + arglen + (i > 0 ? 1 : 0) >= SHELL_COMMAND_SIZE - 1)
    2946             :         {
    2947           0 :             pg_log_error("%s: shell command is too long", argv[0]);
    2948           0 :             return false;
    2949             :         }
    2950             : 
    2951          22 :         if (i > 0)
    2952          10 :             command[len++] = ' ';
    2953          22 :         memcpy(command + len, arg, arglen);
    2954          22 :         len += arglen;
    2955             :     }
    2956             : 
    2957          10 :     command[len] = '\0';
    2958             : 
    2959          10 :     fflush(NULL);               /* needed before either system() or popen() */
    2960             : 
    2961             :     /* Fast path for non-assignment case */
    2962          10 :     if (variable == NULL)
    2963             :     {
    2964           4 :         if (system(command))
    2965             :         {
    2966           2 :             if (!timer_exceeded)
    2967           2 :                 pg_log_error("%s: could not launch shell command", argv[0]);
    2968           2 :             return false;
    2969             :         }
    2970           2 :         return true;
    2971             :     }
    2972             : 
    2973             :     /* Execute the command with pipe and read the standard output. */
    2974           6 :     if ((fp = popen(command, "r")) == NULL)
    2975             :     {
    2976           0 :         pg_log_error("%s: could not launch shell command", argv[0]);
    2977           0 :         return false;
    2978             :     }
    2979           6 :     if (fgets(res, sizeof(res), fp) == NULL)
    2980             :     {
    2981           2 :         if (!timer_exceeded)
    2982           2 :             pg_log_error("%s: could not read result of shell command", argv[0]);
    2983           2 :         (void) pclose(fp);
    2984           2 :         return false;
    2985             :     }
    2986           4 :     if (pclose(fp) < 0)
    2987             :     {
    2988           0 :         pg_log_error("%s: could not run shell command: %m", argv[0]);
    2989           0 :         return false;
    2990             :     }
    2991             : 
    2992             :     /* Check whether the result is an integer and assign it to the variable */
    2993           4 :     retval = (int) strtol(res, &endptr, 10);
    2994           6 :     while (*endptr != '\0' && isspace((unsigned char) *endptr))
    2995           2 :         endptr++;
    2996           4 :     if (*res == '\0' || *endptr != '\0')
    2997             :     {
    2998           2 :         pg_log_error("%s: shell command must return an integer (not \"%s\")", argv[0], res);
    2999           2 :         return false;
    3000             :     }
    3001           2 :     if (!putVariableInt(variables, "setshell", variable, retval))
    3002           0 :         return false;
    3003             : 
    3004           2 :     pg_log_debug("%s: shell parameter name: \"%s\", value: \"%s\"", argv[0], argv[1], res);
    3005             : 
    3006           2 :     return true;
    3007             : }
    3008             : 
    3009             : #define MAX_PREPARE_NAME        32
    3010             : static void
    3011        2530 : preparedStatementName(char *buffer, int file, int state)
    3012             : {
    3013        2530 :     sprintf(buffer, "P%d_%d", file, state);
    3014        2530 : }
    3015             : 
    3016             : /*
    3017             :  * Report the abortion of the client when processing SQL commands.
    3018             :  */
    3019             : static void
    3020          62 : commandFailed(CState *st, const char *cmd, const char *message)
    3021             : {
    3022          62 :     pg_log_error("client %d aborted in command %d (%s) of script %d; %s",
    3023             :                  st->id, st->command, cmd, st->use_file, message);
    3024          62 : }
    3025             : 
    3026             : /*
    3027             :  * Report the error in the command while the script is executing.
    3028             :  */
    3029             : static void
    3030           4 : commandError(CState *st, const char *message)
    3031             : {
    3032             :     Assert(sql_script[st->use_file].commands[st->command]->type == SQL_COMMAND);
    3033           4 :     pg_log_info("client %d got an error in command %d (SQL) of script %d; %s",
    3034             :                 st->id, st->command, st->use_file, message);
    3035           4 : }
    3036             : 
    3037             : /* return a script number with a weighted choice. */
    3038             : static int
    3039        4866 : chooseScript(TState *thread)
    3040             : {
    3041        4866 :     int         i = 0;
    3042             :     int64       w;
    3043             : 
    3044        4866 :     if (num_scripts == 1)
    3045        2666 :         return 0;
    3046             : 
    3047        2200 :     w = getrand(&thread->ts_choose_rs, 0, total_weight - 1);
    3048             :     do
    3049             :     {
    3050        4802 :         w -= sql_script[i++].weight;
    3051        4802 :     } while (w >= 0);
    3052             : 
    3053        2200 :     return i - 1;
    3054             : }
    3055             : 
    3056             : /* Send a SQL command, using the chosen querymode */
    3057             : static bool
    3058       10144 : sendCommand(CState *st, Command *command)
    3059             : {
    3060             :     int         r;
    3061             : 
    3062       10144 :     if (querymode == QUERY_SIMPLE)
    3063             :     {
    3064             :         char       *sql;
    3065             : 
    3066        6576 :         sql = pg_strdup(command->argv[0]);
    3067        6576 :         sql = assignVariables(&st->variables, sql);
    3068             : 
    3069        6576 :         pg_log_debug("client %d sending %s", st->id, sql);
    3070        6576 :         r = PQsendQuery(st->con, sql);
    3071        6576 :         free(sql);
    3072             :     }
    3073        3568 :     else if (querymode == QUERY_EXTENDED)
    3074             :     {
    3075        1140 :         const char *sql = command->argv[0];
    3076             :         const char *params[MAX_ARGS];
    3077             : 
    3078        1140 :         getQueryParams(&st->variables, command, params);
    3079             : 
    3080        1140 :         pg_log_debug("client %d sending %s", st->id, sql);
    3081        1140 :         r = PQsendQueryParams(st->con, sql, command->argc - 1,
    3082             :                               NULL, params, NULL, NULL, 0);
    3083             :     }
    3084        2428 :     else if (querymode == QUERY_PREPARED)
    3085             :     {
    3086             :         char        name[MAX_PREPARE_NAME];
    3087             :         const char *params[MAX_ARGS];
    3088             : 
    3089        2428 :         if (!st->prepared[st->use_file])
    3090             :         {
    3091             :             int         j;
    3092          52 :             Command   **commands = sql_script[st->use_file].commands;
    3093             : 
    3094         176 :             for (j = 0; commands[j] != NULL; j++)
    3095             :             {
    3096             :                 PGresult   *res;
    3097             : 
    3098         124 :                 if (commands[j]->type != SQL_COMMAND)
    3099          22 :                     continue;
    3100         102 :                 preparedStatementName(name, st->use_file, j);
    3101         102 :                 if (PQpipelineStatus(st->con) == PQ_PIPELINE_OFF)
    3102             :                 {
    3103          82 :                     res = PQprepare(st->con, name,
    3104          82 :                                     commands[j]->argv[0], commands[j]->argc - 1, NULL);
    3105          82 :                     if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
    3106           2 :                         pg_log_error("%s", PQerrorMessage(st->con));
    3107          82 :                     PQclear(res);
    3108             :                 }
    3109             :                 else
    3110             :                 {
    3111             :                     /*
    3112             :                      * In pipeline mode, we use asynchronous functions. If a
    3113             :                      * server-side error occurs, it will be processed later
    3114             :                      * among the other results.
    3115             :                      */
    3116          20 :                     if (!PQsendPrepare(st->con, name,
    3117          20 :                                        commands[j]->argv[0], commands[j]->argc - 1, NULL))
    3118           0 :                         pg_log_error("%s", PQerrorMessage(st->con));
    3119             :                 }
    3120             :             }
    3121          52 :             st->prepared[st->use_file] = true;
    3122             :         }
    3123             : 
    3124        2428 :         getQueryParams(&st->variables, command, params);
    3125        2428 :         preparedStatementName(name, st->use_file, st->command);
    3126             : 
    3127        2428 :         pg_log_debug("client %d sending %s", st->id, name);
    3128        2428 :         r = PQsendQueryPrepared(st->con, name, command->argc - 1,
    3129             :                                 params, NULL, NULL, 0);
    3130             :     }
    3131             :     else                        /* unknown sql mode */
    3132           0 :         r = 0;
    3133             : 
    3134       10144 :     if (r == 0)
    3135             :     {
    3136           0 :         pg_log_debug("client %d could not send %s", st->id, command->argv[0]);
    3137           0 :         return false;
    3138             :     }
    3139             :     else
    3140       10144 :         return true;
    3141             : }
    3142             : 
    3143             : /*
    3144             :  * Get the error status from the error code.
    3145             :  */
    3146             : static EStatus
    3147          18 : getSQLErrorStatus(const char *sqlState)
    3148             : {
    3149          18 :     if (sqlState != NULL)
    3150             :     {
    3151          18 :         if (strcmp(sqlState, ERRCODE_T_R_SERIALIZATION_FAILURE) == 0)
    3152           2 :             return ESTATUS_SERIALIZATION_ERROR;
    3153          16 :         else if (strcmp(sqlState, ERRCODE_T_R_DEADLOCK_DETECTED) == 0)
    3154           2 :             return ESTATUS_DEADLOCK_ERROR;
    3155             :     }
    3156             : 
    3157          14 :     return ESTATUS_OTHER_SQL_ERROR;
    3158             : }
    3159             : 
    3160             : /*
    3161             :  * Returns true if this type of error can be retried.
    3162             :  */
    3163             : static bool
    3164          50 : canRetryError(EStatus estatus)
    3165             : {
    3166          50 :     return (estatus == ESTATUS_SERIALIZATION_ERROR ||
    3167             :             estatus == ESTATUS_DEADLOCK_ERROR);
    3168             : }
    3169             : 
    3170             : /*
    3171             :  * Process query response from the backend.
    3172             :  *
    3173             :  * If varprefix is not NULL, it's the variable name prefix where to store
    3174             :  * the results of the *last* command (META_GSET) or *all* commands
    3175             :  * (META_ASET).
    3176             :  *
    3177             :  * Returns true if everything is A-OK, false if any error occurs.
    3178             :  */
    3179             : static bool
    3180       10168 : readCommandResponse(CState *st, MetaCommand meta, char *varprefix)
    3181             : {
    3182             :     PGresult   *res;
    3183             :     PGresult   *next_res;
    3184       10168 :     int         qrynum = 0;
    3185             : 
    3186             :     /*
    3187             :      * varprefix should be set only with \gset or \aset, and \endpipeline and
    3188             :      * SQL commands do not need it.
    3189             :      */
    3190             :     Assert((meta == META_NONE && varprefix == NULL) ||
    3191             :            ((meta == META_ENDPIPELINE) && varprefix == NULL) ||
    3192             :            ((meta == META_GSET || meta == META_ASET) && varprefix != NULL));
    3193             : 
    3194       10168 :     res = PQgetResult(st->con);
    3195             : 
    3196       20312 :     while (res != NULL)
    3197             :     {
    3198             :         bool        is_last;
    3199             : 
    3200             :         /* peek at the next result to know whether the current is last */
    3201       10172 :         next_res = PQgetResult(st->con);
    3202       10172 :         is_last = (next_res == NULL);
    3203             : 
    3204       10172 :         switch (PQresultStatus(res))
    3205             :         {
    3206        6564 :             case PGRES_COMMAND_OK:  /* non-SELECT commands */
    3207             :             case PGRES_EMPTY_QUERY: /* may be used for testing no-op overhead */
    3208        6564 :                 if (is_last && meta == META_GSET)
    3209             :                 {
    3210           2 :                     pg_log_error("client %d script %d command %d query %d: expected one row, got %d",
    3211             :                                  st->id, st->use_file, st->command, qrynum, 0);
    3212           2 :                     st->estatus = ESTATUS_META_COMMAND_ERROR;
    3213           2 :                     goto error;
    3214             :                 }
    3215        6562 :                 break;
    3216             : 
    3217        3586 :             case PGRES_TUPLES_OK:
    3218        3586 :                 if ((is_last && meta == META_GSET) || meta == META_ASET)
    3219             :                 {
    3220         884 :                     int         ntuples = PQntuples(res);
    3221             : 
    3222         884 :                     if (meta == META_GSET && ntuples != 1)
    3223             :                     {
    3224             :                         /* under \gset, report the error */
    3225           4 :                         pg_log_error("client %d script %d command %d query %d: expected one row, got %d",
    3226             :                                      st->id, st->use_file, st->command, qrynum, PQntuples(res));
    3227           4 :                         st->estatus = ESTATUS_META_COMMAND_ERROR;
    3228           4 :                         goto error;
    3229             :                     }
    3230         880 :                     else if (meta == META_ASET && ntuples <= 0)
    3231             :                     {
    3232             :                         /* coldly skip empty result under \aset */
    3233           2 :                         break;
    3234             :                     }
    3235             : 
    3236             :                     /* store results into variables */
    3237        1756 :                     for (int fld = 0; fld < PQnfields(res); fld++)
    3238             :                     {
    3239         882 :                         char       *varname = PQfname(res, fld);
    3240             : 
    3241             :                         /* allocate varname only if necessary, freed below */
    3242         882 :                         if (*varprefix != '\0')
    3243           2 :                             varname = psprintf("%s%s", varprefix, varname);
    3244             : 
    3245             :                         /* store last row result as a string */
    3246         882 :                         if (!putVariable(&st->variables, meta == META_ASET ? "aset" : "gset", varname,
    3247         882 :                                          PQgetvalue(res, ntuples - 1, fld)))
    3248             :                         {
    3249             :                             /* internal error */
    3250           4 :                             pg_log_error("client %d script %d command %d query %d: error storing into variable %s",
    3251             :                                          st->id, st->use_file, st->command, qrynum, varname);
    3252           4 :                             st->estatus = ESTATUS_META_COMMAND_ERROR;
    3253           4 :                             goto error;
    3254             :                         }
    3255             : 
    3256         878 :                         if (*varprefix != '\0')
    3257           2 :                             pg_free(varname);
    3258             :                     }
    3259             :                 }
    3260             :                 /* otherwise the result is simply thrown away by PQclear below */
    3261        3576 :                 break;
    3262             : 
    3263           4 :             case PGRES_PIPELINE_SYNC:
    3264           4 :                 pg_log_debug("client %d pipeline ending", st->id);
    3265           4 :                 if (PQexitPipelineMode(st->con) != 1)
    3266           0 :                     pg_log_error("client %d failed to exit pipeline mode: %s", st->id,
    3267             :                                  PQerrorMessage(st->con));
    3268           4 :                 break;
    3269             : 
    3270          18 :             case PGRES_NONFATAL_ERROR:
    3271             :             case PGRES_FATAL_ERROR:
    3272          18 :                 st->estatus = getSQLErrorStatus(PQresultErrorField(res,
    3273             :                                                                    PG_DIAG_SQLSTATE));
    3274          18 :                 if (canRetryError(st->estatus))
    3275             :                 {
    3276           4 :                     if (verbose_errors)
    3277           4 :                         commandError(st, PQerrorMessage(st->con));
    3278           4 :                     goto error;
    3279             :                 }
    3280             :                 /* fall through */
    3281             : 
    3282             :             default:
    3283             :                 /* anything else is unexpected */
    3284          14 :                 pg_log_error("client %d script %d aborted in command %d query %d: %s",
    3285             :                              st->id, st->use_file, st->command, qrynum,
    3286             :                              PQerrorMessage(st->con));
    3287          14 :                 goto error;
    3288             :         }
    3289             : 
    3290       10144 :         PQclear(res);
    3291       10144 :         qrynum++;
    3292       10144 :         res = next_res;
    3293             :     }
    3294             : 
    3295       10140 :     if (qrynum == 0)
    3296             :     {
    3297           0 :         pg_log_error("client %d command %d: no results", st->id, st->command);
    3298           0 :         return false;
    3299             :     }
    3300             : 
    3301       10140 :     return true;
    3302             : 
    3303          28 : error:
    3304          28 :     PQclear(res);
    3305          28 :     PQclear(next_res);
    3306             :     do
    3307             :     {
    3308          28 :         res = PQgetResult(st->con);
    3309          28 :         PQclear(res);
    3310          28 :     } while (res);
    3311             : 
    3312          28 :     return false;
    3313             : }
    3314             : 
    3315             : /*
    3316             :  * Parse the argument to a \sleep command, and return the requested amount
    3317             :  * of delay, in microseconds.  Returns true on success, false on error.
    3318             :  */
    3319             : static bool
    3320          12 : evaluateSleep(Variables *variables, int argc, char **argv, int *usecs)
    3321             : {
    3322             :     char       *var;
    3323             :     int         usec;
    3324             : 
    3325          12 :     if (*argv[1] == ':')
    3326             :     {
    3327           6 :         if ((var = getVariable(variables, argv[1] + 1)) == NULL)
    3328             :         {
    3329           2 :             pg_log_error("%s: undefined variable \"%s\"", argv[0], argv[1] + 1);
    3330           2 :             return false;
    3331             :         }
    3332             : 
    3333           4 :         usec = atoi(var);
    3334             : 
    3335             :         /* Raise an error if the value of a variable is not a number */
    3336           4 :         if (usec == 0 && !isdigit((unsigned char) *var))
    3337             :         {
    3338           0 :             pg_log_error("%s: invalid sleep time \"%s\" for variable \"%s\"",
    3339             :                          argv[0], var, argv[1] + 1);
    3340           0 :             return false;
    3341             :         }
    3342             :     }
    3343             :     else
    3344           6 :         usec = atoi(argv[1]);
    3345             : 
    3346          10 :     if (argc > 2)
    3347             :     {
    3348           8 :         if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[2], "ms") == 0)
    3349           4 :             usec *= 1000;
    3350           4 :         else if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[2], "s") == 0)
    3351           2 :             usec *= 1000000;
    3352             :     }
    3353             :     else
    3354           2 :         usec *= 1000000;
    3355             : 
    3356          10 :     *usecs = usec;
    3357          10 :     return true;
    3358             : }
    3359             : 
    3360             : 
    3361             : /*
    3362             :  * Returns true if the error can be retried.
    3363             :  */
    3364             : static bool
    3365           4 : doRetry(CState *st, pg_time_usec_t *now)
    3366             : {
    3367             :     Assert(st->estatus != ESTATUS_NO_ERROR);
    3368             : 
    3369             :     /* We can only retry serialization or deadlock errors. */
    3370           4 :     if (!canRetryError(st->estatus))
    3371           0 :         return false;
    3372             : 
    3373             :     /*
    3374             :      * We must have at least one option to limit the retrying of transactions
    3375             :      * that got an error.
    3376             :      */
    3377             :     Assert(max_tries || latency_limit || duration > 0);
    3378             : 
    3379             :     /*
    3380             :      * We cannot retry the error if we have reached the maximum number of
    3381             :      * tries.
    3382             :      */
    3383           4 :     if (max_tries && st->tries >= max_tries)
    3384           0 :         return false;
    3385             : 
    3386             :     /*
    3387             :      * We cannot retry the error if we spent too much time on this
    3388             :      * transaction.
    3389             :      */
    3390           4 :     if (latency_limit)
    3391             :     {
    3392           0 :         pg_time_now_lazy(now);
    3393           0 :         if (*now - st->txn_scheduled > latency_limit)
    3394           0 :             return false;
    3395             :     }
    3396             : 
    3397             :     /*
    3398             :      * We cannot retry the error if the benchmark duration is over.
    3399             :      */
    3400           4 :     if (timer_exceeded)
    3401           0 :         return false;
    3402             : 
    3403             :     /* OK */
    3404           4 :     return true;
    3405             : }
    3406             : 
    3407             : /*
    3408             :  * Read results and discard it until a sync point.
    3409             :  */
    3410             : static int
    3411           0 : discardUntilSync(CState *st)
    3412             : {
    3413             :     /* send a sync */
    3414           0 :     if (!PQpipelineSync(st->con))
    3415             :     {
    3416           0 :         pg_log_error("client %d aborted: failed to send a pipeline sync",
    3417             :                      st->id);
    3418           0 :         return 0;
    3419             :     }
    3420             : 
    3421             :     /* receive PGRES_PIPELINE_SYNC and null following it */
    3422             :     for (;;)
    3423           0 :     {
    3424           0 :         PGresult   *res = PQgetResult(st->con);
    3425             : 
    3426           0 :         if (PQresultStatus(res) == PGRES_PIPELINE_SYNC)
    3427             :         {
    3428           0 :             PQclear(res);
    3429           0 :             res = PQgetResult(st->con);
    3430             :             Assert(res == NULL);
    3431           0 :             break;
    3432             :         }
    3433           0 :         PQclear(res);
    3434             :     }
    3435             : 
    3436             :     /* exit pipeline */
    3437           0 :     if (PQexitPipelineMode(st->con) != 1)
    3438             :     {
    3439           0 :         pg_log_error("client %d aborted: failed to exit pipeline mode for rolling back the failed transaction",
    3440             :                      st->id);
    3441           0 :         return 0;
    3442             :     }
    3443           0 :     return 1;
    3444             : }
    3445             : 
    3446             : /*
    3447             :  * Get the transaction status at the end of a command especially for
    3448             :  * checking if we are in a (failed) transaction block.
    3449             :  */
    3450             : static TStatus
    3451        4782 : getTransactionStatus(PGconn *con)
    3452             : {
    3453             :     PGTransactionStatusType tx_status;
    3454             : 
    3455        4782 :     tx_status = PQtransactionStatus(con);
    3456        4782 :     switch (tx_status)
    3457             :     {
    3458        4778 :         case PQTRANS_IDLE:
    3459        4778 :             return TSTATUS_IDLE;
    3460           4 :         case PQTRANS_INTRANS:
    3461             :         case PQTRANS_INERROR:
    3462           4 :             return TSTATUS_IN_BLOCK;
    3463           0 :         case PQTRANS_UNKNOWN:
    3464             :             /* PQTRANS_UNKNOWN is expected given a broken connection */
    3465           0 :             if (PQstatus(con) == CONNECTION_BAD)
    3466           0 :                 return TSTATUS_CONN_ERROR;
    3467             :             /* fall through */
    3468             :         case PQTRANS_ACTIVE:
    3469             :         default:
    3470             : 
    3471             :             /*
    3472             :              * We cannot find out whether we are in a transaction block or
    3473             :              * not. Internal error which should never occur.
    3474             :              */
    3475           0 :             pg_log_error("unexpected transaction status %d", tx_status);
    3476           0 :             return TSTATUS_OTHER_ERROR;
    3477             :     }
    3478             : 
    3479             :     /* not reached */
    3480             :     Assert(false);
    3481             :     return TSTATUS_OTHER_ERROR;
    3482             : }
    3483             : 
    3484             : /*
    3485             :  * Print verbose messages of an error
    3486             :  */
    3487             : static void
    3488           4 : printVerboseErrorMessages(CState *st, pg_time_usec_t *now, bool is_retry)
    3489             : {
    3490             :     static PQExpBuffer buf = NULL;
    3491             : 
    3492           4 :     if (buf == NULL)
    3493           4 :         buf = createPQExpBuffer();
    3494             :     else
    3495           0 :         resetPQExpBuffer(buf);
    3496             : 
    3497           4 :     printfPQExpBuffer(buf, "client %d ", st->id);
    3498           4 :     appendPQExpBufferStr(buf, (is_retry ?
    3499             :                                "repeats the transaction after the error" :
    3500             :                                "ends the failed transaction"));
    3501           4 :     appendPQExpBuffer(buf, " (try %u", st->tries);
    3502             : 
    3503             :     /* Print max_tries if it is not unlimitted. */
    3504           4 :     if (max_tries)
    3505           4 :         appendPQExpBuffer(buf, "/%u", max_tries);
    3506             : 
    3507             :     /*
    3508             :      * If the latency limit is used, print a percentage of the current
    3509             :      * transaction latency from the latency limit.
    3510             :      */
    3511           4 :     if (latency_limit)
    3512             :     {
    3513           0 :         pg_time_now_lazy(now);
    3514           0 :         appendPQExpBuffer(buf, ", %.3f%% of the maximum time of tries was used",
    3515           0 :                           (100.0 * (*now - st->txn_scheduled) / latency_limit));
    3516             :     }
    3517           4 :     appendPQExpBufferStr(buf, ")\n");
    3518             : 
    3519           4 :     pg_log_info("%s", buf->data);
    3520           4 : }
    3521             : 
    3522             : /*
    3523             :  * Advance the state machine of a connection.
    3524             :  */
    3525             : static void
    3526       14866 : advanceConnectionState(TState *thread, CState *st, StatsData *agg)
    3527             : {
    3528             : 
    3529             :     /*
    3530             :      * gettimeofday() isn't free, so we get the current timestamp lazily the
    3531             :      * first time it's needed, and reuse the same value throughout this
    3532             :      * function after that.  This also ensures that e.g. the calculated
    3533             :      * latency reported in the log file and in the totals are the same. Zero
    3534             :      * means "not set yet".  Reset "now" when we execute shell commands or
    3535             :      * expressions, which might take a non-negligible amount of time, though.
    3536             :      */
    3537       14866 :     pg_time_usec_t now = 0;
    3538             : 
    3539             :     /*
    3540             :      * Loop in the state machine, until we have to wait for a result from the
    3541             :      * server or have to sleep for throttling or \sleep.
    3542             :      *
    3543             :      * Note: In the switch-statement below, 'break' will loop back here,
    3544             :      * meaning "continue in the state machine".  Return is used to return to
    3545             :      * the caller, giving the thread the opportunity to advance another
    3546             :      * client.
    3547             :      */
    3548             :     for (;;)
    3549       55386 :     {
    3550             :         Command    *command;
    3551             : 
    3552       70252 :         switch (st->state)
    3553             :         {
    3554             :                 /* Select transaction (script) to run.  */
    3555        4866 :             case CSTATE_CHOOSE_SCRIPT:
    3556        4866 :                 st->use_file = chooseScript(thread);
    3557             :                 Assert(conditional_stack_empty(st->cstack));
    3558             : 
    3559             :                 /* reset transaction variables to default values */
    3560        4866 :                 st->estatus = ESTATUS_NO_ERROR;
    3561        4866 :                 st->tries = 1;
    3562             : 
    3563        4866 :                 pg_log_debug("client %d executing script \"%s\"",
    3564             :                              st->id, sql_script[st->use_file].desc);
    3565             : 
    3566             :                 /*
    3567             :                  * If time is over, we're done; otherwise, get ready to start
    3568             :                  * a new transaction, or to get throttled if that's requested.
    3569             :                  */
    3570        9732 :                 st->state = timer_exceeded ? CSTATE_FINISHED :
    3571        4866 :                     throttle_delay > 0 ? CSTATE_PREPARE_THROTTLE : CSTATE_START_TX;
    3572        4866 :                 break;
    3573             : 
    3574             :                 /* Start new transaction (script) */
    3575        4864 :             case CSTATE_START_TX:
    3576        4864 :                 pg_time_now_lazy(&now);
    3577             : 
    3578             :                 /* establish connection if needed, i.e. under --connect */
    3579        4864 :                 if (st->con == NULL)
    3580             :                 {
    3581         220 :                     pg_time_usec_t start = now;
    3582             : 
    3583         220 :                     if ((st->con = doConnect()) == NULL)
    3584             :                     {
    3585             :                         /*
    3586             :                          * as the bench is already running, we do not abort
    3587             :                          * the process
    3588             :                          */
    3589           0 :                         pg_log_error("client %d aborted while establishing connection", st->id);
    3590           0 :                         st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    3591           0 :                         break;
    3592             :                     }
    3593             : 
    3594             :                     /* reset now after connection */
    3595         220 :                     now = pg_time_now();
    3596             : 
    3597         220 :                     thread->conn_duration += now - start;
    3598             : 
    3599             :                     /* Reset session-local state */
    3600         220 :                     memset(st->prepared, 0, sizeof(st->prepared));
    3601             :                 }
    3602             : 
    3603             :                 /*
    3604             :                  * It is the first try to run this transaction. Remember the
    3605             :                  * random state: maybe it will get an error and we will need
    3606             :                  * to run it again.
    3607             :                  */
    3608        4864 :                 st->random_state = st->cs_func_rs;
    3609             : 
    3610             :                 /* record transaction start time */
    3611        4864 :                 st->txn_begin = now;
    3612             : 
    3613             :                 /*
    3614             :                  * When not throttling, this is also the transaction's
    3615             :                  * scheduled start time.
    3616             :                  */
    3617        4864 :                 if (!throttle_delay)
    3618        4462 :                     st->txn_scheduled = now;
    3619             : 
    3620             :                 /* Begin with the first command */
    3621        4864 :                 st->state = CSTATE_START_COMMAND;
    3622        4864 :                 st->command = 0;
    3623        4864 :                 break;
    3624             : 
    3625             :                 /*
    3626             :                  * Handle throttling once per transaction by sleeping.
    3627             :                  */
    3628         420 :             case CSTATE_PREPARE_THROTTLE:
    3629             : 
    3630             :                 /*
    3631             :                  * Generate a delay such that the series of delays will
    3632             :                  * approximate a Poisson distribution centered on the
    3633             :                  * throttle_delay time.
    3634             :                  *
    3635             :                  * If transactions are too slow or a given wait is shorter
    3636             :                  * than a transaction, the next transaction will start right
    3637             :                  * away.
    3638             :                  */
    3639             :                 Assert(throttle_delay > 0);
    3640             : 
    3641         420 :                 thread->throttle_trigger +=
    3642         420 :                     getPoissonRand(&thread->ts_throttle_rs, throttle_delay);
    3643         420 :                 st->txn_scheduled = thread->throttle_trigger;
    3644             : 
    3645             :                 /*
    3646             :                  * If --latency-limit is used, and this slot is already late
    3647             :                  * so that the transaction will miss the latency limit even if
    3648             :                  * it completed immediately, skip this time slot and loop to
    3649             :                  * reschedule.
    3650             :                  */
    3651         420 :                 if (latency_limit)
    3652             :                 {
    3653         420 :                     pg_time_now_lazy(&now);
    3654             : 
    3655         420 :                     if (thread->throttle_trigger < now - latency_limit)
    3656             :                     {
    3657          18 :                         processXactStats(thread, st, &now, true, agg);
    3658             : 
    3659             :                         /*
    3660             :                          * Finish client if -T or -t was exceeded.
    3661             :                          *
    3662             :                          * Stop counting skipped transactions under -T as soon
    3663             :                          * as the timer is exceeded. Because otherwise it can
    3664             :                          * take a very long time to count all of them
    3665             :                          * especially when quite a lot of them happen with
    3666             :                          * unrealistically high rate setting in -R, which
    3667             :                          * would prevent pgbench from ending immediately.
    3668             :                          * Because of this behavior, note that there is no
    3669             :                          * guarantee that all skipped transactions are counted
    3670             :                          * under -T though there is under -t. This is OK in
    3671             :                          * practice because it's very unlikely to happen with
    3672             :                          * realistic setting.
    3673             :                          */
    3674          18 :                         if (timer_exceeded || (nxacts > 0 && st->cnt >= nxacts))
    3675           2 :                             st->state = CSTATE_FINISHED;
    3676             : 
    3677             :                         /* Go back to top of loop with CSTATE_PREPARE_THROTTLE */
    3678          18 :                         break;
    3679             :                     }
    3680             :                 }
    3681             : 
    3682             :                 /*
    3683             :                  * stop client if next transaction is beyond pgbench end of
    3684             :                  * execution; otherwise, throttle it.
    3685             :                  */
    3686           0 :                 st->state = end_time > 0 && st->txn_scheduled > end_time ?
    3687         402 :                     CSTATE_FINISHED : CSTATE_THROTTLE;
    3688         402 :                 break;
    3689             : 
    3690             :                 /*
    3691             :                  * Wait until it's time to start next transaction.
    3692             :                  */
    3693         402 :             case CSTATE_THROTTLE:
    3694         402 :                 pg_time_now_lazy(&now);
    3695             : 
    3696         402 :                 if (now < st->txn_scheduled)
    3697           0 :                     return;     /* still sleeping, nothing to do here */
    3698             : 
    3699             :                 /* done sleeping, but don't start transaction if we're done */
    3700         402 :                 st->state = timer_exceeded ? CSTATE_FINISHED : CSTATE_START_TX;
    3701         402 :                 break;
    3702             : 
    3703             :                 /*
    3704             :                  * Send a command to server (or execute a meta-command)
    3705             :                  */
    3706       19310 :             case CSTATE_START_COMMAND:
    3707       19310 :                 command = sql_script[st->use_file].commands[st->command];
    3708             : 
    3709             :                 /* Transition to script end processing if done */
    3710       19310 :                 if (command == NULL)
    3711             :                 {
    3712        4778 :                     st->state = CSTATE_END_TX;
    3713        4778 :                     break;
    3714             :                 }
    3715             : 
    3716             :                 /* record begin time of next command, and initiate it */
    3717       14532 :                 if (report_per_command)
    3718             :                 {
    3719         802 :                     pg_time_now_lazy(&now);
    3720         802 :                     st->stmt_begin = now;
    3721             :                 }
    3722             : 
    3723             :                 /* Execute the command */
    3724       14532 :                 if (command->type == SQL_COMMAND)
    3725             :                 {
    3726             :                     /* disallow \aset and \gset in pipeline mode */
    3727       10146 :                     if (PQpipelineStatus(st->con) != PQ_PIPELINE_OFF)
    3728             :                     {
    3729          42 :                         if (command->meta == META_GSET)
    3730             :                         {
    3731           2 :                             commandFailed(st, "gset", "\\gset is not allowed in pipeline mode");
    3732           2 :                             st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    3733           2 :                             break;
    3734             :                         }
    3735          40 :                         else if (command->meta == META_ASET)
    3736             :                         {
    3737           0 :                             commandFailed(st, "aset", "\\aset is not allowed in pipeline mode");
    3738           0 :                             st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    3739           0 :                             break;
    3740             :                         }
    3741             :                     }
    3742             : 
    3743       10144 :                     if (!sendCommand(st, command))
    3744             :                     {
    3745           0 :                         commandFailed(st, "SQL", "SQL command send failed");
    3746           0 :                         st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    3747             :                     }
    3748             :                     else
    3749             :                     {
    3750             :                         /* Wait for results, unless in pipeline mode */
    3751       10144 :                         if (PQpipelineStatus(st->con) == PQ_PIPELINE_OFF)
    3752       10104 :                             st->state = CSTATE_WAIT_RESULT;
    3753             :                         else
    3754          40 :                             st->state = CSTATE_END_COMMAND;
    3755             :                     }
    3756             :                 }
    3757        4386 :                 else if (command->type == META_COMMAND)
    3758             :                 {
    3759             :                     /*-----
    3760             :                      * Possible state changes when executing meta commands:
    3761             :                      * - on errors CSTATE_ABORTED
    3762             :                      * - on sleep CSTATE_SLEEP
    3763             :                      * - else CSTATE_END_COMMAND
    3764             :                      */
    3765        4386 :                     st->state = executeMetaCommand(st, &now);
    3766        4386 :                     if (st->state == CSTATE_ABORTED)
    3767          60 :                         st->estatus = ESTATUS_META_COMMAND_ERROR;
    3768             :                 }
    3769             : 
    3770             :                 /*
    3771             :                  * We're now waiting for an SQL command to complete, or
    3772             :                  * finished processing a metacommand, or need to sleep, or
    3773             :                  * something bad happened.
    3774             :                  */
    3775             :                 Assert(st->state == CSTATE_WAIT_RESULT ||
    3776             :                        st->state == CSTATE_END_COMMAND ||
    3777             :                        st->state == CSTATE_SLEEP ||
    3778             :                        st->state == CSTATE_ABORTED);
    3779       14530 :                 break;
    3780             : 
    3781             :                 /*
    3782             :                  * non executed conditional branch
    3783             :                  */
    3784        3688 :             case CSTATE_SKIP_COMMAND:
    3785             :                 Assert(!conditional_active(st->cstack));
    3786             :                 /* quickly skip commands until something to do... */
    3787             :                 while (true)
    3788             :                 {
    3789        3688 :                     command = sql_script[st->use_file].commands[st->command];
    3790             : 
    3791             :                     /* cannot reach end of script in that state */
    3792             :                     Assert(command != NULL);
    3793             : 
    3794             :                     /*
    3795             :                      * if this is conditional related, update conditional
    3796             :                      * state
    3797             :                      */
    3798        3688 :                     if (command->type == META_COMMAND &&
    3799         810 :                         (command->meta == META_IF ||
    3800         810 :                          command->meta == META_ELIF ||
    3801         804 :                          command->meta == META_ELSE ||
    3802         800 :                          command->meta == META_ENDIF))
    3803             :                     {
    3804         794 :                         switch (conditional_stack_peek(st->cstack))
    3805             :                         {
    3806         786 :                             case IFSTATE_FALSE:
    3807         786 :                                 if (command->meta == META_IF ||
    3808         786 :                                     command->meta == META_ELIF)
    3809             :                                 {
    3810             :                                     /* we must evaluate the condition */
    3811           6 :                                     st->state = CSTATE_START_COMMAND;
    3812             :                                 }
    3813         780 :                                 else if (command->meta == META_ELSE)
    3814             :                                 {
    3815             :                                     /* we must execute next command */
    3816           2 :                                     conditional_stack_poke(st->cstack,
    3817             :                                                            IFSTATE_ELSE_TRUE);
    3818           2 :                                     st->state = CSTATE_START_COMMAND;
    3819           2 :                                     st->command++;
    3820             :                                 }
    3821         778 :                                 else if (command->meta == META_ENDIF)
    3822             :                                 {
    3823             :                                     Assert(!conditional_stack_empty(st->cstack));
    3824         778 :                                     conditional_stack_pop(st->cstack);
    3825         778 :                                     if (conditional_active(st->cstack))
    3826         778 :                                         st->state = CSTATE_START_COMMAND;
    3827             : 
    3828             :                                     /*
    3829             :                                      * else state remains in
    3830             :                                      * CSTATE_SKIP_COMMAND
    3831             :                                      */
    3832         778 :                                     st->command++;
    3833             :                                 }
    3834         786 :                                 break;
    3835             : 
    3836           8 :                             case IFSTATE_IGNORED:
    3837             :                             case IFSTATE_ELSE_FALSE:
    3838           8 :                                 if (command->meta == META_IF)
    3839           0 :                                     conditional_stack_push(st->cstack,
    3840             :                                                            IFSTATE_IGNORED);
    3841           8 :                                 else if (command->meta == META_ENDIF)
    3842             :                                 {
    3843             :                                     Assert(!conditional_stack_empty(st->cstack));
    3844           6 :                                     conditional_stack_pop(st->cstack);
    3845           6 :                                     if (conditional_active(st->cstack))
    3846           6 :                                         st->state = CSTATE_START_COMMAND;
    3847             :                                 }
    3848             :                                 /* could detect "else" & "elif" after "else" */
    3849           8 :                                 st->command++;
    3850           8 :                                 break;
    3851             : 
    3852         794 :                             case IFSTATE_NONE:
    3853             :                             case IFSTATE_TRUE:
    3854             :                             case IFSTATE_ELSE_TRUE:
    3855             :                             default:
    3856             : 
    3857             :                                 /*
    3858             :                                  * inconsistent if inactive, unreachable dead
    3859             :                                  * code
    3860             :                                  */
    3861             :                                 Assert(false);
    3862             :                         }
    3863             :                     }
    3864             :                     else
    3865             :                     {
    3866             :                         /* skip and consider next */
    3867        2894 :                         st->command++;
    3868             :                     }
    3869             : 
    3870        3688 :                     if (st->state != CSTATE_SKIP_COMMAND)
    3871             :                         /* out of quick skip command loop */
    3872         792 :                         break;
    3873             :                 }
    3874         792 :                 break;
    3875             : 
    3876             :                 /*
    3877             :                  * Wait for the current SQL command to complete
    3878             :                  */
    3879       20160 :             case CSTATE_WAIT_RESULT:
    3880       20160 :                 pg_log_debug("client %d receiving", st->id);
    3881             : 
    3882             :                 /*
    3883             :                  * Only check for new network data if we processed all data
    3884             :                  * fetched prior. Otherwise we end up doing a syscall for each
    3885             :                  * individual pipelined query, which has a measurable
    3886             :                  * performance impact.
    3887             :                  */
    3888       20160 :                 if (PQisBusy(st->con) && !PQconsumeInput(st->con))
    3889             :                 {
    3890             :                     /* there's something wrong */
    3891           0 :                     commandFailed(st, "SQL", "perhaps the backend died while processing");
    3892           0 :                     st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    3893           0 :                     break;
    3894             :                 }
    3895       20160 :                 if (PQisBusy(st->con))
    3896        9992 :                     return;     /* don't have the whole result yet */
    3897             : 
    3898             :                 /* store or discard the query results */
    3899       10168 :                 if (readCommandResponse(st,
    3900       10168 :                                         sql_script[st->use_file].commands[st->command]->meta,
    3901       10168 :                                         sql_script[st->use_file].commands[st->command]->varprefix))
    3902             :                 {
    3903             :                     /*
    3904             :                      * outside of pipeline mode: stop reading results.
    3905             :                      * pipeline mode: continue reading results until an
    3906             :                      * end-of-pipeline response.
    3907             :                      */
    3908       10140 :                     if (PQpipelineStatus(st->con) != PQ_PIPELINE_ON)
    3909       10080 :                         st->state = CSTATE_END_COMMAND;
    3910             :                 }
    3911          28 :                 else if (canRetryError(st->estatus))
    3912           4 :                     st->state = CSTATE_ERROR;
    3913             :                 else
    3914          24 :                     st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    3915       10168 :                 break;
    3916             : 
    3917             :                 /*
    3918             :                  * Wait until sleep is done. This state is entered after a
    3919             :                  * \sleep metacommand. The behavior is similar to
    3920             :                  * CSTATE_THROTTLE, but proceeds to CSTATE_START_COMMAND
    3921             :                  * instead of CSTATE_START_TX.
    3922             :                  */
    3923          16 :             case CSTATE_SLEEP:
    3924          16 :                 pg_time_now_lazy(&now);
    3925          16 :                 if (now < st->sleep_until)
    3926           6 :                     return;     /* still sleeping, nothing to do here */
    3927             :                 /* Else done sleeping. */
    3928          10 :                 st->state = CSTATE_END_COMMAND;
    3929          10 :                 break;
    3930             : 
    3931             :                 /*
    3932             :                  * End of command: record stats and proceed to next command.
    3933             :                  */
    3934       14442 :             case CSTATE_END_COMMAND:
    3935             : 
    3936             :                 /*
    3937             :                  * command completed: accumulate per-command execution times
    3938             :                  * in thread-local data structure, if per-command latencies
    3939             :                  * are requested.
    3940             :                  */
    3941       14442 :                 if (report_per_command)
    3942             :                 {
    3943         802 :                     pg_time_now_lazy(&now);
    3944             : 
    3945         802 :                     command = sql_script[st->use_file].commands[st->command];
    3946             :                     /* XXX could use a mutex here, but we choose not to */
    3947         802 :                     addToSimpleStats(&command->stats,
    3948         802 :                                      PG_TIME_GET_DOUBLE(now - st->stmt_begin));
    3949             :                 }
    3950             : 
    3951             :                 /* Go ahead with next command, to be executed or skipped */
    3952       14442 :                 st->command++;
    3953       14442 :                 st->state = conditional_active(st->cstack) ?
    3954       14442 :                     CSTATE_START_COMMAND : CSTATE_SKIP_COMMAND;
    3955       14442 :                 break;
    3956             : 
    3957             :                 /*
    3958             :                  * Clean up after an error.
    3959             :                  */
    3960           4 :             case CSTATE_ERROR:
    3961             :                 {
    3962             :                     TStatus     tstatus;
    3963             : 
    3964             :                     Assert(st->estatus != ESTATUS_NO_ERROR);
    3965             : 
    3966             :                     /* Clear the conditional stack */
    3967           4 :                     conditional_stack_reset(st->cstack);
    3968             : 
    3969             :                     /* Read and discard until a sync point in pipeline mode */
    3970           4 :                     if (PQpipelineStatus(st->con) != PQ_PIPELINE_OFF)
    3971             :                     {
    3972           0 :                         if (!discardUntilSync(st))
    3973             :                         {
    3974           0 :                             st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    3975           0 :                             break;
    3976             :                         }
    3977             :                     }
    3978             : 
    3979             :                     /*
    3980             :                      * Check if we have a (failed) transaction block or not,
    3981             :                      * and roll it back if any.
    3982             :                      */
    3983           4 :                     tstatus = getTransactionStatus(st->con);
    3984           4 :                     if (tstatus == TSTATUS_IN_BLOCK)
    3985             :                     {
    3986             :                         /* Try to rollback a (failed) transaction block. */
    3987           2 :                         if (!PQsendQuery(st->con, "ROLLBACK"))
    3988             :                         {
    3989           0 :                             pg_log_error("client %d aborted: failed to send sql command for rolling back the failed transaction",
    3990             :                                          st->id);
    3991           0 :                             st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    3992             :                         }
    3993             :                         else
    3994           2 :                             st->state = CSTATE_WAIT_ROLLBACK_RESULT;
    3995             :                     }
    3996           2 :                     else if (tstatus == TSTATUS_IDLE)
    3997             :                     {
    3998             :                         /*
    3999             :                          * If time is over, we're done; otherwise, check if we
    4000             :                          * can retry the error.
    4001             :                          */
    4002           4 :                         st->state = timer_exceeded ? CSTATE_FINISHED :
    4003           2 :                             doRetry(st, &now) ? CSTATE_RETRY : CSTATE_FAILURE;
    4004             :                     }
    4005             :                     else
    4006             :                     {
    4007           0 :                         if (tstatus == TSTATUS_CONN_ERROR)
    4008           0 :                             pg_log_error("perhaps the backend died while processing");
    4009             : 
    4010           0 :                         pg_log_error("client %d aborted while receiving the transaction status", st->id);
    4011           0 :                         st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4012             :                     }
    4013           4 :                     break;
    4014             :                 }
    4015             : 
    4016             :                 /*
    4017             :                  * Wait for the rollback command to complete
    4018             :                  */
    4019           4 :             case CSTATE_WAIT_ROLLBACK_RESULT:
    4020             :                 {
    4021             :                     PGresult   *res;
    4022             : 
    4023           4 :                     pg_log_debug("client %d receiving", st->id);
    4024           4 :                     if (!PQconsumeInput(st->con))
    4025             :                     {
    4026           0 :                         pg_log_error("client %d aborted while rolling back the transaction after an error; perhaps the backend died while processing",
    4027             :                                      st->id);
    4028           0 :                         st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4029           0 :                         break;
    4030             :                     }
    4031           4 :                     if (PQisBusy(st->con))
    4032           2 :                         return; /* don't have the whole result yet */
    4033             : 
    4034             :                     /*
    4035             :                      * Read and discard the query result;
    4036             :                      */
    4037           2 :                     res = PQgetResult(st->con);
    4038           2 :                     switch (PQresultStatus(res))
    4039             :                     {
    4040           2 :                         case PGRES_COMMAND_OK:
    4041             :                             /* OK */
    4042           2 :                             PQclear(res);
    4043             :                             /* null must be returned */
    4044           2 :                             res = PQgetResult(st->con);
    4045             :                             Assert(res == NULL);
    4046             : 
    4047             :                             /*
    4048             :                              * If time is over, we're done; otherwise, check
    4049             :                              * if we can retry the error.
    4050             :                              */
    4051           4 :                             st->state = timer_exceeded ? CSTATE_FINISHED :
    4052           2 :                                 doRetry(st, &now) ? CSTATE_RETRY : CSTATE_FAILURE;
    4053           2 :                             break;
    4054           0 :                         default:
    4055           0 :                             pg_log_error("client %d aborted while rolling back the transaction after an error; %s",
    4056             :                                          st->id, PQerrorMessage(st->con));
    4057           0 :                             PQclear(res);
    4058           0 :                             st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4059           0 :                             break;
    4060             :                     }
    4061           2 :                     break;
    4062             :                 }
    4063             : 
    4064             :                 /*
    4065             :                  * Retry the transaction after an error.
    4066             :                  */
    4067           4 :             case CSTATE_RETRY:
    4068           4 :                 command = sql_script[st->use_file].commands[st->command];
    4069             : 
    4070             :                 /*
    4071             :                  * Inform that the transaction will be retried after the
    4072             :                  * error.
    4073             :                  */
    4074           4 :                 if (verbose_errors)
    4075           4 :                     printVerboseErrorMessages(st, &now, true);
    4076             : 
    4077             :                 /* Count tries and retries */
    4078           4 :                 st->tries++;
    4079           4 :                 command->retries++;
    4080             : 
    4081             :                 /*
    4082             :                  * Reset the random state as they were at the beginning of the
    4083             :                  * transaction.
    4084             :                  */
    4085           4 :                 st->cs_func_rs = st->random_state;
    4086             : 
    4087             :                 /* Process the first transaction command. */
    4088           4 :                 st->command = 0;
    4089           4 :                 st->estatus = ESTATUS_NO_ERROR;
    4090           4 :                 st->state = CSTATE_START_COMMAND;
    4091           4 :                 break;
    4092             : 
    4093             :                 /*
    4094             :                  * Record a failed transaction.
    4095             :                  */
    4096           0 :             case CSTATE_FAILURE:
    4097           0 :                 command = sql_script[st->use_file].commands[st->command];
    4098             : 
    4099             :                 /* Accumulate the failure. */
    4100           0 :                 command->failures++;
    4101             : 
    4102             :                 /*
    4103             :                  * Inform that the failed transaction will not be retried.
    4104             :                  */
    4105           0 :                 if (verbose_errors)
    4106           0 :                     printVerboseErrorMessages(st, &now, false);
    4107             : 
    4108             :                 /* End the failed transaction. */
    4109           0 :                 st->state = CSTATE_END_TX;
    4110           0 :                 break;
    4111             : 
    4112             :                 /*
    4113             :                  * End of transaction (end of script, really).
    4114             :                  */
    4115        4778 :             case CSTATE_END_TX:
    4116             :                 {
    4117             :                     TStatus     tstatus;
    4118             : 
    4119             :                     /* transaction finished: calculate latency and do log */
    4120        4778 :                     processXactStats(thread, st, &now, false, agg);
    4121             : 
    4122             :                     /*
    4123             :                      * missing \endif... cannot happen if CheckConditional was
    4124             :                      * okay
    4125             :                      */
    4126             :                     Assert(conditional_stack_empty(st->cstack));
    4127             : 
    4128             :                     /*
    4129             :                      * We must complete all the transaction blocks that were
    4130             :                      * started in this script.
    4131             :                      */
    4132        4778 :                     tstatus = getTransactionStatus(st->con);
    4133        4778 :                     if (tstatus == TSTATUS_IN_BLOCK)
    4134             :                     {
    4135           2 :                         pg_log_error("client %d aborted: end of script reached without completing the last transaction",
    4136             :                                      st->id);
    4137           2 :                         st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4138           2 :                         break;
    4139             :                     }
    4140        4776 :                     else if (tstatus != TSTATUS_IDLE)
    4141             :                     {
    4142           0 :                         if (tstatus == TSTATUS_CONN_ERROR)
    4143           0 :                             pg_log_error("perhaps the backend died while processing");
    4144             : 
    4145           0 :                         pg_log_error("client %d aborted while receiving the transaction status", st->id);
    4146           0 :                         st->state = CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4147           0 :                         break;
    4148             :                     }
    4149             : 
    4150        4776 :                     if (is_connect)
    4151             :                     {
    4152         220 :                         pg_time_usec_t start = now;
    4153             : 
    4154         220 :                         pg_time_now_lazy(&start);
    4155         220 :                         finishCon(st);
    4156         220 :                         now = pg_time_now();
    4157         220 :                         thread->conn_duration += now - start;
    4158             :                     }
    4159             : 
    4160        4776 :                     if ((st->cnt >= nxacts && duration <= 0) || timer_exceeded)
    4161             :                     {
    4162             :                         /* script completed */
    4163         100 :                         st->state = CSTATE_FINISHED;
    4164         100 :                         break;
    4165             :                     }
    4166             : 
    4167             :                     /* next transaction (script) */
    4168        4676 :                     st->state = CSTATE_CHOOSE_SCRIPT;
    4169             : 
    4170             :                     /*
    4171             :                      * Ensure that we always return on this point, so as to
    4172             :                      * avoid an infinite loop if the script only contains meta
    4173             :                      * commands.
    4174             :                      */
    4175        4676 :                     return;
    4176             :                 }
    4177             : 
    4178             :                 /*
    4179             :                  * Final states.  Close the connection if it's still open.
    4180             :                  */
    4181         190 :             case CSTATE_ABORTED:
    4182             :             case CSTATE_FINISHED:
    4183             : 
    4184             :                 /*
    4185             :                  * Don't measure the disconnection delays here even if in
    4186             :                  * CSTATE_FINISHED and -C/--connect option is specified.
    4187             :                  * Because in this case all the connections that this thread
    4188             :                  * established are closed at the end of transactions and the
    4189             :                  * disconnection delays should have already been measured at
    4190             :                  * that moment.
    4191             :                  *
    4192             :                  * In CSTATE_ABORTED state, the measurement is no longer
    4193             :                  * necessary because we cannot report complete results anyways
    4194             :                  * in this case.
    4195             :                  */
    4196         190 :                 finishCon(st);
    4197         190 :                 return;
    4198             :         }
    4199       55386 :     }
    4200             : }
    4201             : 
    4202             : /*
    4203             :  * Subroutine for advanceConnectionState -- initiate or execute the current
    4204             :  * meta command, and return the next state to set.
    4205             :  *
    4206             :  * *now is updated to the current time, unless the command is expected to
    4207             :  * take no time to execute.
    4208             :  */
    4209             : static ConnectionStateEnum
    4210        4386 : executeMetaCommand(CState *st, pg_time_usec_t *now)
    4211             : {
    4212        4386 :     Command    *command = sql_script[st->use_file].commands[st->command];
    4213             :     int         argc;
    4214             :     char      **argv;
    4215             : 
    4216             :     Assert(command != NULL && command->type == META_COMMAND);
    4217             : 
    4218        4386 :     argc = command->argc;
    4219        4386 :     argv = command->argv;
    4220             : 
    4221        4386 :     if (unlikely(__pg_log_level <= PG_LOG_DEBUG))
    4222             :     {
    4223             :         PQExpBufferData buf;
    4224             : 
    4225        1406 :         initPQExpBuffer(&buf);
    4226             : 
    4227        1406 :         printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "client %d executing \\%s", st->id, argv[0]);
    4228        2812 :         for (int i = 1; i < argc; i++)
    4229        1406 :             appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, " %s", argv[i]);
    4230             : 
    4231        1406 :         pg_log_debug("%s", buf.data);
    4232             : 
    4233        1406 :         termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
    4234             :     }
    4235             : 
    4236        4386 :     if (command->meta == META_SLEEP)
    4237             :     {
    4238             :         int         usec;
    4239             : 
    4240             :         /*
    4241             :          * A \sleep doesn't execute anything, we just get the delay from the
    4242             :          * argument, and enter the CSTATE_SLEEP state.  (The per-command
    4243             :          * latency will be recorded in CSTATE_SLEEP state, not here, after the
    4244             :          * delay has elapsed.)
    4245             :          */
    4246          12 :         if (!evaluateSleep(&st->variables, argc, argv, &usec))
    4247             :         {
    4248           2 :             commandFailed(st, "sleep", "execution of meta-command failed");
    4249           2 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4250             :         }
    4251             : 
    4252          10 :         pg_time_now_lazy(now);
    4253          10 :         st->sleep_until = (*now) + usec;
    4254          10 :         return CSTATE_SLEEP;
    4255             :     }
    4256        4374 :     else if (command->meta == META_SET)
    4257             :     {
    4258        3422 :         PgBenchExpr *expr = command->expr;
    4259             :         PgBenchValue result;
    4260             : 
    4261        3422 :         if (!evaluateExpr(st, expr, &result))
    4262             :         {
    4263          44 :             commandFailed(st, argv[0], "evaluation of meta-command failed");
    4264          46 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4265             :         }
    4266             : 
    4267        3378 :         if (!putVariableValue(&st->variables, argv[0], argv[1], &result))
    4268             :         {
    4269           2 :             commandFailed(st, "set", "assignment of meta-command failed");
    4270           2 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4271             :         }
    4272             :     }
    4273         952 :     else if (command->meta == META_IF)
    4274             :     {
    4275             :         /* backslash commands with an expression to evaluate */
    4276         848 :         PgBenchExpr *expr = command->expr;
    4277             :         PgBenchValue result;
    4278             :         bool        cond;
    4279             : 
    4280         848 :         if (!evaluateExpr(st, expr, &result))
    4281             :         {
    4282           0 :             commandFailed(st, argv[0], "evaluation of meta-command failed");
    4283           0 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4284             :         }
    4285             : 
    4286         848 :         cond = valueTruth(&result);
    4287         848 :         conditional_stack_push(st->cstack, cond ? IFSTATE_TRUE : IFSTATE_FALSE);
    4288             :     }
    4289         104 :     else if (command->meta == META_ELIF)
    4290             :     {
    4291             :         /* backslash commands with an expression to evaluate */
    4292          10 :         PgBenchExpr *expr = command->expr;
    4293             :         PgBenchValue result;
    4294             :         bool        cond;
    4295             : 
    4296          10 :         if (conditional_stack_peek(st->cstack) == IFSTATE_TRUE)
    4297             :         {
    4298             :             /* elif after executed block, skip eval and wait for endif. */
    4299           4 :             conditional_stack_poke(st->cstack, IFSTATE_IGNORED);
    4300           4 :             return CSTATE_END_COMMAND;
    4301             :         }
    4302             : 
    4303           6 :         if (!evaluateExpr(st, expr, &result))
    4304             :         {
    4305           0 :             commandFailed(st, argv[0], "evaluation of meta-command failed");
    4306           0 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4307             :         }
    4308             : 
    4309           6 :         cond = valueTruth(&result);
    4310             :         Assert(conditional_stack_peek(st->cstack) == IFSTATE_FALSE);
    4311           6 :         conditional_stack_poke(st->cstack, cond ? IFSTATE_TRUE : IFSTATE_FALSE);
    4312             :     }
    4313          94 :     else if (command->meta == META_ELSE)
    4314             :     {
    4315           2 :         switch (conditional_stack_peek(st->cstack))
    4316             :         {
    4317           2 :             case IFSTATE_TRUE:
    4318           2 :                 conditional_stack_poke(st->cstack, IFSTATE_ELSE_FALSE);
    4319           2 :                 break;
    4320           2 :             case IFSTATE_FALSE: /* inconsistent if active */
    4321             :             case IFSTATE_IGNORED:   /* inconsistent if active */
    4322             :             case IFSTATE_NONE:  /* else without if */
    4323             :             case IFSTATE_ELSE_TRUE: /* else after else */
    4324             :             case IFSTATE_ELSE_FALSE:    /* else after else */
    4325             :             default:
    4326             :                 /* dead code if conditional check is ok */
    4327             :                 Assert(false);
    4328             :         }
    4329             :     }
    4330          92 :     else if (command->meta == META_ENDIF)
    4331             :     {
    4332             :         Assert(!conditional_stack_empty(st->cstack));
    4333          64 :         conditional_stack_pop(st->cstack);
    4334             :     }
    4335          28 :     else if (command->meta == META_SETSHELL)
    4336             :     {
    4337           6 :         if (!runShellCommand(&st->variables, argv[1], argv + 2, argc - 2))
    4338             :         {
    4339           4 :             commandFailed(st, "setshell", "execution of meta-command failed");
    4340           4 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4341             :         }
    4342             :     }
    4343          22 :     else if (command->meta == META_SHELL)
    4344             :     {
    4345           6 :         if (!runShellCommand(&st->variables, NULL, argv + 1, argc - 1))
    4346             :         {
    4347           4 :             commandFailed(st, "shell", "execution of meta-command failed");
    4348           4 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4349             :         }
    4350             :     }
    4351          16 :     else if (command->meta == META_STARTPIPELINE)
    4352             :     {
    4353             :         /*
    4354             :          * In pipeline mode, we use a workflow based on libpq pipeline
    4355             :          * functions.
    4356             :          */
    4357          10 :         if (querymode == QUERY_SIMPLE)
    4358             :         {
    4359           0 :             commandFailed(st, "startpipeline", "cannot use pipeline mode with the simple query protocol");
    4360           0 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4361             :         }
    4362             : 
    4363          10 :         if (PQpipelineStatus(st->con) != PQ_PIPELINE_OFF)
    4364             :         {
    4365           2 :             commandFailed(st, "startpipeline", "already in pipeline mode");
    4366           2 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4367             :         }
    4368           8 :         if (PQenterPipelineMode(st->con) == 0)
    4369             :         {
    4370           0 :             commandFailed(st, "startpipeline", "failed to enter pipeline mode");
    4371           0 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4372             :         }
    4373             :     }
    4374           6 :     else if (command->meta == META_ENDPIPELINE)
    4375             :     {
    4376           6 :         if (PQpipelineStatus(st->con) != PQ_PIPELINE_ON)
    4377             :         {
    4378           2 :             commandFailed(st, "endpipeline", "not in pipeline mode");
    4379           2 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4380             :         }
    4381           4 :         if (!PQpipelineSync(st->con))
    4382             :         {
    4383           0 :             commandFailed(st, "endpipeline", "failed to send a pipeline sync");
    4384           0 :             return CSTATE_ABORTED;
    4385             :         }
    4386             :         /* Now wait for the PGRES_PIPELINE_SYNC and exit pipeline mode there */
    4387             :         /* collect pending results before getting out of pipeline mode */
    4388           4 :         return CSTATE_WAIT_RESULT;
    4389             :     }
    4390             : 
    4391             :     /*
    4392             :      * executing the expression or shell command might have taken a
    4393             :      * non-negligible amount of time, so reset 'now'
    4394             :      */
    4395        4308 :     *now = 0;
    4396             : 
    4397        4308 :     return CSTATE_END_COMMAND;
    4398             : }
    4399             : 
    4400             : /*
    4401             :  * Return the number of failed transactions.
    4402             :  */
    4403             : static int64
    4404         152 : getFailures(const StatsData *stats)
    4405             : {
    4406         304 :     return (stats->serialization_failures +
    4407         152 :             stats->deadlock_failures);
    4408             : }
    4409             : 
    4410             : /*
    4411             :  * Return a string constant representing the result of a transaction
    4412             :  * that is not successfully processed.
    4413             :  */
    4414             : static const char *
    4415           0 : getResultString(bool skipped, EStatus estatus)
    4416             : {
    4417           0 :     if (skipped)
    4418           0 :         return "skipped";
    4419           0 :     else if (failures_detailed)
    4420             :     {
    4421           0 :         switch (estatus)
    4422             :         {
    4423           0 :             case ESTATUS_SERIALIZATION_ERROR:
    4424           0 :                 return "serialization";
    4425           0 :             case ESTATUS_DEADLOCK_ERROR:
    4426           0 :                 return "deadlock";
    4427           0 :             default:
    4428             :                 /* internal error which should never occur */
    4429           0 :                 pg_fatal("unexpected error status: %d", estatus);
    4430             :         }
    4431             :     }
    4432             :     else
    4433           0 :         return "failed";
    4434             : }
    4435             : 
    4436             : /*
    4437             :  * Print log entry after completing one transaction.
    4438             :  *
    4439             :  * We print Unix-epoch timestamps in the log, so that entries can be
    4440             :  * correlated against other logs.
    4441             :  *
    4442             :  * XXX We could obtain the time from the caller and just shift it here, to
    4443             :  * avoid the cost of an extra call to pg_time_now().
    4444             :  */
    4445             : static void
    4446         220 : doLog(TState *thread, CState *st,
    4447             :       StatsData *agg, bool skipped, double latency, double lag)
    4448             : {
    4449         220 :     FILE       *logfile = thread->logfile;
    4450         220 :     pg_time_usec_t now = pg_time_now() + epoch_shift;
    4451             : 
    4452             :     Assert(use_log);
    4453             : 
    4454             :     /*
    4455             :      * Skip the log entry if sampling is enabled and this row doesn't belong
    4456             :      * to the random sample.
    4457             :      */
    4458         220 :     if (sample_rate != 0.0 &&
    4459         200 :         pg_prng_double(&thread->ts_sample_rs) > sample_rate)
    4460         108 :         return;
    4461             : 
    4462             :     /* should we aggregate the results or not? */
    4463         112 :     if (agg_interval > 0)
    4464             :     {
    4465             :         pg_time_usec_t next;
    4466             : 
    4467             :         /*
    4468             :          * Loop until we reach the interval of the current moment, and print
    4469             :          * any empty intervals in between (this may happen with very low tps,
    4470             :          * e.g. --rate=0.1).
    4471             :          */
    4472             : 
    4473           0 :         while ((next = agg->start_time + agg_interval * INT64CONST(1000000)) <= now)
    4474             :         {
    4475           0 :             double      lag_sum = 0.0;
    4476           0 :             double      lag_sum2 = 0.0;
    4477           0 :             double      lag_min = 0.0;
    4478           0 :             double      lag_max = 0.0;
    4479           0 :             int64       skipped = 0;
    4480           0 :             int64       serialization_failures = 0;
    4481           0 :             int64       deadlock_failures = 0;
    4482           0 :             int64       retried = 0;
    4483           0 :             int64       retries = 0;
    4484             : 
    4485             :             /* print aggregated report to logfile */
    4486           0 :             fprintf(logfile, INT64_FORMAT " " INT64_FORMAT " %.0f %.0f %.0f %.0f",
    4487           0 :                     agg->start_time / 1000000,   /* seconds since Unix epoch */
    4488             :                     agg->cnt,
    4489             :                     agg->latency.sum,
    4490             :                     agg->latency.sum2,
    4491             :                     agg->latency.min,
    4492             :                     agg->latency.max);
    4493             : 
    4494           0 :             if (throttle_delay)
    4495             :             {
    4496           0 :                 lag_sum = agg->lag.sum;
    4497           0 :                 lag_sum2 = agg->lag.sum2;
    4498           0 :                 lag_min = agg->lag.min;
    4499           0 :                 lag_max = agg->lag.max;
    4500             :             }
    4501           0 :             fprintf(logfile, " %.0f %.0f %.0f %.0f",
    4502             :                     lag_sum,
    4503             :                     lag_sum2,
    4504             :                     lag_min,
    4505             :                     lag_max);
    4506             : 
    4507           0 :             if (latency_limit)
    4508           0 :                 skipped = agg->skipped;
    4509           0 :             fprintf(logfile, " " INT64_FORMAT, skipped);
    4510             : 
    4511           0 :             if (max_tries != 1)
    4512             :             {
    4513           0 :                 retried = agg->retried;
    4514           0 :                 retries = agg->retries;
    4515             :             }
    4516           0 :             fprintf(logfile, " " INT64_FORMAT " " INT64_FORMAT, retried, retries);
    4517             : 
    4518           0 :             if (failures_detailed)
    4519             :             {
    4520           0 :                 serialization_failures = agg->serialization_failures;
    4521           0 :                 deadlock_failures = agg->deadlock_failures;
    4522             :             }
    4523           0 :             fprintf(logfile, " " INT64_FORMAT " " INT64_FORMAT,
    4524             :                     serialization_failures,
    4525             :                     deadlock_failures);
    4526             : 
    4527           0 :             fputc('\n', logfile);
    4528             : 
    4529             :             /* reset data and move to next interval */
    4530           0 :             initStats(agg, next);
    4531             :         }
    4532             : 
    4533             :         /* accumulate the current transaction */
    4534           0 :         accumStats(agg, skipped, latency, lag, st->estatus, st->tries);
    4535             :     }
    4536             :     else
    4537             :     {
    4538             :         /* no, print raw transactions */
    4539         112 :         if (!skipped && st->estatus == ESTATUS_NO_ERROR)
    4540         112 :             fprintf(logfile, "%d " INT64_FORMAT " %.0f %d " INT64_FORMAT " "
    4541             :                     INT64_FORMAT,
    4542             :                     st->id, st->cnt, latency, st->use_file,
    4543             :                     now / 1000000, now % 1000000);
    4544             :         else
    4545           0 :             fprintf(logfile, "%d " INT64_FORMAT " %s %d " INT64_FORMAT " "
    4546             :                     INT64_FORMAT,
    4547             :                     st->id, st->cnt, getResultString(skipped, st->estatus),
    4548             :                     st->use_file, now / 1000000, now % 1000000);
    4549             : 
    4550         112 :         if (throttle_delay)
    4551           0 :             fprintf(logfile, " %.0f", lag);
    4552         112 :         if (max_tries != 1)
    4553           0 :             fprintf(logfile, " %u", st->tries - 1);
    4554         112 :         fputc('\n', logfile);
    4555             :     }
    4556             : }
    4557             : 
    4558             : /*
    4559             :  * Accumulate and report statistics at end of a transaction.
    4560             :  *
    4561             :  * (This is also called when a transaction is late and thus skipped.
    4562             :  * Note that even skipped and failed transactions are counted in the CState
    4563             :  * "cnt" field.)
    4564             :  */
    4565             : static void
    4566        4796 : processXactStats(TState *thread, CState *st, pg_time_usec_t *now,
    4567             :                  bool skipped, StatsData *agg)
    4568             : {
    4569        4796 :     double      latency = 0.0,
    4570        4796 :                 lag = 0.0;
    4571        4796 :     bool        detailed = progress || throttle_delay || latency_limit ||
    4572        9592 :     use_log || per_script_stats;
    4573             : 
    4574        4796 :     if (detailed && !skipped && st->estatus == ESTATUS_NO_ERROR)
    4575             :     {
    4576        2822 :         pg_time_now_lazy(now);
    4577             : 
    4578             :         /* compute latency & lag */
    4579        2822 :         latency = (*now) - st->txn_scheduled;
    4580        2822 :         lag = st->txn_begin - st->txn_scheduled;
    4581             :     }
    4582             : 
    4583             :     /* keep detailed thread stats */
    4584        4796 :     accumStats(&thread->stats, skipped, latency, lag, st->estatus, st->tries);
    4585             : 
    4586             :     /* count transactions over the latency limit, if needed */
    4587        4796 :     if (latency_limit && latency > latency_limit)
    4588           2 :         thread->latency_late++;
    4589             : 
    4590             :     /* client stat is just counting */
    4591        4796 :     st->cnt++;
    4592             : 
    4593        4796 :     if (use_log)
    4594         220 :         doLog(thread, st, agg, skipped, latency, lag);
    4595             : 
    4596             :     /* XXX could use a mutex here, but we choose not to */
    4597        4796 :     if (per_script_stats)
    4598        2200 :         accumStats(&sql_script[st->use_file].stats, skipped, latency, lag,
    4599        2200 :                    st->estatus, st->tries);
    4600        4796 : }
    4601             : 
    4602             : 
    4603             : /* discard connections */
    4604             : static void
    4605         268 : disconnect_all(CState *state, int length)
    4606             : {
    4607             :     int         i;
    4608             : 
    4609         648 :     for (i = 0; i < length; i++)
    4610         380 :         finishCon(&state[i]);
    4611         268 : }
    4612             : 
    4613             : /*
    4614             :  * Remove old pgbench tables, if any exist
    4615             :  */
    4616             : static void
    4617           6 : initDropTables(PGconn *con)
    4618             : {
    4619           6 :     fprintf(stderr, "dropping old tables...\n");
    4620             : 
    4621             :     /*
    4622             :      * We drop all the tables in one command, so that whether there are
    4623             :      * foreign key dependencies or not doesn't matter.
    4624             :      */
    4625           6 :     executeStatement(con, "drop table if exists "
    4626             :                      "pgbench_accounts, "
    4627             :                      "pgbench_branches, "
    4628             :                      "pgbench_history, "
    4629             :                      "pgbench_tellers");
    4630           6 : }
    4631             : 
    4632             : /*
    4633             :  * Create "pgbench_accounts" partitions if needed.
    4634             :  *
    4635             :  * This is the larger table of pgbench default tpc-b like schema
    4636             :  * with a known size, so we choose to partition it.
    4637             :  */
    4638             : static void
    4639           4 : createPartitions(PGconn *con)
    4640             : {
    4641             :     PQExpBufferData query;
    4642             : 
    4643             :     /* we must have to create some partitions */
    4644             :     Assert(partitions > 0);
    4645             : 
    4646           4 :     fprintf(stderr, "creating %d partitions...\n", partitions);
    4647             : 
    4648           4 :     initPQExpBuffer(&query);
    4649             : 
    4650          14 :     for (int p = 1; p <= partitions; p++)
    4651             :     {
    4652          10 :         if (partition_method == PART_RANGE)
    4653             :         {
    4654           6 :             int64       part_size = (naccounts * (int64) scale + partitions - 1) / partitions;
    4655             : 
    4656           6 :             printfPQExpBuffer(&query,
    4657             :                               "create%s table pgbench_accounts_%d\n"
    4658             :                               "  partition of pgbench_accounts\n"
    4659             :                               "  for values from (",
    4660           6 :                               unlogged_tables ? " unlogged" : "", p);
    4661             : 
    4662             :             /*
    4663             :              * For RANGE, we use open-ended partitions at the beginning and
    4664             :              * end to allow any valid value for the primary key.  Although the
    4665             :              * actual minimum and maximum values can be derived from the
    4666             :              * scale, it is more generic and the performance is better.
    4667             :              */
    4668           6 :             if (p == 1)
    4669           2 :                 appendPQExpBufferStr(&query, "minvalue");
    4670             :             else
    4671           4 :                 appendPQExpBuffer(&query, INT64_FORMAT, (p - 1) * part_size + 1);
    4672             : 
    4673           6 :             appendPQExpBufferStr(&query, ") to (");
    4674             : 
    4675           6 :             if (p < partitions)
    4676           4 :                 appendPQExpBuffer(&query, INT64_FORMAT, p * part_size + 1);
    4677             :             else
    4678           2 :                 appendPQExpBufferStr(&query, "maxvalue");
    4679             : 
    4680           6 :             appendPQExpBufferChar(&query, ')');
    4681             :         }
    4682           4 :         else if (partition_method == PART_HASH)
    4683           4 :             printfPQExpBuffer(&query,
    4684             :                               "create%s table pgbench_accounts_%d\n"
    4685             :                               "  partition of pgbench_accounts\n"
    4686             :                               "  for values with (modulus %d, remainder %d)",
    4687           4 :                               unlogged_tables ? " unlogged" : "", p,
    4688             :                               partitions, p - 1);
    4689             :         else                    /* cannot get there */
    4690             :             Assert(0);
    4691             : 
    4692             :         /*
    4693             :          * Per ddlinfo in initCreateTables, fillfactor is needed on table
    4694             :          * pgbench_accounts.
    4695             :          */
    4696          10 :         appendPQExpBuffer(&query, " with (fillfactor=%d)", fillfactor);
    4697             : 
    4698          10 :         executeStatement(con, query.data);
    4699             :     }
    4700             : 
    4701           4 :     termPQExpBuffer(&query);
    4702           4 : }
    4703             : 
    4704             : /*
    4705             :  * Create pgbench's standard tables
    4706             :  */
    4707             : static void
    4708           6 : initCreateTables(PGconn *con)
    4709             : {
    4710             :     /*
    4711             :      * Note: TPC-B requires at least 100 bytes per row, and the "filler"
    4712             :      * fields in these table declarations were intended to comply with that.
    4713             :      * The pgbench_accounts table complies with that because the "filler"
    4714             :      * column is set to blank-padded empty string. But for all other tables
    4715             :      * the columns default to NULL and so don't actually take any space.  We
    4716             :      * could fix that by giving them non-null default values.  However, that
    4717             :      * would completely break comparability of pgbench results with prior
    4718             :      * versions. Since pgbench has never pretended to be fully TPC-B compliant
    4719             :      * anyway, we stick with the historical behavior.
    4720             :      */
    4721             :     struct ddlinfo
    4722             :     {
    4723             :         const char *table;      /* table name */
    4724             :         const char *smcols;     /* column decls if accountIDs are 32 bits */
    4725             :         const char *bigcols;    /* column decls if accountIDs are 64 bits */
    4726             :         int         declare_fillfactor;
    4727             :     };
    4728             :     static const struct ddlinfo DDLs[] = {
    4729             :         {
    4730             :             "pgbench_history",
    4731             :             "tid int,bid int,aid    int,delta int,mtime timestamp,filler char(22)",
    4732             :             "tid int,bid int,aid bigint,delta int,mtime timestamp,filler char(22)",
    4733             :             0
    4734             :         },
    4735             :         {
    4736             :             "pgbench_tellers",
    4737             :             "tid int not null,bid int,tbalance int,filler char(84)",
    4738             :             "tid int not null,bid int,tbalance int,filler char(84)",
    4739             :             1
    4740             :         },
    4741             :         {
    4742             :             "pgbench_accounts",
    4743             :             "aid    int not null,bid int,abalance int,filler char(84)",
    4744             :             "aid bigint not null,bid int,abalance int,filler char(84)",
    4745             :             1
    4746             :         },
    4747             :         {
    4748             :             "pgbench_branches",
    4749             :             "bid int not null,bbalance int,filler char(88)",
    4750             :             "bid int not null,bbalance int,filler char(88)",
    4751             :             1
    4752             :         }
    4753             :     };
    4754             :     int         i;
    4755             :     PQExpBufferData query;
    4756             : 
    4757           6 :     fprintf(stderr, "creating tables...\n");
    4758             : 
    4759           6 :     initPQExpBuffer(&query);
    4760             : 
    4761          30 :     for (i = 0; i < lengthof(DDLs); i++)
    4762             :     {
    4763          24 :         const struct ddlinfo *ddl = &DDLs[i];
    4764             : 
    4765             :         /* Construct new create table statement. */
    4766          48 :         printfPQExpBuffer(&query, "create%s table %s(%s)",
    4767          24 :                           unlogged_tables ? " unlogged" : "",
    4768             :                           ddl->table,
    4769          24 :                           (scale >= SCALE_32BIT_THRESHOLD) ? ddl->bigcols : ddl->smcols);
    4770             : 
    4771             :         /* Partition pgbench_accounts table */
    4772          24 :         if (partition_method != PART_NONE && strcmp(ddl->table, "pgbench_accounts") == 0)
    4773           4 :             appendPQExpBuffer(&query,
    4774             :                               " partition by %s (aid)", PARTITION_METHOD[partition_method]);
    4775          20 :         else if (ddl->declare_fillfactor)
    4776             :         {
    4777             :             /* fillfactor is only expected on actual tables */
    4778          14 :             appendPQExpBuffer(&query, " with (fillfactor=%d)", fillfactor);
    4779             :         }
    4780             : 
    4781          24 :         if (tablespace != NULL)
    4782             :         {
    4783             :             char       *escape_tablespace;
    4784             : 
    4785           8 :             escape_tablespace = PQescapeIdentifier(con, tablespace, strlen(tablespace));
    4786           8 :             appendPQExpBuffer(&query, " tablespace %s", escape_tablespace);
    4787           8 :             PQfreemem(escape_tablespace);
    4788             :         }
    4789             : 
    4790          24 :         executeStatement(con, query.data);
    4791             :     }
    4792             : 
    4793           6 :     termPQExpBuffer(&query);
    4794             : 
    4795           6 :     if (partition_method != PART_NONE)
    4796           4 :         createPartitions(con);
    4797           6 : }
    4798             : 
    4799             : /*
    4800             :  * Truncate away any old data, in one command in case there are foreign keys
    4801             :  */
    4802             : static void
    4803           6 : initTruncateTables(PGconn *con)
    4804             : {
    4805           6 :     executeStatement(con, "truncate table "
    4806             :                      "pgbench_accounts, "
    4807             :                      "pgbench_branches, "
    4808             :                      "pgbench_history, "
    4809             :                      "pgbench_tellers");
    4810           6 : }
    4811             : 
    4812             : /*
    4813             :  * Fill the standard tables with some data generated and sent from the client
    4814             :  */
    4815             : static void
    4816           4 : initGenerateDataClientSide(PGconn *con)
    4817             : {
    4818             :     PQExpBufferData sql;
    4819             :     PGresult   *res;
    4820             :     int         i;
    4821             :     int64       k;
    4822             :     char       *copy_statement;
    4823             : 
    4824             :     /* used to track elapsed time and estimate of the remaining time */
    4825             :     pg_time_usec_t start;
    4826           4 :     int         log_interval = 1;
    4827             : 
    4828             :     /* Stay on the same line if reporting to a terminal */
    4829           4 :     char        eol = isatty(fileno(stderr)) ? '\r' : '\n';
    4830             : 
    4831           4 :     fprintf(stderr, "generating data (client-side)...\n");
    4832             : 
    4833             :     /*
    4834             :      * we do all of this in one transaction to enable the backend's
    4835             :      * data-loading optimizations
    4836             :      */
    4837           4 :     executeStatement(con, "begin");
    4838             : 
    4839             :     /* truncate away any old data */
    4840           4 :     initTruncateTables(con);
    4841             : 
    4842           4 :     initPQExpBuffer(&sql);
    4843             : 
    4844             :     /*
    4845             :      * fill branches, tellers, accounts in that order in case foreign keys
    4846             :      * already exist
    4847             :      */
    4848           8 :     for (i = 0; i < nbranches * scale; i++)
    4849             :     {
    4850             :         /* "filler" column defaults to NULL */
    4851           4 :         printfPQExpBuffer(&sql,
    4852             :                           "insert into pgbench_branches(bid,bbalance) values(%d,0)",
    4853             :                           i + 1);
    4854           4 :         executeStatement(con, sql.data);
    4855             :     }
    4856             : 
    4857          44 :     for (i = 0; i < ntellers * scale; i++)
    4858             :     {
    4859             :         /* "filler" column defaults to NULL */
    4860          40 :         printfPQExpBuffer(&sql,
    4861             :                           "insert into pgbench_tellers(tid,bid,tbalance) values (%d,%d,0)",
    4862          40 :                           i + 1, i / ntellers + 1);
    4863          40 :         executeStatement(con, sql.data);
    4864             :     }
    4865             : 
    4866             :     /*
    4867             :      * accounts is big enough to be worth using COPY and tracking runtime
    4868             :      */
    4869             : 
    4870             :     /* use COPY with FREEZE on v14 and later without partitioning */
    4871           4 :     if (partitions == 0 && PQserverVersion(con) >= 140000)
    4872           2 :         copy_statement = "copy pgbench_accounts from stdin with (freeze on)";
    4873             :     else
    4874           2 :         copy_statement = "copy pgbench_accounts from stdin";
    4875             : 
    4876           4 :     res = PQexec(con, copy_statement);
    4877             : 
    4878           4 :     if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COPY_IN)
    4879           0 :         pg_fatal("unexpected copy in result: %s", PQerrorMessage(con));
    4880           4 :     PQclear(res);
    4881             : 
    4882           4 :     start = pg_time_now();
    4883             : 
    4884      400004 :     for (k = 0; k < (int64) naccounts * scale; k++)
    4885             :     {
    4886      400000 :         int64       j = k + 1;
    4887             : 
    4888             :         /* "filler" column defaults to blank padded empty string */
    4889      400000 :         printfPQExpBuffer(&sql,
    4890             :                           INT64_FORMAT "\t" INT64_FORMAT "\t%d\t\n",
    4891      400000 :                           j, k / naccounts + 1, 0);
    4892      400000 :         if (PQputline(con, sql.data))
    4893           0 :             pg_fatal("PQputline failed");
    4894             : 
    4895      400000 :         if (CancelRequested)
    4896           0 :             break;
    4897             : 
    4898             :         /*
    4899             :          * If we want to stick with the original logging, print a message each
    4900             :          * 100k inserted rows.
    4901             :          */
    4902      400000 :         if ((!use_quiet) && (j % 100000 == 0))
    4903           2 :         {
    4904           2 :             double      elapsed_sec = PG_TIME_GET_DOUBLE(pg_time_now() - start);
    4905           2 :             double      remaining_sec = ((double) scale * naccounts - j) * elapsed_sec / j;
    4906             : 
    4907           2 :             fprintf(stderr, INT64_FORMAT " of " INT64_FORMAT " tuples (%d%%) done (elapsed %.2f s, remaining %.2f s)%c",
    4908             :                     j, (int64) naccounts * scale,
    4909           2 :                     (int) (((int64) j * 100) / (naccounts * (int64) scale)),
    4910             :                     elapsed_sec, remaining_sec, eol);
    4911             :         }
    4912             :         /* let's not call the timing for each row, but only each 100 rows */
    4913      399998 :         else if (use_quiet && (j % 100 == 0))
    4914             :         {
    4915        2000 :             double      elapsed_sec = PG_TIME_GET_DOUBLE(pg_time_now() - start);
    4916        2000 :             double      remaining_sec = ((double) scale * naccounts - j) * elapsed_sec / j;
    4917             : 
    4918             :             /* have we reached the next interval (or end)? */
    4919        2000 :             if ((j == scale * naccounts) || (elapsed_sec >= log_interval * LOG_STEP_SECONDS))
    4920             :             {
    4921           2 :                 fprintf(stderr, INT64_FORMAT " of " INT64_FORMAT " tuples (%d%%) done (elapsed %.2f s, remaining %.2f s)%c",
    4922             :                         j, (int64) naccounts * scale,
    4923           2 :                         (int) (((int64) j * 100) / (naccounts * (int64) scale)), elapsed_sec, remaining_sec, eol);
    4924             : 
    4925             :                 /* skip to the next interval */
    4926           2 :                 log_interval = (int) ceil(elapsed_sec / LOG_STEP_SECONDS);
    4927             :             }
    4928             :         }
    4929             :     }
    4930             : 
    4931           4 :     if (eol != '\n')
    4932           0 :         fputc('\n', stderr);    /* Need to move to next line */
    4933             : 
    4934           4 :     if (PQputline(con, "\\.\n"))
    4935           0 :         pg_fatal("very last PQputline failed");
    4936           4 :     if (PQendcopy(con))
    4937           0 :         pg_fatal("PQendcopy failed");
    4938             : 
    4939           4 :     termPQExpBuffer(&sql);
    4940             : 
    4941           4 :     executeStatement(con, "commit");
    4942           4 : }
    4943             : 
    4944             : /*
    4945             :  * Fill the standard tables with some data generated on the server
    4946             :  *
    4947             :  * As already the case with the client-side data generation, the filler
    4948             :  * column defaults to NULL in pgbench_branches and pgbench_tellers,
    4949             :  * and is a blank-padded string in pgbench_accounts.
    4950             :  */
    4951             : static void
    4952           2 : initGenerateDataServerSide(PGconn *con)
    4953             : {
    4954             :     PQExpBufferData sql;
    4955             : 
    4956           2 :     fprintf(stderr, "generating data (server-side)...\n");
    4957             : 
    4958             :     /*
    4959             :      * we do all of this in one transaction to enable the backend's
    4960             :      * data-loading optimizations
    4961             :      */
    4962           2 :     executeStatement(con, "begin");
    4963             : 
    4964             :     /* truncate away any old data */
    4965           2 :     initTruncateTables(con);
    4966             : 
    4967           2 :     initPQExpBuffer(&sql);
    4968             : 
    4969           2 :     printfPQExpBuffer(&sql,
    4970             :                       "insert into pgbench_branches(bid,bbalance) "
    4971             :                       "select bid, 0 "
    4972             :                       "from generate_series(1, %d) as bid", nbranches * scale);
    4973           2 :     executeStatement(con, sql.data);
    4974             : 
    4975           2 :     printfPQExpBuffer(&sql,
    4976             :                       "insert into pgbench_tellers(tid,bid,tbalance) "
    4977             :                       "select tid, (tid - 1) / %d + 1, 0 "
    4978             :                       "from generate_series(1, %d) as tid", ntellers, ntellers * scale);
    4979           2 :     executeStatement(con, sql.data);
    4980             : 
    4981           2 :     printfPQExpBuffer(&sql,
    4982             :                       "insert into pgbench_accounts(aid,bid,abalance,filler) "
    4983             :                       "select aid, (aid - 1) / %d + 1, 0, '' "
    4984             :                       "from generate_series(1, " INT64_FORMAT ") as aid",
    4985             :                       naccounts, (int64) naccounts * scale);
    4986           2 :     executeStatement(con, sql.data);
    4987             : 
    4988           2 :     termPQExpBuffer(&sql);
    4989             : 
    4990           2 :     executeStatement(con, "commit");
    4991           2 : }
    4992             : 
    4993             : /*
    4994             :  * Invoke vacuum on the standard tables
    4995             :  */
    4996             : static void
    4997           4 : initVacuum(PGconn *con)
    4998             : {
    4999           4 :     fprintf(stderr, "vacuuming...\n");
    5000           4 :     executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_branches");
    5001           4 :     executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_tellers");
    5002           4 :     executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_accounts");
    5003           4 :     executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_history");
    5004           4 : }
    5005             : 
    5006             : /*
    5007             :  * Create primary keys on the standard tables
    5008             :  */
    5009             : static void
    5010           6 : initCreatePKeys(PGconn *con)
    5011             : {
    5012             :     static const char *const DDLINDEXes[] = {
    5013             :         "alter table pgbench_branches add primary key (bid)",
    5014             :         "alter table pgbench_tellers add primary key (tid)",
    5015             :         "alter table pgbench_accounts add primary key (aid)"
    5016             :     };
    5017             :     int         i;
    5018             :     PQExpBufferData query;
    5019             : 
    5020           6 :     fprintf(stderr, "creating primary keys...\n");
    5021           6 :     initPQExpBuffer(&query);
    5022             : 
    5023          24 :     for (i = 0; i < lengthof(DDLINDEXes); i++)
    5024             :     {
    5025          18 :         resetPQExpBuffer(&query);
    5026          18 :         appendPQExpBufferStr(&query, DDLINDEXes[i]);
    5027             : 
    5028          18 :         if (index_tablespace != NULL)
    5029             :         {
    5030             :             char       *escape_tablespace;
    5031             : 
    5032           6 :             escape_tablespace = PQescapeIdentifier(con, index_tablespace,
    5033             :                                                    strlen(index_tablespace));
    5034           6 :             appendPQExpBuffer(&query, " using index tablespace %s", escape_tablespace);
    5035           6 :             PQfreemem(escape_tablespace);
    5036             :         }
    5037             : 
    5038          18 :         executeStatement(con, query.data);
    5039             :     }
    5040             : 
    5041           6 :     termPQExpBuffer(&query);
    5042           6 : }
    5043             : 
    5044             : /*
    5045             :  * Create foreign key constraints between the standard tables
    5046             :  */
    5047             : static void
    5048           4 : initCreateFKeys(PGconn *con)
    5049             : {
    5050             :     static const char *const DDLKEYs[] = {
    5051             :         "alter table pgbench_tellers add constraint pgbench_tellers_bid_fkey foreign key (bid) references pgbench_branches",
    5052             :         "alter table pgbench_accounts add constraint pgbench_accounts_bid_fkey foreign key (bid) references pgbench_branches",
    5053             :         "alter table pgbench_history add constraint pgbench_history_bid_fkey foreign key (bid) references pgbench_branches",
    5054             :         "alter table pgbench_history add constraint pgbench_history_tid_fkey foreign key (tid) references pgbench_tellers",
    5055             :         "alter table pgbench_history add constraint pgbench_history_aid_fkey foreign key (aid) references pgbench_accounts"
    5056             :     };
    5057             :     int         i;
    5058             : 
    5059           4 :     fprintf(stderr, "creating foreign keys...\n");
    5060          24 :     for (i = 0; i < lengthof(DDLKEYs); i++)
    5061             :     {
    5062          20 :         executeStatement(con, DDLKEYs[i]);
    5063             :     }
    5064           4 : }
    5065             : 
    5066             : /*
    5067             :  * Validate an initialization-steps string
    5068             :  *
    5069             :  * (We could just leave it to runInitSteps() to fail if there are wrong
    5070             :  * characters, but since initialization can take awhile, it seems friendlier
    5071             :  * to check during option parsing.)
    5072             :  */
    5073             : static void
    5074           8 : checkInitSteps(const char *initialize_steps)
    5075             : {
    5076           8 :     if (initialize_steps[0] == '\0')
    5077           0 :         pg_fatal("no initialization steps specified");
    5078             : 
    5079          42 :     for (const char *step = initialize_steps; *step != '\0'; step++)
    5080             :     {
    5081          36 :         if (strchr(ALL_INIT_STEPS " ", *step) == NULL)
    5082             :         {
    5083           2 :             pg_log_error("unrecognized initialization step \"%c\"", *step);
    5084           2 :             pg_log_error_detail("Allowed step characters are: \"" ALL_INIT_STEPS "\".");
    5085           2 :             exit(1);
    5086             :         }
    5087             :     }
    5088           6 : }
    5089             : 
    5090             : /*
    5091             :  * Invoke each initialization step in the given string
    5092             :  */
    5093             : static void
    5094           6 : runInitSteps(const char *initialize_steps)
    5095             : {
    5096             :     PQExpBufferData stats;
    5097             :     PGconn     *con;
    5098             :     const char *step;
    5099           6 :     double      run_time = 0.0;
    5100           6 :     bool        first = true;
    5101             : 
    5102           6 :     initPQExpBuffer(&stats);
    5103             : 
    5104           6 :     if ((con = doConnect()) == NULL)
    5105           0 :         pg_fatal("could not create connection for initialization");
    5106             : 
    5107           6 :     setup_cancel_handler(NULL);
    5108           6 :     SetCancelConn(con);
    5109             : 
    5110          44 :     for (step = initialize_steps; *step != '\0'; step++)
    5111             :     {
    5112          38 :         char       *op = NULL;
    5113          38 :         pg_time_usec_t start = pg_time_now();
    5114             : 
    5115          38 :         switch (*step)
    5116             :         {
    5117           6 :             case 'd':
    5118           6 :                 op = "drop tables";
    5119           6 :                 initDropTables(con);
    5120           6 :                 break;
    5121           6 :             case 't':
    5122           6 :                 op = "create tables";
    5123           6 :                 initCreateTables(con);
    5124           6 :                 break;
    5125           4 :             case 'g':
    5126           4 :                 op = "client-side generate";
    5127           4 :                 initGenerateDataClientSide(con);
    5128           4 :                 break;
    5129           2 :             case 'G':
    5130           2 :                 op = "server-side generate";
    5131           2 :                 initGenerateDataServerSide(con);
    5132           2 :                 break;
    5133           4 :             case 'v':
    5134           4 :                 op = "vacuum";
    5135           4 :                 initVacuum(con);
    5136           4 :                 break;
    5137           6 :             case 'p':
    5138           6 :                 op = "primary keys";
    5139           6 :                 initCreatePKeys(con);
    5140           6 :                 break;
    5141           4 :             case 'f':
    5142           4 :                 op = "foreign keys";
    5143           4 :                 initCreateFKeys(con);
    5144           4 :                 break;
    5145           6 :             case ' ':
    5146           6 :                 break;          /* ignore */
    5147           0 :             default:
    5148           0 :                 pg_log_error("unrecognized initialization step \"%c\"", *step);
    5149           0 :                 PQfinish(con);
    5150           0 :                 exit(1);
    5151             :         }
    5152             : 
    5153          38 :         if (op != NULL)
    5154             :         {
    5155          32 :             double      elapsed_sec = PG_TIME_GET_DOUBLE(pg_time_now() - start);
    5156             : 
    5157          32 :             if (!first)
    5158          26 :                 appendPQExpBufferStr(&stats, ", ");
    5159             :             else
    5160           6 :                 first = false;
    5161             : 
    5162          32 :             appendPQExpBuffer(&stats, "%s %.2f s", op, elapsed_sec);
    5163             : 
    5164          32 :             run_time += elapsed_sec;
    5165             :         }
    5166             :     }
    5167             : 
    5168           6 :     fprintf(stderr, "done in %.2f s (%s).\n", run_time, stats.data);
    5169           6 :     ResetCancelConn();
    5170           6 :     PQfinish(con);
    5171           6 :     termPQExpBuffer(&stats);
    5172           6 : }
    5173             : 
    5174             : /*
    5175             :  * Extract pgbench table information into global variables scale,
    5176             :  * partition_method and partitions.
    5177             :  */
    5178             : static void
    5179          14 : GetTableInfo(PGconn *con, bool scale_given)
    5180             : {
    5181             :     PGresult   *res;
    5182             : 
    5183             :     /*
    5184             :      * get the scaling factor that should be same as count(*) from
    5185             :      * pgbench_branches if this is not a custom query
    5186             :      */
    5187          14 :     res = PQexec(con, "select count(*) from pgbench_branches");
    5188          14 :     if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK)
    5189             :     {
    5190           2 :         char       *sqlState = PQresultErrorField(res, PG_DIAG_SQLSTATE);
    5191             : 
    5192           2 :         pg_log_error("could not count number of branches: %s", PQerrorMessage(con));
    5193             : 
    5194           2 :         if (sqlState && strcmp(sqlState, ERRCODE_UNDEFINED_TABLE) == 0)
    5195           2 :             pg_log_error_hint("Perhaps you need to do initialization (\"pgbench -i\") in database \"%s\".",
    5196             :                               PQdb(con));
    5197             : 
    5198           2 :         exit(1);
    5199             :     }
    5200          12 :     scale = atoi(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0));
    5201          12 :     if (scale < 0)
    5202           0 :         pg_fatal("invalid count(*) from pgbench_branches: \"%s\"",
    5203             :                  PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0));
    5204          12 :     PQclear(res);
    5205             : 
    5206             :     /* warn if we override user-given -s switch */
    5207          12 :     if (scale_given)
    5208           2 :         pg_log_warning("scale option ignored, using count from pgbench_branches table (%d)",
    5209             :                        scale);
    5210             : 
    5211             :     /*
    5212             :      * Get the partition information for the first "pgbench_accounts" table
    5213             :      * found in search_path.
    5214             :      *
    5215             :      * The result is empty if no "pgbench_accounts" is found.
    5216             :      *
    5217             :      * Otherwise, it always returns one row even if the table is not
    5218             :      * partitioned (in which case the partition strategy is NULL).
    5219             :      *
    5220             :      * The number of partitions can be 0 even for partitioned tables, if no
    5221             :      * partition is attached.
    5222             :      *
    5223             :      * We assume no partitioning on any failure, so as to avoid failing on an
    5224             :      * old version without "pg_partitioned_table".
    5225             :      */
    5226          12 :     res = PQexec(con,
    5227             :                  "select o.n, p.partstrat, pg_catalog.count(i.inhparent) "
    5228             :                  "from pg_catalog.pg_class as c "
    5229             :                  "join pg_catalog.pg_namespace as n on (n.oid = c.relnamespace) "
    5230             :                  "cross join lateral (select pg_catalog.array_position(pg_catalog.current_schemas(true), n.nspname)) as o(n) "
    5231             :                  "left join pg_catalog.pg_partitioned_table as p on (p.partrelid = c.oid) "
    5232             :                  "left join pg_catalog.pg_inherits as i on (c.oid = i.inhparent) "
    5233             :                  "where c.relname = 'pgbench_accounts' and o.n is not null "
    5234             :                  "group by 1, 2 "
    5235             :                  "order by 1 asc "
    5236             :                  "limit 1");
    5237             : 
    5238          12 :     if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK)
    5239             :     {
    5240             :         /* probably an older version, coldly assume no partitioning */
    5241           0 :         partition_method = PART_NONE;
    5242           0 :         partitions = 0;
    5243             :     }
    5244          12 :     else if (PQntuples(res) == 0)
    5245             :     {
    5246             :         /*
    5247             :          * This case is unlikely as pgbench already found "pgbench_branches"
    5248             :          * above to compute the scale.
    5249             :          */
    5250           0 :         pg_log_error("no pgbench_accounts table found in search_path");
    5251           0 :         pg_log_error_hint("Perhaps you need to do initialization (\"pgbench -i\") in database \"%s\".", PQdb(con));
    5252           0 :         exit(1);
    5253             :     }
    5254             :     else                        /* PQntupes(res) == 1 */
    5255             :     {
    5256             :         /* normal case, extract partition information */
    5257          12 :         if (PQgetisnull(res, 0, 1))
    5258           0 :             partition_method = PART_NONE;
    5259             :         else
    5260             :         {
    5261          12 :             char       *ps = PQgetvalue(res, 0, 1);
    5262             : 
    5263             :             /* column must be there */
    5264             :             Assert(ps != NULL);
    5265             : 
    5266          12 :             if (strcmp(ps, "r") == 0)
    5267          12 :                 partition_method = PART_RANGE;
    5268           0 :             else if (strcmp(ps, "h") == 0)
    5269           0 :                 partition_method = PART_HASH;
    5270             :             else
    5271             :             {
    5272             :                 /* possibly a newer version with new partition method */
    5273           0 :                 pg_fatal("unexpected partition method: \"%s\"", ps);
    5274             :             }
    5275             :         }
    5276             : 
    5277          12 :         partitions = atoi(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 2));
    5278             :     }
    5279             : 
    5280          12 :     PQclear(res);
    5281          12 : }
    5282             : 
    5283             : /*
    5284             :  * Replace :param with $n throughout the command's SQL text, which
    5285             :  * is a modifiable string in cmd->lines.
    5286             :  */
    5287             : static bool
    5288         114 : parseQuery(Command *cmd)
    5289             : {
    5290             :     char       *sql,
    5291             :                *p;
    5292             : 
    5293         114 :     cmd->argc = 1;
    5294             : 
    5295         114 :     p = sql = pg_strdup(cmd->lines.data);
    5296         706 :     while ((p = strchr(p, ':')) != NULL)
    5297             :     {
    5298             :         char        var[13];
    5299             :         char       *name;
    5300             :         int         eaten;
    5301             : 
    5302         594 :         name = parseVariable(p, &eaten);
    5303         594 :         if (name == NULL)
    5304             :         {
    5305          96 :             while (*p == ':')
    5306             :             {
    5307          64 :                 p++;
    5308             :             }
    5309          32 :             continue;
    5310             :         }
    5311             : 
    5312             :         /*
    5313             :          * cmd->argv[0] is the SQL statement itself, so the max number of
    5314             :          * arguments is one less than MAX_ARGS
    5315             :          */
    5316         562 :         if (cmd->argc >= MAX_ARGS)
    5317             :         {
    5318           2 :             pg_log_error("statement has too many arguments (maximum is %d): %s",
    5319             :                          MAX_ARGS - 1, cmd->lines.data);
    5320           2 :             pg_free(name);
    5321           2 :             return false;
    5322             :         }
    5323             : 
    5324         560 :         sprintf(var, "$%d", cmd->argc);
    5325         560 :         p = replaceVariable(&sql, p, eaten, var);
    5326             : 
    5327         560 :         cmd->argv[cmd->argc] = name;
    5328         560 :         cmd->argc++;
    5329             :     }
    5330             : 
    5331             :     Assert(cmd->argv[0] == NULL);
    5332         112 :     cmd->argv[0] = sql;
    5333         112 :     return true;
    5334             : }
    5335             : 
    5336             : /*
    5337             :  * syntax error while parsing a script (in practice, while parsing a
    5338             :  * backslash command, because we don't detect syntax errors in SQL)
    5339             :  *
    5340             :  * source: source of script (filename or builtin-script ID)
    5341             :  * lineno: line number within script (count from 1)
    5342             :  * line: whole line of backslash command, if available
    5343             :  * command: backslash command name, if available
    5344             :  * msg: the actual error message
    5345             :  * more: optional extra message
    5346             :  * column: zero-based column number, or -1 if unknown
    5347             :  */
    5348             : void
    5349          66 : syntax_error(const char *source, int lineno,
    5350             :              const char *line, const char *command,
    5351             :              const char *msg, const char *more, int column)
    5352             : {
    5353             :     PQExpBufferData buf;
    5354             : 
    5355          66 :     initPQExpBuffer(&buf);
    5356             : 
    5357          66 :     printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "%s:%d: %s", source, lineno, msg);
    5358          66 :     if (more != NULL)
    5359          30 :         appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, " (%s)", more);
    5360          66 :     if (column >= 0 && line == NULL)
    5361           0 :         appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, " at column %d", column + 1);
    5362          66 :     if (command != NULL)
    5363          60 :         appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, " in command \"%s\"", command);
    5364             : 
    5365          66 :     pg_log_error("%s", buf.data);
    5366             : 
    5367          66 :     termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
    5368             : 
    5369          66 :     if (line != NULL)
    5370             :     {
    5371          56 :         fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", line);
    5372          56 :         if (column >= 0)
    5373          42 :             fprintf(stderr, "%*c error found here\n", column + 1, '^');
    5374             :     }
    5375             : 
    5376          66 :     exit(1);
    5377             : }
    5378             : 
    5379             : /*
    5380             :  * Return a pointer to the start of the SQL command, after skipping over
    5381             :  * whitespace and "--" comments.
    5382             :  * If the end of the string is reached, return NULL.
    5383             :  */
    5384             : static char *
    5385        2040 : skip_sql_comments(char *sql_command)
    5386             : {
    5387        2040 :     char       *p = sql_command;
    5388             : 
    5389             :     /* Skip any leading whitespace, as well as "--" style comments */
    5390             :     for (;;)
    5391             :     {
    5392        2040 :         if (isspace((unsigned char) *p))
    5393           0 :             p++;
    5394        2040 :         else if (strncmp(p, "--", 2) == 0)
    5395             :         {
    5396           0 :             p = strchr(p, '\n');
    5397           0 :             if (p == NULL)
    5398           0 :                 return NULL;
    5399           0 :             p++;
    5400             :         }
    5401             :         else
    5402        2040 :             break;
    5403             :     }
    5404             : 
    5405             :     /* NULL if there's nothing but whitespace and comments */
    5406        2040 :     if (*p == '\0')
    5407        1326 :         return NULL;
    5408             : 
    5409         714 :     return p;
    5410             : }
    5411             : 
    5412             : /*
    5413             :  * Parse a SQL command; return a Command struct, or NULL if it's a comment
    5414             :  *
    5415             :  * On entry, psqlscan.l has collected the command into "buf", so we don't
    5416             :  * really need to do much here except check for comments and set up a Command
    5417             :  * struct.
    5418             :  */
    5419             : static Command *
    5420        2040 : create_sql_command(PQExpBuffer buf, const char *source)
    5421             : {
    5422             :     Command    *my_command;
    5423        2040 :     char       *p = skip_sql_comments(buf->data);
    5424             : 
    5425        2040 :     if (p == NULL)
    5426        1326 :         return NULL;
    5427             : 
    5428             :     /* Allocate and initialize Command structure */
    5429         714 :     my_command = (Command *) pg_malloc(sizeof(Command));
    5430         714 :     initPQExpBuffer(&my_command->lines);
    5431         714 :     appendPQExpBufferStr(&my_command->lines, p);
    5432         714 :     my_command->first_line = NULL;   /* this is set later */
    5433         714 :     my_command->type = SQL_COMMAND;
    5434         714 :     my_command->meta = META_NONE;
    5435         714 :     my_command->argc = 0;
    5436         714 :     my_command->retries = 0;
    5437         714 :     my_command->failures = 0;
    5438         714 :     memset(my_command->argv, 0, sizeof(my_command->argv));
    5439         714 :     my_command->varprefix = NULL;    /* allocated later, if needed */
    5440         714 :     my_command->expr = NULL;
    5441         714 :     initSimpleStats(&my_command->stats);
    5442             : 
    5443         714 :     return my_command;
    5444             : }
    5445             : 
    5446             : /* Free a Command structure and associated data */
    5447             : static void
    5448          56 : free_command(Command *command)
    5449             : {
    5450          56 :     termPQExpBuffer(&command->lines);
    5451          56 :     pg_free(command->first_line);
    5452         116 :     for (int i = 0; i < command->argc; i++)
    5453          60 :         pg_free(command->argv[i]);
    5454          56 :     pg_free(command->varprefix);
    5455             : 
    5456             :     /*
    5457             :      * It should also free expr recursively, but this is currently not needed
    5458             :      * as only gset commands (which do not have an expression) are freed.
    5459             :      */
    5460          56 :     pg_free(command);
    5461          56 : }
    5462             : 
    5463             : /*
    5464             :  * Once an SQL command is fully parsed, possibly by accumulating several
    5465             :  * parts, complete other fields of the Command structure.
    5466             :  */
    5467             : static void
    5468         452 : postprocess_sql_command(Command *my_command)
    5469             : {
    5470             :     char        buffer[128];
    5471             : 
    5472             :     Assert(my_command->type == SQL_COMMAND);
    5473             : 
    5474             :     /* Save the first line for error display. */
    5475         452 :     strlcpy(buffer, my_command->lines.data, sizeof(buffer));
    5476         452 :     buffer[strcspn(buffer, "\n\r")] = '\0';
    5477         452 :     my_command->first_line = pg_strdup(buffer);
    5478             : 
    5479             :     /* parse query if necessary */
    5480         452 :     switch (querymode)
    5481             :     {
    5482         338 :         case QUERY_SIMPLE:
    5483         338 :             my_command->argv[0] = my_command->lines.data;
    5484         338 :             my_command->argc++;
    5485         338 :             break;
    5486         114 :         case QUERY_EXTENDED:
    5487             :         case QUERY_PREPARED:
    5488         114 :             if (!parseQuery(my_command))
    5489           2 :                 exit(1);
    5490         112 :             break;
    5491           0 :         default:
    5492           0 :             exit(1);
    5493             :     }
    5494         450 : }
    5495             : 
    5496             : /*
    5497             :  * Parse a backslash command; return a Command struct, or NULL if comment
    5498             :  *
    5499             :  * At call, we have scanned only the initial backslash.
    5500             :  */
    5501             : static Command *
    5502         930 : process_backslash_command(PsqlScanState sstate, const char *source)
    5503             : {
    5504             :     Command    *my_command;
    5505             :     PQExpBufferData word_buf;
    5506             :     int         word_offset;
    5507             :     int         offsets[MAX_ARGS];  /* offsets of argument words */
    5508             :     int         start_offset;
    5509             :     int         lineno;
    5510             :     int         j;
    5511             : 
    5512         930 :     initPQExpBuffer(&word_buf);
    5513             : 
    5514             :     /* Remember location of the backslash */
    5515         930 :     start_offset = expr_scanner_offset(sstate) - 1;
    5516         930 :     lineno = expr_scanner_get_lineno(sstate, start_offset);
    5517             : 
    5518             :     /* Collect first word of command */
    5519         930 :     if (!expr_lex_one_word(sstate, &word_buf, &word_offset))
    5520             :     {
    5521           0 :         termPQExpBuffer(&word_buf);
    5522           0 :         return NULL;
    5523             :     }
    5524             : 
    5525             :     /* Allocate and initialize Command structure */
    5526         930 :     my_command = (Command *) pg_malloc0(sizeof(Command));
    5527         930 :     my_command->type = META_COMMAND;
    5528         930 :     my_command->argc = 0;
    5529         930 :     initSimpleStats(&my_command->stats);
    5530             : 
    5531             :     /* Save first word (command name) */
    5532         930 :     j = 0;
    5533         930 :     offsets[j] = word_offset;
    5534         930 :     my_command->argv[j++] = pg_strdup(word_buf.data);
    5535         930 :     my_command->argc++;
    5536             : 
    5537             :     /* ... and convert it to enum form */
    5538         930 :     my_command->meta = getMetaCommand(my_command->argv[0]);
    5539             : 
    5540         930 :     if (my_command->meta == META_SET ||
    5541         206 :         my_command->meta == META_IF ||
    5542         176 :         my_command->meta == META_ELIF)
    5543             :     {
    5544             :         yyscan_t    yyscanner;
    5545             : 
    5546             :         /* For \set, collect var name */
    5547         770 :         if (my_command->meta == META_SET)
    5548             :         {
    5549         724 :             if (!expr_lex_one_word(sstate, &word_buf, &word_offset))
    5550           2 :                 syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5551             :                              "missing argument", NULL, -1);
    5552             : 
    5553         722 :             offsets[j] = word_offset;
    5554         722 :             my_command->argv[j++] = pg_strdup(word_buf.data);
    5555         722 :             my_command->argc++;
    5556             :         }
    5557             : 
    5558             :         /* then for all parse the expression */
    5559         768 :         yyscanner = expr_scanner_init(sstate, source, lineno, start_offset,
    5560         768 :                                       my_command->argv[0]);
    5561             : 
    5562         768 :         if (expr_yyparse(yyscanner) != 0)
    5563             :         {
    5564             :             /* dead code: exit done from syntax_error called by yyerror */
    5565           0 :             exit(1);
    5566             :         }
    5567             : 
    5568         730 :         my_command->expr = expr_parse_result;
    5569             : 
    5570             :         /* Save line, trimming any trailing newline */
    5571         730 :         my_command->first_line =
    5572         730 :             expr_scanner_get_substring(sstate,
    5573             :                                        start_offset,
    5574             :                                        expr_scanner_offset(sstate),
    5575             :                                        true);
    5576             : 
    5577         730 :         expr_scanner_finish(yyscanner);
    5578             : 
    5579         730 :         termPQExpBuffer(&word_buf);
    5580             : 
    5581         730 :         return my_command;
    5582             :     }
    5583             : 
    5584             :     /* For all other commands, collect remaining words. */
    5585         742 :     while (expr_lex_one_word(sstate, &word_buf, &word_offset))
    5586             :     {
    5587             :         /*
    5588             :          * my_command->argv[0] is the command itself, so the max number of
    5589             :          * arguments is one less than MAX_ARGS
    5590             :          */
    5591         584 :         if (j >= MAX_ARGS)
    5592           2 :             syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5593             :                          "too many arguments", NULL, -1);
    5594             : 
    5595         582 :         offsets[j] = word_offset;
    5596         582 :         my_command->argv[j++] = pg_strdup(word_buf.data);
    5597         582 :         my_command->argc++;
    5598             :     }
    5599             : 
    5600             :     /* Save line, trimming any trailing newline */
    5601         158 :     my_command->first_line =
    5602         158 :         expr_scanner_get_substring(sstate,
    5603             :                                    start_offset,
    5604             :                                    expr_scanner_offset(sstate),
    5605             :                                    true);
    5606             : 
    5607         158 :     if (my_command->meta == META_SLEEP)
    5608             :     {
    5609          18 :         if (my_command->argc < 2)
    5610           2 :             syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5611             :                          "missing argument", NULL, -1);
    5612             : 
    5613          16 :         if (my_command->argc > 3)
    5614           2 :             syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5615             :                          "too many arguments", NULL,
    5616           2 :                          offsets[3] - start_offset);
    5617             : 
    5618             :         /*
    5619             :          * Split argument into number and unit to allow "sleep 1ms" etc. We
    5620             :          * don't have to terminate the number argument with null because it
    5621             :          * will be parsed with atoi, which ignores trailing non-digit
    5622             :          * characters.
    5623             :          */
    5624          14 :         if (my_command->argv[1][0] != ':')
    5625             :         {
    5626           8 :             char       *c = my_command->argv[1];
    5627           8 :             bool        have_digit = false;
    5628             : 
    5629             :             /* Skip sign */
    5630           8 :             if (*c == '+' || *c == '-')
    5631           0 :                 c++;
    5632             : 
    5633             :             /* Require at least one digit */
    5634           8 :             if (*c && isdigit((unsigned char) *c))
    5635           8 :                 have_digit = true;
    5636             : 
    5637             :             /* Eat all digits */
    5638          20 :             while (*c && isdigit((unsigned char) *c))
    5639          12 :                 c++;
    5640             : 
    5641           8 :             if (*c)
    5642             :             {
    5643           2 :                 if (my_command->argc == 2 && have_digit)
    5644             :                 {
    5645           2 :                     my_command->argv[2] = c;
    5646           2 :                     offsets[2] = offsets[1] + (c - my_command->argv[1]);
    5647           2 :                     my_command->argc = 3;
    5648             :                 }
    5649             :                 else
    5650             :                 {
    5651             :                     /*
    5652             :                      * Raise an error if argument starts with non-digit
    5653             :                      * character (after sign).
    5654             :                      */
    5655           0 :                     syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5656             :                                  "invalid sleep time, must be an integer",
    5657           0 :                                  my_command->argv[1], offsets[1] - start_offset);
    5658             :                 }
    5659             :             }
    5660             :         }
    5661             : 
    5662          14 :         if (my_command->argc == 3)
    5663             :         {
    5664          18 :             if (pg_strcasecmp(my_command->argv[2], "us") != 0 &&
    5665          12 :                 pg_strcasecmp(my_command->argv[2], "ms") != 0 &&
    5666           4 :                 pg_strcasecmp(my_command->argv[2], "s") != 0)
    5667           2 :                 syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5668             :                              "unrecognized time unit, must be us, ms or s",
    5669           2 :                              my_command->argv[2], offsets[2] - start_offset);
    5670             :         }
    5671             :     }
    5672         140 :     else if (my_command->meta == META_SETSHELL)
    5673             :     {
    5674           8 :         if (my_command->argc < 3)
    5675           2 :             syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5676             :                          "missing argument", NULL, -1);
    5677             :     }
    5678         132 :     else if (my_command->meta == META_SHELL)
    5679             :     {
    5680           8 :         if (my_command->argc < 2)
    5681           2 :             syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5682             :                          "missing command", NULL, -1);
    5683             :     }
    5684         124 :     else if (my_command->meta == META_ELSE || my_command->meta == META_ENDIF ||
    5685          84 :              my_command->meta == META_STARTPIPELINE ||
    5686          74 :              my_command->meta == META_ENDPIPELINE)
    5687             :     {
    5688          58 :         if (my_command->argc != 1)
    5689           4 :             syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5690             :                          "unexpected argument", NULL, -1);
    5691             :     }
    5692          66 :     else if (my_command->meta == META_GSET || my_command->meta == META_ASET)
    5693             :     {
    5694          64 :         if (my_command->argc > 2)
    5695           2 :             syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5696             :                          "too many arguments", NULL, -1);
    5697             :     }
    5698             :     else
    5699             :     {
    5700             :         /* my_command->meta == META_NONE */
    5701           2 :         syntax_error(source, lineno, my_command->first_line, my_command->argv[0],
    5702             :                      "invalid command", NULL, -1);
    5703             :     }
    5704             : 
    5705         140 :     termPQExpBuffer(&word_buf);
    5706             : 
    5707         140 :     return my_command;
    5708             : }
    5709             : 
    5710             : static void
    5711          12 : ConditionError(const char *desc, int cmdn, const char *msg)
    5712             : {
    5713          12 :     pg_fatal("condition error in script \"%s\" command %d: %s",
    5714             :              desc, cmdn, msg);
    5715             : }
    5716             : 
    5717             : /*
    5718             :  * Partial evaluation of conditionals before recording and running the script.
    5719             :  */
    5720             : static void
    5721         452 : CheckConditional(const ParsedScript *ps)
    5722             : {
    5723             :     /* statically check conditional structure */
    5724         452 :     ConditionalStack cs = conditional_stack_create();
    5725             :     int         i;
    5726             : 
    5727        1944 :     for (i = 0; ps->commands[i] != NULL; i++)
    5728             :     {
    5729        1502 :         Command    *cmd = ps->commands[i];
    5730             : 
    5731        1502 :         if (cmd->type == META_COMMAND)
    5732             :         {
    5733         794 :             switch (cmd->meta)
    5734             :             {
    5735          22 :                 case META_IF:
    5736          22 :                     conditional_stack_push(cs, IFSTATE_FALSE);
    5737          22 :                     break;
    5738          14 :                 case META_ELIF:
    5739          14 :                     if (conditional_stack_empty(cs))
    5740           2 :                         ConditionError(ps->desc, i + 1, "\\elif without matching \\if");
    5741          12 :                     if (conditional_stack_peek(cs) == IFSTATE_ELSE_FALSE)
    5742           2 :                         ConditionError(ps->desc, i + 1, "\\elif after \\else");
    5743          10 :                     break;
    5744          14 :                 case META_ELSE:
    5745          14 :                     if (conditional_stack_empty(cs))
    5746           2 :                         ConditionError(ps->desc, i + 1, "\\else without matching \\if");
    5747          12 :                     if (conditional_stack_peek(cs) == IFSTATE_ELSE_FALSE)
    5748           2 :                         ConditionError(ps->desc, i + 1, "\\else after \\else");
    5749          10 :                     conditional_stack_poke(cs, IFSTATE_ELSE_FALSE);
    5750          10 :                     break;
    5751          18 :                 case META_ENDIF:
    5752          18 :                     if (!conditional_stack_pop(cs))
    5753           2 :                         ConditionError(ps->desc, i + 1, "\\endif without matching \\if");
    5754          16 :                     break;
    5755         726 :                 default:
    5756             :                     /* ignore anything else... */
    5757         726 :                     break;
    5758             :             }
    5759         708 :         }
    5760             :     }
    5761         442 :     if (!conditional_stack_empty(cs))
    5762           2 :         ConditionError(ps->desc, i + 1, "\\if without matching \\endif");
    5763         440 :     conditional_stack_destroy(cs);
    5764         440 : }
    5765             : 
    5766             : /*
    5767             :  * Parse a script (either the contents of a file, or a built-in script)
    5768             :  * and add it to the list of scripts.
    5769             :  */
    5770             : static void
    5771         522 : ParseScript(const char *script, const char *desc, int weight)
    5772             : {
    5773             :     ParsedScript ps;
    5774             :     PsqlScanState sstate;
    5775             :     PQExpBufferData line_buf;
    5776             :     int         alloc_num;
    5777             :     int         index;
    5778             :     int         lineno;
    5779             :     int         start_offset;
    5780             : 
    5781             : #define COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM 128
    5782         522 :     alloc_num = COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
    5783             : 
    5784             :     /* Initialize all fields of ps */
    5785         522 :     ps.desc = desc;
    5786         522 :     ps.weight = weight;
    5787         522 :     ps.commands = (Command **) pg_malloc(sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
    5788         522 :     initStats(&ps.stats, 0);
    5789             : 
    5790             :     /* Prepare to parse script */
    5791         522 :     sstate = psql_scan_create(&pgbench_callbacks);
    5792             : 
    5793             :     /*
    5794             :      * Ideally, we'd scan scripts using the encoding and stdstrings settings
    5795             :      * we get from a DB connection.  However, without major rearrangement of
    5796             :      * pgbench's argument parsing, we can't have a DB connection at the time
    5797             :      * we parse scripts.  Using SQL_ASCII (encoding 0) should work well enough
    5798             :      * with any backend-safe encoding, though conceivably we could be fooled
    5799             :      * if a script file uses a client-only encoding.  We also assume that
    5800             :      * stdstrings should be true, which is a bit riskier.
    5801             :      */
    5802         522 :     psql_scan_setup(sstate, script, strlen(script), 0, true);
    5803         522 :     start_offset = expr_scanner_offset(sstate) - 1;
    5804             : 
    5805         522 :     initPQExpBuffer(&line_buf);
    5806             : 
    5807         522 :     index = 0;
    5808             : 
    5809             :     for (;;)
    5810        1518 :     {
    5811             :         PsqlScanResult sr;
    5812             :         promptStatus_t prompt;
    5813        2040 :         Command    *command = NULL;
    5814             : 
    5815        2040 :         resetPQExpBuffer(&line_buf);
    5816        2040 :         lineno = expr_scanner_get_lineno(sstate, start_offset);
    5817             : 
    5818        2040 :         sr = psql_scan(sstate, &line_buf, &prompt);
    5819             : 
    5820             :         /* If we collected a new SQL command, process that */
    5821        2040 :         command = create_sql_command(&line_buf, desc);
    5822             : 
    5823             :         /* store new command */
    5824        2040 :         if (command)
    5825         714 :             ps.commands[index++] = command;
    5826             : 
    5827             :         /* If we reached a backslash, process that */
    5828        2040 :         if (sr == PSCAN_BACKSLASH)
    5829             :         {
    5830         930 :             command = process_backslash_command(sstate, desc);
    5831             : 
    5832         870 :             if (command)
    5833             :             {
    5834             :                 /*
    5835             :                  * If this is gset or aset, merge into the preceding command.
    5836             :                  * (We don't use a command slot in this case).
    5837             :                  */
    5838         870 :                 if (command->meta == META_GSET || command->meta == META_ASET)
    5839             :                 {
    5840             :                     Command    *cmd;
    5841             : 
    5842          62 :                     if (index == 0)
    5843           2 :                         syntax_error(desc, lineno, NULL, NULL,
    5844             :                                      "\\gset must follow an SQL command",
    5845             :                                      NULL, -1);
    5846             : 
    5847          60 :                     cmd = ps.commands[index - 1];
    5848             : 
    5849          60 :                     if (cmd->type != SQL_COMMAND ||
    5850          58 :                         cmd->varprefix != NULL)
    5851           4 :                         syntax_error(desc, lineno, NULL, NULL,
    5852             :                                      "\\gset must follow an SQL command",
    5853           4 :                                      cmd->first_line, -1);
    5854             : 
    5855             :                     /* get variable prefix */
    5856          56 :                     if (command->argc <= 1 || command->argv[1][0] == '\0')
    5857          52 :                         cmd->varprefix = pg_strdup("");
    5858             :                     else
    5859           4 :                         cmd->varprefix = pg_strdup(command->argv[1]);
    5860             : 
    5861             :                     /* update the sql command meta */
    5862          56 :                     cmd->meta = command->meta;
    5863             : 
    5864             :                     /* cleanup unused command */
    5865          56 :                     free_command(command);
    5866             : 
    5867          56 :                     continue;
    5868             :                 }
    5869             : 
    5870             :                 /* Attach any other backslash command as a new command */
    5871         808 :                 ps.commands[index++] = command;
    5872             :             }
    5873             :         }
    5874             : 
    5875             :         /*
    5876             :          * Since we used a command slot, allocate more if needed.  Note we
    5877             :          * always allocate one more in order to accommodate the NULL
    5878             :          * terminator below.
    5879             :          */
    5880        1918 :         if (index >= alloc_num)
    5881             :         {
    5882           0 :             alloc_num += COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
    5883           0 :             ps.commands = (Command **)
    5884           0 :                 pg_realloc(ps.commands, sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
    5885             :         }
    5886             : 
    5887             :         /* Done if we reached EOF */
    5888        1918 :         if (sr == PSCAN_INCOMPLETE || sr == PSCAN_EOL)
    5889             :             break;
    5890             :     }
    5891             : 
    5892         456 :     ps.commands[index] = NULL;
    5893             : 
    5894         456 :     addScript(&ps);
    5895             : 
    5896         440 :     termPQExpBuffer(&line_buf);
    5897         440 :     psql_scan_finish(sstate);
    5898         440 :     psql_scan_destroy(sstate);
    5899         440 : }
    5900             : 
    5901             : /*
    5902             :  * Read the entire contents of file fd, and return it in a malloc'd buffer.
    5903             :  *
    5904             :  * The buffer will typically be larger than necessary, but we don't care
    5905             :  * in this program, because we'll free it as soon as we've parsed the script.
    5906             :  */
    5907             : static char *
    5908         216 : read_file_contents(FILE *fd)
    5909             : {
    5910             :     char       *buf;
    5911         216 :     size_t      buflen = BUFSIZ;
    5912         216 :     size_t      used = 0;
    5913             : 
    5914         216 :     buf = (char *) pg_malloc(buflen);
    5915             : 
    5916             :     for (;;)
    5917           0 :     {
    5918             :         size_t      nread;
    5919             : 
    5920         216 :         nread = fread(buf + used, 1, BUFSIZ, fd);
    5921         216 :         used += nread;
    5922             :         /* If fread() read less than requested, must be EOF or error */
    5923         216 :         if (nread < BUFSIZ)
    5924         216 :             break;
    5925             :         /* Enlarge buf so we can read some more */
    5926           0 :         buflen += BUFSIZ;
    5927           0 :         buf = (char *) pg_realloc(buf, buflen);
    5928             :     }
    5929             :     /* There is surely room for a terminator */
    5930         216 :     buf[used] = '\0';
    5931             : 
    5932         216 :     return buf;
    5933             : }
    5934             : 
    5935             : /*
    5936             :  * Given a file name, read it and add its script to the list.
    5937             :  * "-" means to read stdin.
    5938             :  * NB: filename must be storage that won't disappear.
    5939             :  */
    5940             : static void
    5941         218 : process_file(const char *filename, int weight)
    5942             : {
    5943             :     FILE       *fd;
    5944             :     char       *buf;
    5945             : 
    5946             :     /* Slurp the file contents into "buf" */
    5947         218 :     if (strcmp(filename, "-") == 0)
    5948           0 :         fd = stdin;
    5949         218 :     else if ((fd = fopen(filename, "r")) == NULL)
    5950           2 :         pg_fatal("could not open file \"%s\": %m", filename);
    5951             : 
    5952         216 :     buf = read_file_contents(fd);
    5953             : 
    5954         216 :     if (ferror(fd))
    5955           0 :         pg_fatal("could not read file \"%s\": %m", filename);
    5956             : 
    5957         216 :     if (fd != stdin)
    5958         216 :         fclose(fd);
    5959             : 
    5960         216 :     ParseScript(buf, filename, weight);
    5961             : 
    5962         136 :     free(buf);
    5963         136 : }
    5964             : 
    5965             : /* Parse the given builtin script and add it to the list. */
    5966             : static void
    5967         306 : process_builtin(const BuiltinScript *bi, int weight)
    5968             : {
    5969         306 :     ParseScript(bi->script, bi->desc, weight);
    5970         304 : }
    5971             : 
    5972             : /* show available builtin scripts */
    5973             : static void
    5974           6 : listAvailableScripts(void)
    5975             : {
    5976             :     int         i;
    5977             : 
    5978           6 :     fprintf(stderr, "Available builtin scripts:\n");
    5979          24 :     for (i = 0; i < lengthof(builtin_script); i++)
    5980          18 :         fprintf(stderr, "  %13s: %s\n", builtin_script[i].name, builtin_script[i].desc);
    5981           6 :     fprintf(stderr, "\n");
    5982           6 : }
    5983             : 
    5984             : /* return builtin script "name" if unambiguous, fails if not found */
    5985             : static const BuiltinScript *
    5986         312 : findBuiltin(const char *name)
    5987             : {
    5988             :     int         i,
    5989         312 :                 found = 0,
    5990         312 :                 len = strlen(name);
    5991         312 :     const BuiltinScript *result = NULL;
    5992             : 
    5993        1248 :     for (i = 0; i < lengthof(builtin_script); i++)
    5994             :     {
    5995         936 :         if (strncmp(builtin_script[i].name, name, len) == 0)
    5996             :         {
    5997         312 :             result = &builtin_script[i];
    5998         312 :             found++;
    5999             :         }
    6000             :     }
    6001             : 
    6002             :     /* ok, unambiguous result */
    6003         312 :     if (found == 1)
    6004         308 :         return result;
    6005             : 
    6006             :     /* error cases */
    6007           4 :     if (found == 0)
    6008           2 :         pg_log_error("no builtin script found for name \"%s\"", name);
    6009             :     else                        /* found > 1 */
    6010           2 :         pg_log_error("ambiguous builtin name: %d builtin scripts found for prefix \"%s\"", found, name);
    6011             : 
    6012           4 :     listAvailableScripts();
    6013           4 :     exit(1);
    6014             : }
    6015             : 
    6016             : /*
    6017             :  * Determine the weight specification from a script option (-b, -f), if any,
    6018             :  * and return it as an integer (1 is returned if there's no weight).  The
    6019             :  * script name is returned in *script as a malloc'd string.
    6020             :  */
    6021             : static int
    6022         240 : parseScriptWeight(const char *option, char **script)
    6023             : {
    6024             :     char       *sep;
    6025             :     int         weight;
    6026             : 
    6027         240 :     if ((sep = strrchr(option, WSEP)))
    6028             :     {
    6029          14 :         int         namelen = sep - option;
    6030             :         long        wtmp;
    6031             :         char       *badp;
    6032             : 
    6033             :         /* generate the script name */
    6034          14 :         *script = pg_malloc(namelen + 1);
    6035          14 :         strncpy(*script, option, namelen);
    6036          14 :         (*script)[namelen] = '\0';
    6037             : 
    6038             :         /* process digits of the weight spec */
    6039          14 :         errno = 0;
    6040          14 :         wtmp = strtol(sep + 1, &badp, 10);
    6041          14 :         if (errno != 0 || badp == sep + 1 || *badp != '\0')
    6042           2 :             pg_fatal("invalid weight specification: %s", sep);
    6043          12 :         if (wtmp > INT_MAX || wtmp < 0)
    6044           2 :             pg_fatal("weight specification out of range (0 .. %d): %lld",
    6045             :                      INT_MAX, (long long) wtmp);
    6046          10 :         weight = wtmp;
    6047             :     }
    6048             :     else
    6049             :     {
    6050         226 :         *script = pg_strdup(option);
    6051         226 :         weight = 1;
    6052             :     }
    6053             : 
    6054         236 :     return weight;
    6055             : }
    6056             : 
    6057             : /* append a script to the list of scripts to process */
    6058             : static void
    6059         456 : addScript(const ParsedScript *script)
    6060             : {
    6061         456 :     if (script->commands == NULL || script->commands[0] == NULL)
    6062           2 :         pg_fatal("empty command list for script \"%s\"", script->desc);
    6063             : 
    6064         454 :     if (num_scripts >= MAX_SCRIPTS)
    6065           2 :         pg_fatal("at most %d SQL scripts are allowed", MAX_SCRIPTS);
    6066             : 
    6067         452 :     CheckConditional(script);
    6068             : 
    6069         440 :     sql_script[num_scripts] = *script;
    6070         440 :     num_scripts++;
    6071         440 : }
    6072             : 
    6073             : /*
    6074             :  * Print progress report.
    6075             :  *
    6076             :  * On entry, *last and *last_report contain the statistics and time of last
    6077             :  * progress report.  On exit, they are updated with the new stats.
    6078             :  */
    6079             : static void
    6080           0 : printProgressReport(TState *threads, int64 test_start, pg_time_usec_t now,
    6081             :                     StatsData *last, int64 *last_report)
    6082             : {
    6083             :     /* generate and show report */
    6084           0 :     pg_time_usec_t run = now - *last_report;
    6085             :     int64       cnt,
    6086             :                 failures,
    6087             :                 retried;
    6088             :     double      tps,
    6089             :                 total_run,
    6090             :                 latency,
    6091             :                 sqlat,
    6092             :                 lag,
    6093             :                 stdev;
    6094             :     char        tbuf[315];
    6095             :     StatsData   cur;
    6096             : 
    6097             :     /*
    6098             :      * Add up the statistics of all threads.
    6099             :      *
    6100             :      * XXX: No locking.  There is no guarantee that we get an atomic snapshot
    6101             :      * of the transaction count and latencies, so these figures can well be
    6102             :      * off by a small amount.  The progress report's purpose is to give a
    6103             :      * quick overview of how the test is going, so that shouldn't matter too
    6104             :      * much.  (If a read from a 64-bit integer is not atomic, you might get a
    6105             :      * "torn" read and completely bogus latencies though!)
    6106             :      */
    6107           0 :     initStats(&cur, 0);
    6108           0 :     for (int i = 0; i < nthreads; i++)
    6109             :     {
    6110           0 :         mergeSimpleStats(&cur.latency, &threads[i].stats.latency);
    6111           0 :         mergeSimpleStats(&cur.lag, &threads[i].stats.lag);
    6112           0 :         cur.cnt += threads[i].stats.cnt;
    6113           0 :         cur.skipped += threads[i].stats.skipped;
    6114           0 :         cur.retries += threads[i].stats.retries;
    6115           0 :         cur.retried += threads[i].stats.retried;
    6116           0 :         cur.serialization_failures +=
    6117           0 :             threads[i].stats.serialization_failures;
    6118           0 :         cur.deadlock_failures += threads[i].stats.deadlock_failures;
    6119             :     }
    6120             : 
    6121             :     /* we count only actually executed transactions */
    6122           0 :     cnt = cur.cnt - last->cnt;
    6123           0 :     total_run = (now - test_start) / 1000000.0;
    6124           0 :     tps = 1000000.0 * cnt / run;
    6125           0 :     if (cnt > 0)
    6126             :     {
    6127           0 :         latency = 0.001 * (cur.latency.sum - last->latency.sum) / cnt;
    6128           0 :         sqlat = 1.0 * (cur.latency.sum2 - last->latency.sum2) / cnt;
    6129           0 :         stdev = 0.001 * sqrt(sqlat - 1000000.0 * latency * latency);
    6130           0 :         lag = 0.001 * (cur.lag.sum - last->lag.sum) / cnt;
    6131             :     }
    6132             :     else
    6133             :     {
    6134           0 :         latency = sqlat = stdev = lag = 0;
    6135             :     }
    6136           0 :     failures = getFailures(&cur) - getFailures(last);
    6137           0 :     retried = cur.retried - last->retried;
    6138             : 
    6139           0 :     if (progress_timestamp)
    6140             :     {
    6141           0 :         snprintf(tbuf, sizeof(tbuf), "%.3f s",
    6142           0 :                  PG_TIME_GET_DOUBLE(now + epoch_shift));
    6143             :     }
    6144             :     else
    6145             :     {
    6146             :         /* round seconds are expected, but the thread may be late */
    6147           0 :         snprintf(tbuf, sizeof(tbuf), "%.1f s", total_run);
    6148             :     }
    6149             : 
    6150           0 :     fprintf(stderr,
    6151             :             "progress: %s, %.1f tps, lat %.3f ms stddev %.3f, " INT64_FORMAT " failed",
    6152             :             tbuf, tps, latency, stdev, failures);
    6153             : 
    6154           0 :     if (throttle_delay)
    6155             :     {
    6156           0 :         fprintf(stderr, ", lag %.3f ms", lag);
    6157           0 :         if (latency_limit)
    6158           0 :             fprintf(stderr, ", " INT64_FORMAT " skipped",
    6159           0 :                     cur.skipped - last->skipped);
    6160             :     }
    6161             : 
    6162             :     /* it can be non-zero only if max_tries is not equal to one */
    6163           0 :     if (max_tries != 1)
    6164           0 :         fprintf(stderr,
    6165             :                 ", " INT64_FORMAT " retried, " INT64_FORMAT " retries",
    6166           0 :                 retried, cur.retries - last->retries);
    6167           0 :     fprintf(stderr, "\n");
    6168             : 
    6169           0 :     *last = cur;
    6170           0 :     *last_report = now;
    6171           0 : }
    6172             : 
    6173             : static void
    6174          22 : printSimpleStats(const char *prefix, SimpleStats *ss)
    6175             : {
    6176          22 :     if (ss->count > 0)
    6177             :     {
    6178          22 :         double      latency = ss->sum / ss->count;
    6179          22 :         double      stddev = sqrt(ss->sum2 / ss->count - latency * latency);
    6180             : 
    6181          22 :         printf("%s average = %.3f ms\n", prefix, 0.001 * latency);
    6182          22 :         printf("%s stddev = %.3f ms\n", prefix, 0.001 * stddev);
    6183             :     }
    6184          22 : }
    6185             : 
    6186             : /* print version banner */
    6187             : static void
    6188         136 : printVersion(PGconn *con)
    6189             : {
    6190         136 :     int         server_ver = PQserverVersion(con);
    6191         136 :     int         client_ver = PG_VERSION_NUM;
    6192             : 
    6193         136 :     if (server_ver != client_ver)
    6194             :     {
    6195             :         const char *server_version;
    6196             :         char        sverbuf[32];
    6197             : 
    6198             :         /* Try to get full text form, might include "devel" etc */
    6199           0 :         server_version = PQparameterStatus(con, "server_version");
    6200             :         /* Otherwise fall back on server_ver */
    6201           0 :         if (!server_version)
    6202             :         {
    6203           0 :             formatPGVersionNumber(server_ver, true,
    6204             :                                   sverbuf, sizeof(sverbuf));
    6205           0 :             server_version = sverbuf;
    6206             :         }
    6207             : 
    6208           0 :         printf(_("%s (%s, server %s)\n"),
    6209             :                "pgbench", PG_VERSION, server_version);
    6210             :     }
    6211             :     /* For version match, only print pgbench version */
    6212             :     else
    6213         136 :         printf("%s (%s)\n", "pgbench", PG_VERSION);
    6214         136 :     fflush(stdout);
    6215         136 : }
    6216             : 
    6217             : /* print out results */
    6218             : static void
    6219         134 : printResults(StatsData *total,
    6220             :              pg_time_usec_t total_duration, /* benchmarking time */
    6221             :              pg_time_usec_t conn_total_duration,    /* is_connect */
    6222             :              pg_time_usec_t conn_elapsed_duration,  /* !is_connect */
    6223             :              int64 latency_late)
    6224             : {
    6225             :     /* tps is about actually executed transactions during benchmarking */
    6226         134 :     int64       failures = getFailures(total);
    6227         134 :     int64       total_cnt = total->cnt + total->skipped + failures;
    6228         134 :     double      bench_duration = PG_TIME_GET_DOUBLE(total_duration);
    6229         134 :     double      tps = total->cnt / bench_duration;
    6230             : 
    6231             :     /* Report test parameters. */
    6232         134 :     printf("transaction type: %s\n",
    6233             :            num_scripts == 1 ? sql_script[0].desc : "multiple scripts");
    6234         134 :     printf("scaling factor: %d\n", scale);
    6235             :     /* only print partitioning information if some partitioning was detected */
    6236         134 :     if (partition_method != PART_NONE)
    6237          12 :         printf("partition method: %s\npartitions: %d\n",
    6238             :                PARTITION_METHOD[partition_method], partitions);
    6239         134 :     printf("query mode: %s\n", QUERYMODE[querymode]);
    6240         134 :     printf("number of clients: %d\n", nclients);
    6241         134 :     printf("number of threads: %d\n", nthreads);
    6242             : 
    6243         134 :     if (max_tries)
    6244         134 :         printf("maximum number of tries: %u\n", max_tries);
    6245             : 
    6246         134 :     if (duration <= 0)
    6247             :     {
    6248         134 :         printf("number of transactions per client: %d\n", nxacts);
    6249         134 :         printf("number of transactions actually processed: " INT64_FORMAT "/%d\n",
    6250             :                total->cnt, nxacts * nclients);
    6251             :     }
    6252             :     else
    6253             :     {
    6254           0 :         printf("duration: %d s\n", duration);
    6255           0 :         printf("number of transactions actually processed: " INT64_FORMAT "\n",
    6256             :                total->cnt);
    6257             :     }
    6258             : 
    6259         134 :     printf("number of failed transactions: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6260             :            failures, 100.0 * failures / total_cnt);
    6261             : 
    6262         134 :     if (failures_detailed)
    6263             :     {
    6264           0 :         printf("number of serialization failures: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6265             :                total->serialization_failures,
    6266             :                100.0 * total->serialization_failures / total_cnt);
    6267           0 :         printf("number of deadlock failures: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6268             :                total->deadlock_failures,
    6269             :                100.0 * total->deadlock_failures / total_cnt);
    6270             :     }
    6271             : 
    6272             :     /* it can be non-zero only if max_tries is not equal to one */
    6273         134 :     if (max_tries != 1)
    6274             :     {
    6275           4 :         printf("number of transactions retried: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6276             :                total->retried, 100.0 * total->retried / total_cnt);
    6277           4 :         printf("total number of retries: " INT64_FORMAT "\n", total->retries);
    6278             :     }
    6279             : 
    6280             :     /* Remaining stats are nonsensical if we failed to execute any xacts */
    6281         134 :     if (total->cnt + total->skipped <= 0)
    6282          86 :         return;
    6283             : 
    6284          48 :     if (throttle_delay && latency_limit)
    6285           4 :         printf("number of transactions skipped: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6286             :                total->skipped, 100.0 * total->skipped / total_cnt);
    6287             : 
    6288          48 :     if (latency_limit)
    6289           4 :         printf("number of transactions above the %.1f ms latency limit: " INT64_FORMAT "/" INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6290             :                latency_limit / 1000.0, latency_late, total->cnt,
    6291             :                (total->cnt > 0) ? 100.0 * latency_late / total->cnt : 0.0);
    6292             : 
    6293          48 :     if (throttle_delay || progress || latency_limit)
    6294           4 :         printSimpleStats("latency", &total->latency);
    6295             :     else
    6296             :     {
    6297             :         /* no measurement, show average latency computed from run time */
    6298          44 :         printf("latency average = %.3f ms%s\n",
    6299             :                0.001 * total_duration * nclients / total_cnt,
    6300             :                failures > 0 ? " (including failures)" : "");
    6301             :     }
    6302             : 
    6303          48 :     if (throttle_delay)
    6304             :     {
    6305             :         /*
    6306             :          * Report average transaction lag under rate limit throttling.  This
    6307             :          * is the delay between scheduled and actual start times for the
    6308             :          * transaction.  The measured lag may be caused by thread/client load,
    6309             :          * the database load, or the Poisson throttling process.
    6310             :          */
    6311           4 :         printf("rate limit schedule lag: avg %.3f (max %.3f) ms\n",
    6312             :                0.001 * total->lag.sum / total->cnt, 0.001 * total->lag.max);
    6313             :     }
    6314             : 
    6315             :     /*
    6316             :      * Under -C/--connect, each transaction incurs a significant connection
    6317             :      * cost, it would not make much sense to ignore it in tps, and it would
    6318             :      * not be tps anyway.
    6319             :      *
    6320             :      * Otherwise connections are made just once at the beginning of the run
    6321             :      * and should not impact performance but for very short run, so they are
    6322             :      * (right)fully ignored in tps.
    6323             :      */
    6324          48 :     if (is_connect)
    6325             :     {
    6326           4 :         printf("average connection time = %.3f ms\n", 0.001 * conn_total_duration / (total->cnt + failures));
    6327           4 :         printf("tps = %f (including reconnection times)\n", tps);
    6328             :     }
    6329             :     else
    6330             :     {
    6331          44 :         printf("initial connection time = %.3f ms\n", 0.001 * conn_elapsed_duration);
    6332          44 :         printf("tps = %f (without initial connection time)\n", tps);
    6333             :     }
    6334             : 
    6335             :     /* Report per-script/command statistics */
    6336          48 :     if (per_script_stats || report_per_command)
    6337             :     {
    6338             :         int         i;
    6339             : 
    6340          32 :         for (i = 0; i < num_scripts; i++)
    6341             :         {
    6342          22 :             if (per_script_stats)
    6343             :             {
    6344          18 :                 StatsData  *sstats = &sql_script[i].stats;
    6345          18 :                 int64       script_failures = getFailures(sstats);
    6346          18 :                 int64       script_total_cnt =
    6347          18 :                 sstats->cnt + sstats->skipped + script_failures;
    6348             : 
    6349          18 :                 printf("SQL script %d: %s\n"
    6350             :                        " - weight: %d (targets %.1f%% of total)\n"
    6351             :                        " - " INT64_FORMAT " transactions (%.1f%% of total, tps = %f)\n",
    6352             :                        i + 1, sql_script[i].desc,
    6353             :                        sql_script[i].weight,
    6354             :                        100.0 * sql_script[i].weight / total_weight,
    6355             :                        sstats->cnt,
    6356             :                        100.0 * sstats->cnt / total->cnt,
    6357             :                        sstats->cnt / bench_duration);
    6358             : 
    6359          18 :                 printf(" - number of failed transactions: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6360             :                        script_failures,
    6361             :                        100.0 * script_failures / script_total_cnt);
    6362             : 
    6363          18 :                 if (failures_detailed)
    6364             :                 {
    6365           0 :                     printf(" - number of serialization failures: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6366             :                            sstats->serialization_failures,
    6367             :                            (100.0 * sstats->serialization_failures /
    6368             :                             script_total_cnt));
    6369           0 :                     printf(" - number of deadlock failures: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6370             :                            sstats->deadlock_failures,
    6371             :                            (100.0 * sstats->deadlock_failures /
    6372             :                             script_total_cnt));
    6373             :                 }
    6374             : 
    6375             :                 /* it can be non-zero only if max_tries is not equal to one */
    6376          18 :                 if (max_tries != 1)
    6377             :                 {
    6378           0 :                     printf(" - number of transactions retried: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6379             :                            sstats->retried,
    6380             :                            100.0 * sstats->retried / script_total_cnt);
    6381           0 :                     printf(" - total number of retries: " INT64_FORMAT "\n",
    6382             :                            sstats->retries);
    6383             :                 }
    6384             : 
    6385          18 :                 if (throttle_delay && latency_limit && script_total_cnt > 0)
    6386           0 :                     printf(" - number of transactions skipped: " INT64_FORMAT " (%.3f%%)\n",
    6387             :                            sstats->skipped,
    6388             :                            100.0 * sstats->skipped / script_total_cnt);
    6389             : 
    6390          18 :                 printSimpleStats(" - latency", &sstats->latency);
    6391             :             }
    6392             : 
    6393             :             /*
    6394             :              * Report per-command statistics: latencies, retries after errors,
    6395             :              * failures (errors without retrying).
    6396             :              */
    6397          22 :             if (report_per_command)
    6398             :             {
    6399             :                 Command   **commands;
    6400             : 
    6401           4 :                 printf("%sstatement latencies in milliseconds%s:\n",
    6402             :                        per_script_stats ? " - " : "",
    6403             :                        (max_tries == 1 ?
    6404             :                         " and failures" :
    6405             :                         ", failures and retries"));
    6406             : 
    6407           4 :                 for (commands = sql_script[i].commands;
    6408          10 :                      *commands != NULL;
    6409           6 :                      commands++)
    6410             :                 {
    6411           6 :                     SimpleStats *cstats = &(*commands)->stats;
    6412             : 
    6413           6 :                     if (max_tries == 1)
    6414           6 :                         printf("   %11.3f  %10" INT64_MODIFIER "d  %s\n",
    6415             :                                (cstats->count > 0) ?
    6416             :                                1000.0 * cstats->sum / cstats->count : 0.0,
    6417             :                                (*commands)->failures,
    6418             :                                (*commands)->first_line);
    6419             :                     else
    6420           0 :                         printf("   %11.3f  %10" INT64_MODIFIER "d  %10" INT64_MODIFIER "d  %s\n",
    6421             :                                (cstats->count > 0) ?
    6422             :                                1000.0 * cstats->sum / cstats->count : 0.0,
    6423             :                                (*commands)->failures,
    6424             :                                (*commands)->retries,
    6425             :                                (*commands)->first_line);
    6426             :                 }
    6427             :             }
    6428             :         }
    6429             :     }
    6430             : }
    6431             : 
    6432             : /*
    6433             :  * Set up a random seed according to seed parameter (NULL means default),
    6434             :  * and initialize base_random_sequence for use in initializing other sequences.
    6435             :  */
    6436             : static bool
    6437         320 : set_random_seed(const char *seed)
    6438             : {
    6439             :     uint64      iseed;
    6440             : 
    6441         320 :     if (seed == NULL || strcmp(seed, "time") == 0)
    6442             :     {
    6443             :         /* rely on current time */
    6444         312 :         iseed = pg_time_now();
    6445             :     }
    6446           8 :     else if (strcmp(seed, "rand") == 0)
    6447             :     {
    6448             :         /* use some "strong" random source */
    6449           0 :         if (!pg_strong_random(&iseed, sizeof(iseed)))
    6450             :         {
    6451           0 :             pg_log_error("could not generate random seed");
    6452           0 :             return false;
    6453             :         }
    6454             :     }
    6455             :     else
    6456             :     {
    6457             :         /* parse unsigned-int seed value */
    6458             :         unsigned long ulseed;
    6459             :         char        garbage;
    6460             : 
    6461             :         /* Don't try to use UINT64_FORMAT here; it might not work for sscanf */
    6462           8 :         if (sscanf(seed, "%lu%c", &ulseed, &garbage) != 1)
    6463             :         {
    6464           2 :             pg_log_error("unrecognized random seed option \"%s\"", seed);
    6465           2 :             pg_log_error_detail("Expecting an unsigned integer, \"time\" or \"rand\".");
    6466           2 :             return false;
    6467             :         }
    6468           6 :         iseed = (uint64) ulseed;
    6469             :     }
    6470             : 
    6471         318 :     if (seed != NULL)
    6472           6 :         pg_log_info("setting random seed to %llu", (unsigned long long) iseed);
    6473             : 
    6474         318 :     random_seed = iseed;
    6475             : 
    6476             :     /* Initialize base_random_sequence using seed */
    6477         318 :     pg_prng_seed(&base_random_sequence, (uint64) iseed);
    6478             : 
    6479         318 :     return true;
    6480             : }
    6481             : 
    6482             : int
    6483         316 : main(int argc, char **argv)
    6484             : {
    6485             :     static struct option long_options[] = {
    6486             :         /* systematic long/short named options */
    6487             :         {"builtin", required_argument, NULL, 'b'},
    6488             :         {"client", required_argument, NULL, 'c'},
    6489             :         {"connect", no_argument, NULL, 'C'},
    6490             :         {"debug", no_argument, NULL, 'd'},
    6491             :         {"define", required_argument, NULL, 'D'},
    6492             :         {"file", required_argument, NULL, 'f'},
    6493             :         {"fillfactor", required_argument, NULL, 'F'},
    6494             :         {"host", required_argument, NULL, 'h'},
    6495             :         {"initialize", no_argument, NULL, 'i'},
    6496             :         {"init-steps", required_argument, NULL, 'I'},
    6497             :         {"jobs", required_argument, NULL, 'j'},
    6498             :         {"log", no_argument, NULL, 'l'},
    6499             :         {"latency-limit", required_argument, NULL, 'L'},
    6500             :         {"no-vacuum", no_argument, NULL, 'n'},
    6501             :         {"port", required_argument, NULL, 'p'},
    6502             :         {"progress", required_argument, NULL, 'P'},
    6503             :         {"protocol", required_argument, NULL, 'M'},
    6504             :         {"quiet", no_argument, NULL, 'q'},
    6505             :         {"report-per-command", no_argument, NULL, 'r'},
    6506             :         {"rate", required_argument, NULL, 'R'},
    6507             :         {"scale", required_argument, NULL, 's'},
    6508             :         {"select-only", no_argument, NULL, 'S'},
    6509             :         {"skip-some-updates", no_argument, NULL, 'N'},
    6510             :         {"time", required_argument, NULL, 'T'},
    6511             :         {"transactions", required_argument, NULL, 't'},
    6512             :         {"username", required_argument, NULL, 'U'},
    6513             :         {"vacuum-all", no_argument, NULL, 'v'},
    6514             :         /* long-named only options */
    6515             :         {"unlogged-tables", no_argument, NULL, 1},
    6516             :         {"tablespace", required_argument, NULL, 2},
    6517             :         {"index-tablespace", required_argument, NULL, 3},
    6518             :         {"sampling-rate", required_argument, NULL, 4},
    6519             :         {"aggregate-interval", required_argument, NULL, 5},
    6520             :         {"progress-timestamp", no_argument, NULL, 6},
    6521             :         {"log-prefix", required_argument, NULL, 7},
    6522             :         {"foreign-keys", no_argument, NULL, 8},
    6523             :         {"random-seed", required_argument, NULL, 9},
    6524             :         {"show-script", required_argument, NULL, 10},
    6525             :         {"partitions", required_argument, NULL, 11},
    6526             :         {"partition-method", required_argument, NULL, 12},
    6527             :         {"failures-detailed", no_argument, NULL, 13},
    6528             :         {"max-tries", required_argument, NULL, 14},
    6529             :         {"verbose-errors", no_argument, NULL, 15},
    6530             :         {NULL, 0, NULL, 0}
    6531             :     };
    6532             : 
    6533             :     int         c;
    6534         316 :     bool        is_init_mode = false;   /* initialize mode? */
    6535         316 :     char       *initialize_steps = NULL;
    6536         316 :     bool        foreign_keys = false;
    6537         316 :     bool        is_no_vacuum = false;
    6538         316 :     bool        do_vacuum_accounts = false; /* vacuum accounts table? */
    6539             :     int         optindex;
    6540         316 :     bool        scale_given = false;
    6541             : 
    6542         316 :     bool        benchmarking_option_set = false;
    6543         316 :     bool        initialization_option_set = false;
    6544         316 :     bool        internal_script_used = false;
    6545             : 
    6546             :     CState     *state;          /* status of clients */
    6547             :     TState     *threads;        /* array of thread */
    6548             : 
    6549             :     pg_time_usec_t
    6550             :                 start_time,     /* start up time */
    6551         316 :                 bench_start = 0,    /* first recorded benchmarking time */
    6552             :                 conn_total_duration;    /* cumulated connection time in
    6553             :                                          * threads */
    6554         316 :     int64       latency_late = 0;
    6555             :     StatsData   stats;
    6556             :     int         weight;
    6557             : 
    6558             :     int         i;
    6559             :     int         nclients_dealt;
    6560             : 
    6561             : #ifdef HAVE_GETRLIMIT
    6562             :     struct rlimit rlim;
    6563             : #endif
    6564             : 
    6565             :     PGconn     *con;
    6566             :     char       *env;
    6567             : 
    6568         316 :     int         exit_code = 0;
    6569             :     struct timeval tv;
    6570             : 
    6571             :     /*
    6572             :      * Record difference between Unix time and instr_time time.  We'll use
    6573             :      * this for logging and aggregation.
    6574             :      */
    6575         316 :     gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
    6576         316 :     epoch_shift = tv.tv_sec * INT64CONST(1000000) + tv.tv_usec - pg_time_now();
    6577             : 
    6578         316 :     pg_logging_init(argv[0]);
    6579         316 :     progname = get_progname(argv[0]);
    6580             : 
    6581         316 :     if (argc > 1)
    6582             :     {
    6583         316 :         if (strcmp(argv[1], "--help") == 0 || strcmp(argv[1], "-?") == 0)
    6584             :         {
    6585           2 :             usage();
    6586           2 :             exit(0);
    6587             :         }
    6588         314 :         if (strcmp(argv[1], "--version") == 0 || strcmp(argv[1], "-V") == 0)
    6589             :         {
    6590           2 :             puts("pgbench (PostgreSQL) " PG_VERSION);
    6591           2 :             exit(0);
    6592             :         }
    6593             :     }
    6594             : 
    6595         312 :     state = (CState *) pg_malloc0(sizeof(CState));
    6596             : 
    6597             :     /* set random seed early, because it may be used while parsing scripts. */
    6598         312 :     if (!set_random_seed(getenv("PGBENCH_RANDOM_SEED")))
    6599           0 :         pg_fatal("error while setting random seed from PGBENCH_RANDOM_SEED environment variable");
    6600             : 
    6601        2274 :     while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "b:c:CdD:f:F:h:iI:j:lL:M:nNp:P:qrR:s:St:T:U:v", long_options, &optindex)) != -1)
    6602             :     {
    6603             :         char       *script;
    6604             : 
    6605        2098 :         switch (c)
    6606             :         {
    6607          24 :             case 'b':
    6608          24 :                 if (strcmp(optarg, "list") == 0)
    6609             :                 {
    6610           2 :                     listAvailableScripts();
    6611           2 :                     exit(0);
    6612             :                 }
    6613          22 :                 weight = parseScriptWeight(optarg, &script);
    6614          18 :                 process_builtin(findBuiltin(script), weight);
    6615          14 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6616          14 :                 internal_script_used = true;
    6617          14 :                 break;
    6618          40 :             case 'c':
    6619          40 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6620          40 :                 if (!option_parse_int(optarg, "-c/--clients", 1, INT_MAX,
    6621             :                                       &nclients))
    6622             :                 {
    6623           2 :                     exit(1);
    6624             :                 }
    6625             : #ifdef HAVE_GETRLIMIT
    6626          38 :                 if (getrlimit(RLIMIT_NOFILE, &rlim) == -1)
    6627           0 :                     pg_fatal("getrlimit failed: %m");
    6628          38 :                 if (rlim.rlim_cur < nclients + 3)
    6629             :                 {
    6630           0 :                     pg_log_error("need at least %d open files, but system limit is %ld",
    6631             :                                  nclients + 3, (long) rlim.rlim_cur);
    6632           0 :                     pg_log_error_hint("Reduce number of clients, or use limit/ulimit to increase the system limit.");
    6633           0 :                     exit(1);
    6634             :                 }
    6635             : #endif                          /* HAVE_GETRLIMIT */
    6636          38 :                 break;
    6637           4 :             case 'C':
    6638           4 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6639           4 :                 is_connect = true;
    6640           4 :                 break;
    6641           6 :             case 'd':
    6642           6 :                 pg_logging_increase_verbosity();
    6643           6 :                 break;
    6644         866 :             case 'D':
    6645             :                 {
    6646             :                     char       *p;
    6647             : 
    6648         866 :                     benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6649             : 
    6650         866 :                     if ((p = strchr(optarg, '=')) == NULL || p == optarg || *(p + 1) == '\0')
    6651           2 :                         pg_fatal("invalid variable definition: \"%s\"", optarg);
    6652             : 
    6653         864 :                     *p++ = '\0';
    6654         864 :                     if (!putVariable(&state[0].variables, "option", optarg, p))
    6655           0 :                         exit(1);
    6656             :                 }
    6657         864 :                 break;
    6658         218 :             case 'f':
    6659         218 :                 weight = parseScriptWeight(optarg, &script);
    6660         218 :                 process_file(script, weight);
    6661         136 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6662         136 :                 break;
    6663           6 :             case 'F':
    6664           6 :                 initialization_option_set = true;
    6665           6 :                 if (!option_parse_int(optarg, "-F/--fillfactor", 10, 100,
    6666             :                                       &fillfactor))
    6667           2 :                     exit(1);
    6668           4 :                 break;
    6669           2 :             case 'h':
    6670           2 :                 pghost = pg_strdup(optarg);
    6671           2 :                 break;
    6672          18 :             case 'i':
    6673          18 :                 is_init_mode = true;
    6674          18 :                 break;
    6675           8 :             case 'I':
    6676           8 :                 pg_free(initialize_steps);
    6677           8 :                 initialize_steps = pg_strdup(optarg);
    6678           8 :                 checkInitSteps(initialize_steps);
    6679           6 :                 initialization_option_set = true;
    6680           6 :                 break;
    6681           6 :             case 'j':           /* jobs */
    6682           6 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6683           6 :                 if (!option_parse_int(optarg, "-j/--jobs", 1, INT_MAX,
    6684             :                                       &nthreads))
    6685             :                 {
    6686           2 :                     exit(1);
    6687             :                 }
    6688             : #ifndef ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY
    6689             :                 if (nthreads != 1)
    6690             :                     pg_fatal("threads are not supported on this platform; use -j1");
    6691             : #endif                          /* !ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY */
    6692           4 :                 break;
    6693          14 :             case 'l':
    6694          14 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6695          14 :                 use_log = true;
    6696          14 :                 break;
    6697           6 :             case 'L':
    6698             :                 {
    6699           6 :                     double      limit_ms = atof(optarg);
    6700             : 
    6701           6 :                     if (limit_ms <= 0.0)
    6702           2 :                         pg_fatal("invalid latency limit: \"%s\"", optarg);
    6703           4 :                     benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6704           4 :                     latency_limit = (int64) (limit_ms * 1000);
    6705             :                 }
    6706           4 :                 break;
    6707         144 :             case 'M':
    6708         144 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6709         414 :                 for (querymode = 0; querymode < NUM_QUERYMODE; querymode++)
    6710         412 :                     if (strcmp(optarg, QUERYMODE[querymode]) == 0)
    6711         142 :                         break;
    6712         144 :                 if (querymode >= NUM_QUERYMODE)
    6713           2 :                     pg_fatal("invalid query mode (-M): \"%s\"", optarg);
    6714         142 :                 break;
    6715         162 :             case 'n':
    6716         162 :                 is_no_vacuum = true;
    6717         162 :                 break;
    6718           2 :             case 'N':
    6719           2 :                 process_builtin(findBuiltin("simple-update"), 1);
    6720           2 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6721           2 :                 internal_script_used = true;
    6722           2 :                 break;
    6723           2 :             case 'p':
    6724           2 :                 pgport = pg_strdup(optarg);
    6725           2 :                 break;
    6726           4 :             case 'P':
    6727           4 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6728           4 :                 if (!option_parse_int(optarg, "-P/--progress", 1, INT_MAX,
    6729             :                                       &progress))
    6730           2 :                     exit(1);
    6731           2 :                 break;
    6732           2 :             case 'q':
    6733           2 :                 initialization_option_set = true;
    6734           2 :                 use_quiet = true;
    6735           2 :                 break;
    6736           4 :             case 'r':
    6737           4 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6738           4 :                 report_per_command = true;
    6739           4 :                 break;
    6740           6 :             case 'R':
    6741             :                 {
    6742             :                     /* get a double from the beginning of option value */
    6743           6 :                     double      throttle_value = atof(optarg);
    6744             : 
    6745           6 :                     benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6746             : 
    6747           6 :                     if (throttle_value <= 0.0)
    6748           2 :                         pg_fatal("invalid rate limit: \"%s\"", optarg);
    6749             :                     /* Invert rate limit into per-transaction delay in usec */
    6750           4 :                     throttle_delay = 1000000.0 / throttle_value;
    6751             :                 }
    6752           4 :                 break;
    6753           6 :             case 's':
    6754           6 :                 scale_given = true;
    6755           6 :                 if (!option_parse_int(optarg, "-s/--scale", 1, INT_MAX,
    6756             :                                       &scale))
    6757           2 :                     exit(1);
    6758           4 :                 break;
    6759         268 :             case 'S':
    6760         268 :                 process_builtin(findBuiltin("select-only"), 1);
    6761         266 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6762         266 :                 internal_script_used = true;
    6763         266 :                 break;
    6764         182 :             case 't':
    6765         182 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6766         182 :                 if (!option_parse_int(optarg, "-t/--transactions", 1, INT_MAX,
    6767             :                                       &nxacts))
    6768           2 :                     exit(1);
    6769         180 :                 break;
    6770          10 :             case 'T':
    6771          10 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6772          10 :                 if (!option_parse_int(optarg, "-T/--time", 1, INT_MAX,
    6773             :                                       &duration))
    6774           2 :                     exit(1);
    6775           8 :                 break;
    6776           2 :             case 'U':
    6777           2 :                 username = pg_strdup(optarg);
    6778           2 :                 break;
    6779           2 :             case 'v':
    6780           2 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6781           2 :                 do_vacuum_accounts = true;
    6782           2 :                 break;
    6783           4 :             case 1:             /* unlogged-tables */
    6784           4 :                 initialization_option_set = true;
    6785           4 :                 unlogged_tables = true;
    6786           4 :                 break;
    6787           2 :             case 2:             /* tablespace */
    6788           2 :                 initialization_option_set = true;
    6789           2 :                 tablespace = pg_strdup(optarg);
    6790           2 :                 break;
    6791           2 :             case 3:             /* index-tablespace */
    6792           2 :                 initialization_option_set = true;
    6793           2 :                 index_tablespace = pg_strdup(optarg);
    6794           2 :                 break;
    6795          10 :             case 4:             /* sampling-rate */
    6796          10 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6797          10 :                 sample_rate = atof(optarg);
    6798          10 :                 if (sample_rate <= 0.0 || sample_rate > 1.0)
    6799           2 :                     pg_fatal("invalid sampling rate: \"%s\"", optarg);
    6800           8 :                 break;
    6801          12 :             case 5:             /* aggregate-interval */
    6802          12 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6803          12 :                 if (!option_parse_int(optarg, "--aggregate-interval", 1, INT_MAX,
    6804             :                                       &agg_interval))
    6805           2 :                     exit(1);
    6806          10 :                 break;
    6807           4 :             case 6:             /* progress-timestamp */
    6808           4 :                 progress_timestamp = true;
    6809           4 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6810           4 :                 break;
    6811           8 :             case 7:             /* log-prefix */
    6812           8 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6813           8 :                 logfile_prefix = pg_strdup(optarg);
    6814           8 :                 break;
    6815           4 :             case 8:             /* foreign-keys */
    6816           4 :                 initialization_option_set = true;
    6817           4 :                 foreign_keys = true;
    6818           4 :                 break;
    6819           8 :             case 9:             /* random-seed */
    6820           8 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6821           8 :                 if (!set_random_seed(optarg))
    6822           2 :                     pg_fatal("error while setting random seed from --random-seed option");
    6823           6 :                 break;
    6824           2 :             case 10:            /* list */
    6825             :                 {
    6826           2 :                     const BuiltinScript *s = findBuiltin(optarg);
    6827             : 
    6828           2 :                     fprintf(stderr, "-- %s: %s\n%s\n", s->name, s->desc, s->script);
    6829           2 :                     exit(0);
    6830             :                 }
    6831             :                 break;
    6832           6 :             case 11:            /* partitions */
    6833           6 :                 initialization_option_set = true;
    6834           6 :                 if (!option_parse_int(optarg, "--partitions", 0, INT_MAX,
    6835             :                                       &partitions))
    6836           2 :                     exit(1);
    6837           4 :                 break;
    6838           6 :             case 12:            /* partition-method */
    6839           6 :                 initialization_option_set = true;
    6840           6 :                 if (pg_strcasecmp(optarg, "range") == 0)
    6841           0 :                     partition_method = PART_RANGE;
    6842           6 :                 else if (pg_strcasecmp(optarg, "hash") == 0)
    6843           4 :                     partition_method = PART_HASH;
    6844             :                 else
    6845           2 :                     pg_fatal("invalid partition method, expecting \"range\" or \"hash\", got: \"%s\"",
    6846             :                              optarg);
    6847           4 :                 break;
    6848           0 :             case 13:            /* failures-detailed */
    6849           0 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6850           0 :                 failures_detailed = true;
    6851           0 :                 break;
    6852           8 :             case 14:            /* max-tries */
    6853             :                 {
    6854           8 :                     int32       max_tries_arg = atoi(optarg);
    6855             : 
    6856           8 :                     if (max_tries_arg < 0)
    6857           2 :                         pg_fatal("invalid number of maximum tries: \"%s\"", optarg);
    6858             : 
    6859           6 :                     benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6860           6 :                     max_tries = (uint32) max_tries_arg;
    6861             :                 }
    6862           6 :                 break;
    6863           4 :             case 15:            /* verbose-errors */
    6864           4 :                 benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6865           4 :                 verbose_errors = true;
    6866           4 :                 break;
    6867           4 :             default:
    6868             :                 /* getopt_long already emitted a complaint */
    6869           4 :                 pg_log_error_hint("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.", progname);
    6870           4 :                 exit(1);
    6871             :         }
    6872             :     }
    6873             : 
    6874             :     /* set default script if none */
    6875         176 :     if (num_scripts == 0 && !is_init_mode)
    6876             :     {
    6877          22 :         process_builtin(findBuiltin("tpcb-like"), 1);
    6878          22 :         benchmarking_option_set = true;
    6879          22 :         internal_script_used = true;
    6880             :     }
    6881             : 
    6882             :     /* complete SQL command initialization and compute total weight */
    6883         358 :     for (i = 0; i < num_scripts; i++)
    6884             :     {
    6885         184 :         Command   **commands = sql_script[i].commands;
    6886             : 
    6887        1152 :         for (int j = 0; commands[j] != NULL; j++)
    6888         970 :             if (commands[j]->type == SQL_COMMAND)
    6889         452 :                 postprocess_sql_command(commands[j]);
    6890             : 
    6891             :         /* cannot overflow: weight is 32b, total_weight 64b */
    6892         182 :         total_weight += sql_script[i].weight;
    6893             :     }
    6894             : 
    6895         174 :     if (total_weight == 0 && !is_init_mode)
    6896           2 :         pg_fatal("total script weight must not be zero");
    6897             : 
    6898             :     /* show per script stats if several scripts are used */
    6899         172 :     if (num_scripts > 1)
    6900           6 :         per_script_stats = true;
    6901             : 
    6902             :     /*
    6903             :      * Don't need more threads than there are clients.  (This is not merely an
    6904             :      * optimization; throttle_delay is calculated incorrectly below if some
    6905             :      * threads have no clients assigned to them.)
    6906             :      */
    6907         172 :     if (nthreads > nclients)
    6908           2 :         nthreads = nclients;
    6909             : 
    6910             :     /*
    6911             :      * Convert throttle_delay to a per-thread delay time.  Note that this
    6912             :      * might be a fractional number of usec, but that's OK, since it's just
    6913             :      * the center of a Poisson distribution of delays.
    6914             :      */
    6915         172 :     throttle_delay *= nthreads;
    6916             : 
    6917         172 :     if (argc > optind)
    6918           2 :         dbName = argv[optind++];
    6919             :     else
    6920             :     {
    6921         170 :         if ((env = getenv("PGDATABASE")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
    6922         142 :             dbName = env;
    6923          28 :         else if ((env = getenv("PGUSER")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
    6924           0 :             dbName = env;
    6925             :         else
    6926          28 :             dbName = get_user_name_or_exit(progname);
    6927             :     }
    6928             : 
    6929         172 :     if (optind < argc)
    6930             :     {
    6931           0 :         pg_log_error("too many command-line arguments (first is \"%s\")",
    6932             :                      argv[optind]);
    6933           0 :         pg_log_error_hint("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.", progname);
    6934           0 :         exit(1);
    6935             :     }
    6936             : 
    6937         172 :     if (is_init_mode)
    6938             :     {
    6939          10 :         if (benchmarking_option_set)
    6940           2 :             pg_fatal("some of the specified options cannot be used in initialization (-i) mode");
    6941             : 
    6942           8 :         if (partitions == 0 && partition_method != PART_NONE)
    6943           2 :             pg_fatal("--partition-method requires greater than zero --partitions");
    6944             : 
    6945             :         /* set default method */
    6946           6 :         if (partitions > 0 && partition_method == PART_NONE)
    6947           2 :             partition_method = PART_RANGE;
    6948             : 
    6949           6 :         if (initialize_steps == NULL)
    6950           2 :             initialize_steps = pg_strdup(DEFAULT_INIT_STEPS);
    6951             : 
    6952           6 :         if (is_no_vacuum)
    6953             :         {
    6954             :             /* Remove any vacuum step in initialize_steps */
    6955             :             char       *p;
    6956             : 
    6957           8 :             while ((p = strchr(initialize_steps, 'v')) != NULL)
    6958           6 :                 *p = ' ';
    6959             :         }
    6960             : 
    6961           6 :         if (foreign_keys)
    6962             :         {
    6963             :             /* Add 'f' to end of initialize_steps, if not already there */
    6964           4 :             if (strchr(initialize_steps, 'f') == NULL)
    6965             :             {
    6966             :                 initialize_steps = (char *)
    6967           4 :                     pg_realloc(initialize_steps,
    6968           4 :                                strlen(initialize_steps) + 2);
    6969           4 :                 strcat(initialize_steps, "f");
    6970             :             }
    6971             :         }
    6972             : 
    6973           6 :         runInitSteps(initialize_steps);
    6974           6 :         exit(0);
    6975             :     }
    6976             :     else
    6977             :     {
    6978         162 :         if (initialization_option_set)
    6979           4 :             pg_fatal("some of the specified options cannot be used in benchmarking mode");
    6980             :     }
    6981             : 
    6982         158 :     if (nxacts > 0 && duration > 0)
    6983           4 :         pg_fatal("specify either a number of transactions (-t) or a duration (-T), not both");
    6984             : 
    6985             :     /* Use DEFAULT_NXACTS if neither nxacts nor duration is specified. */
    6986         154 :     if (nxacts <= 0 && duration <= 0)
    6987          16 :         nxacts = DEFAULT_NXACTS;
    6988             : 
    6989             :     /* --sampling-rate may be used only with -l */
    6990         154 :     if (sample_rate > 0.0 && !use_log)
    6991           2 :         pg_fatal("log sampling (--sampling-rate) is allowed only when logging transactions (-l)");
    6992             : 
    6993             :     /* --sampling-rate may not be used with --aggregate-interval */
    6994         152 :     if (sample_rate > 0.0 && agg_interval > 0)
    6995           2 :         pg_fatal("log sampling (--sampling-rate) and aggregation (--aggregate-interval) cannot be used at the same time");
    6996             : 
    6997         150 :     if (agg_interval > 0 && !use_log)
    6998           2 :         pg_fatal("log aggregation is allowed only when actually logging transactions");
    6999             : 
    7000         148 :     if (!use_log && logfile_prefix)
    7001           2 :         pg_fatal("log file prefix (--log-prefix) is allowed only when logging transactions (-l)");
    7002             : 
    7003         146 :     if (duration > 0 && agg_interval > duration)
    7004           2 :         pg_fatal("number of seconds for aggregation (%d) must not be higher than test duration (%d)", agg_interval, duration);
    7005             : 
    7006         144 :     if (duration > 0 && agg_interval > 0 && duration % agg_interval != 0)
    7007           2 :         pg_fatal("duration (%d) must be a multiple of aggregation interval (%d)", duration, agg_interval);
    7008             : 
    7009         142 :     if (progress_timestamp && progress == 0)
    7010           2 :         pg_fatal("--progress-timestamp is allowed only under --progress");
    7011             : 
    7012         140 :     if (!max_tries)
    7013             :     {
    7014           2 :         if (!latency_limit && duration <= 0)
    7015           2 :             pg_fatal("an unlimited number of transaction tries can only be used with --latency-limit or a duration (-T)");
    7016             :     }
    7017             : 
    7018             :     /*
    7019             :      * save main process id in the global variable because process id will be
    7020             :      * changed after fork.
    7021             :      */
    7022         138 :     main_pid = (int) getpid();
    7023             : 
    7024         138 :     if (nclients > 1)
    7025             :     {
    7026          22 :         state = (CState *) pg_realloc(state, sizeof(CState) * nclients);
    7027          22 :         memset(state + 1, 0, sizeof(CState) * (nclients - 1));
    7028             : 
    7029             :         /* copy any -D switch values to all clients */
    7030          78 :         for (i = 1; i < nclients; i++)
    7031             :         {
    7032             :             int         j;
    7033             : 
    7034          56 :             state[i].id = i;
    7035          58 :             for (j = 0; j < state[0].variables.nvars; j++)
    7036             :             {
    7037           2 :                 Variable   *var = &state[0].variables.vars[j];
    7038             : 
    7039           2 :                 if (var->value.type != PGBT_NO_VALUE)
    7040             :                 {
    7041           0 :                     if (!putVariableValue(&state[i].variables, "startup",
    7042           0 :                                           var->name, &var->value))
    7043           0 :                         exit(1);
    7044             :                 }
    7045             :                 else
    7046             :                 {
    7047           2 :                     if (!putVariable(&state[i].variables, "startup",
    7048           2 :                                      var->name, var->svalue))
    7049           0 :                         exit(1);
    7050             :                 }
    7051             :             }
    7052             :         }
    7053             :     }
    7054             : 
    7055             :     /* other CState initializations */
    7056         332 :     for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
    7057             :     {
    7058         194 :         state[i].cstack = conditional_stack_create();
    7059         194 :         initRandomState(&state[i].cs_func_rs);
    7060             :     }
    7061             : 
    7062             :     /* opening connection... */
    7063         138 :     con = doConnect();
    7064         138 :     if (con == NULL)
    7065           2 :         pg_fatal("could not create connection for setup");
    7066             : 
    7067             :     /* report pgbench and server versions */
    7068         136 :     printVersion(con);
    7069             : 
    7070         136 :     pg_log_debug("pghost: %s pgport: %s nclients: %d %s: %d dbName: %s",
    7071             :                  PQhost(con), PQport(con), nclients,
    7072             :                  duration <= 0 ? "nxacts" : "duration",
    7073             :                  duration <= 0 ? nxacts : duration, PQdb(con));
    7074             : 
    7075         136 :     if (internal_script_used)
    7076          14 :         GetTableInfo(con, scale_given);
    7077             : 
    7078             :     /*
    7079             :      * :scale variables normally get -s or database scale, but don't override
    7080             :      * an explicit -D switch
    7081             :      */
    7082         134 :     if (lookupVariable(&state[0].variables, "scale") == NULL)
    7083             :     {
    7084         324 :         for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
    7085             :         {
    7086         190 :             if (!putVariableInt(&state[i].variables, "startup", "scale", scale))
    7087           0 :                 exit(1);
    7088             :         }
    7089             :     }
    7090             : 
    7091             :     /*
    7092             :      * Define a :client_id variable that is unique per connection. But don't
    7093             :      * override an explicit -D switch.
    7094             :      */
    7095         134 :     if (lookupVariable(&state[0].variables, "client_id") == NULL)
    7096             :     {
    7097         324 :         for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
    7098         190 :             if (!putVariableInt(&state[i].variables, "startup", "client_id", i))
    7099           0 :                 exit(1);
    7100             :     }
    7101             : 
    7102             :     /* set default seed for hash functions */
    7103         134 :     if (lookupVariable(&state[0].variables, "default_seed") == NULL)
    7104             :     {
    7105         134 :         uint64      seed = pg_prng_uint64(&base_random_sequence);
    7106             : 
    7107         324 :         for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
    7108         190 :             if (!putVariableInt(&state[i].variables, "startup", "default_seed",
    7109             :                                 (int64) seed))
    7110           0 :                 exit(1);
    7111             :     }
    7112             : 
    7113             :     /* set random seed unless overwritten */
    7114         134 :     if (lookupVariable(&state[0].variables, "random_seed") == NULL)
    7115             :     {
    7116         324 :         for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
    7117         190 :             if (!putVariableInt(&state[i].variables, "startup", "random_seed",
    7118             :                                 random_seed))
    7119           0 :                 exit(1);
    7120             :     }
    7121             : 
    7122         134 :     if (!is_no_vacuum)
    7123             :     {
    7124          18 :         fprintf(stderr, "starting vacuum...");
    7125          18 :         tryExecuteStatement(con, "vacuum pgbench_branches");
    7126          18 :         tryExecuteStatement(con, "vacuum pgbench_tellers");
    7127          18 :         tryExecuteStatement(con, "truncate pgbench_history");
    7128          18 :         fprintf(stderr, "end.\n");
    7129             : 
    7130          18 :         if (do_vacuum_accounts)
    7131             :         {
    7132           0 :             fprintf(stderr, "starting vacuum pgbench_accounts...");
    7133           0 :             tryExecuteStatement(con, "vacuum analyze pgbench_accounts");
    7134           0 :             fprintf(stderr, "end.\n");
    7135             :         }
    7136             :     }
    7137         134 :     PQfinish(con);
    7138             : 
    7139             :     /* set up thread data structures */
    7140         134 :     threads = (TState *) pg_malloc(sizeof(TState) * nthreads);
    7141         134 :     nclients_dealt = 0;
    7142             : 
    7143         268 :     for (i = 0; i < nthreads; i++)
    7144             :     {
    7145         134 :         TState     *thread = &threads[i];
    7146             : 
    7147         134 :         thread->tid = i;
    7148         134 :         thread->state = &state[nclients_dealt];
    7149         134 :         thread->nstate =
    7150         134 :             (nclients - nclients_dealt + nthreads - i - 1) / (nthreads - i);
    7151         134 :         initRandomState(&thread->ts_choose_rs);
    7152         134 :         initRandomState(&thread->ts_throttle_rs);
    7153         134 :         initRandomState(&thread->ts_sample_rs);
    7154         134 :         thread->logfile = NULL; /* filled in later */
    7155         134 :         thread->latency_late = 0;
    7156         134 :         initStats(&thread->stats, 0);
    7157             : 
    7158         134 :         nclients_dealt += thread->nstate;
    7159             :     }
    7160             : 
    7161             :     /* all clients must be assigned to a thread */
    7162             :     Assert(nclients_dealt == nclients);
    7163             : 
    7164             :     /* get start up time for the whole computation */
    7165         134 :     start_time = pg_time_now();
    7166             : 
    7167             :     /* set alarm if duration is specified. */
    7168         134 :     if (duration > 0)
    7169           0 :         setalarm(duration);
    7170             : 
    7171         134 :     errno = THREAD_BARRIER_INIT(&barrier, nthreads);
    7172         134 :     if (errno != 0)
    7173           0 :         pg_fatal("could not initialize barrier: %m");
    7174             : 
    7175             : #ifdef ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY
    7176             :     /* start all threads but thread 0 which is executed directly later */
    7177         134 :     for (i = 1; i < nthreads; i++)
    7178             :     {
    7179           0 :         TState     *thread = &threads[i];
    7180             : 
    7181           0 :         thread->create_time = pg_time_now();
    7182           0 :         errno = THREAD_CREATE(&thread->thread, threadRun, thread);
    7183             : 
    7184           0 :         if (errno != 0)
    7185           0 :             pg_fatal("could not create thread: %m");
    7186             :     }
    7187             : #else
    7188             :     Assert(nthreads == 1);
    7189             : #endif                          /* ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY */
    7190             : 
    7191             :     /* compute when to stop */
    7192         134 :     threads[0].create_time = pg_time_now();
    7193         134 :     if (duration > 0)
    7194           0 :         end_time = threads[0].create_time + (int64) 1000000 * duration;
    7195             : 
    7196             :     /* run thread 0 directly */
    7197         134 :     (void) threadRun(&threads[0]);
    7198             : 
    7199             :     /* wait for other threads and accumulate results */
    7200         134 :     initStats(&stats, 0);
    7201         134 :     conn_total_duration = 0;
    7202             : 
    7203         268 :     for (i = 0; i < nthreads; i++)
    7204             :     {
    7205         134 :         TState     *thread = &threads[i];
    7206             : 
    7207             : #ifdef ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY
    7208         134 :         if (i > 0)
    7209           0 :             THREAD_JOIN(thread->thread);
    7210             : #endif                          /* ENABLE_THREAD_SAFETY */
    7211             : 
    7212         324 :         for (int j = 0; j < thread->nstate; j++)
    7213         190 :             if (thread->state[j].state != CSTATE_FINISHED)
    7214          88 :                 exit_code = 2;
    7215             : 
    7216             :         /* aggregate thread level stats */
    7217         134 :         mergeSimpleStats(&stats.latency, &thread->stats.latency);
    7218         134 :         mergeSimpleStats(&stats.lag, &thread->stats.lag);
    7219         134 :         stats.cnt += thread->stats.cnt;
    7220         134 :         stats.skipped += thread->stats.skipped;
    7221         134 :         stats.retries += thread->stats.retries;
    7222         134 :         stats.retried += thread->stats.retried;
    7223         134 :         stats.serialization_failures += thread->stats.serialization_failures;
    7224         134 :         stats.deadlock_failures += thread->stats.deadlock_failures;
    7225         134 :         latency_late += thread->latency_late;
    7226         134 :         conn_total_duration += thread->conn_duration;
    7227             : 
    7228             :         /* first recorded benchmarking start time */
    7229         134 :         if (bench_start == 0 || thread->bench_start < bench_start)
    7230         134 :             bench_start = thread->bench_start;
    7231             :     }
    7232             : 
    7233             :     /*
    7234             :      * All connections should be already closed in threadRun(), so this
    7235             :      * disconnect_all() will be a no-op, but clean up the connections just to
    7236             :      * be sure. We don't need to measure the disconnection delays here.
    7237             :      */
    7238         134 :     disconnect_all(state, nclients);
    7239             : 
    7240             :     /*
    7241             :      * Beware that performance of short benchmarks with many threads and
    7242             :      * possibly long transactions can be deceptive because threads do not
    7243             :      * start and finish at the exact same time. The total duration computed
    7244             :      * here encompasses all transactions so that tps shown is somehow slightly
    7245             :      * underestimated.
    7246             :      */
    7247         134 :     printResults(&stats, pg_time_now() - bench_start, conn_total_duration,
    7248             :                  bench_start - start_time, latency_late);
    7249             : 
    7250         134 :     THREAD_BARRIER_DESTROY(&barrier);
    7251             : 
    7252         134 :     if (exit_code != 0)
    7253          88 :         pg_log_error("Run was aborted; the above results are incomplete.");
    7254             : 
    7255         134 :     return exit_code;
    7256             : }
    7257             : 
    7258             : static THREAD_FUNC_RETURN_TYPE THREAD_FUNC_CC
    7259         134 : threadRun(void *arg)
    7260             : {
    7261         134 :     TState     *thread = (TState *) arg;
    7262         134 :     CState     *state = thread->state;
    7263             :     pg_time_usec_t start;
    7264         134 :     int         nstate = thread->nstate;
    7265         134 :     int         remains = nstate;   /* number of remaining clients */
    7266         134 :     socket_set *sockets = alloc_socket_set(nstate);
    7267             :     int64       thread_start,
    7268             :                 last_report,
    7269             :                 next_report;
    7270             :     StatsData   last,
    7271             :                 aggs;
    7272             : 
    7273             :     /* open log file if requested */
    7274         134 :     if (use_log)
    7275             :     {
    7276             :         char        logpath[MAXPGPATH];
    7277           4 :         char       *prefix = logfile_prefix ? logfile_prefix : "pgbench_log";
    7278             : 
    7279           4 :         if (thread->tid == 0)
    7280           4 :             snprintf(logpath, sizeof(logpath), "%s.%d", prefix, main_pid);
    7281             :         else
    7282           0 :             snprintf(logpath, sizeof(logpath), "%s.%d.%d", prefix, main_pid, thread->tid);
    7283             : 
    7284           4 :         thread->logfile = fopen(logpath, "w");
    7285             : 
    7286           4 :         if (thread->logfile == NULL)
    7287           0 :             pg_fatal("could not open logfile \"%s\": %m", logpath);
    7288             :     }
    7289             : 
    7290             :     /* explicitly initialize the state machines */
    7291         324 :     for (int i = 0; i < nstate; i++)
    7292         190 :         state[i].state = CSTATE_CHOOSE_SCRIPT;
    7293             : 
    7294             :     /* READY */
    7295         134 :     THREAD_BARRIER_WAIT(&barrier);
    7296             : 
    7297         134 :     thread_start = pg_time_now();
    7298         134 :     thread->started_time = thread_start;
    7299         134 :     thread->conn_duration = 0;
    7300         134 :     last_report = thread_start;
    7301         134 :     next_report = last_report + (int64) 1000000 * progress;
    7302             : 
    7303             :     /* STEADY */
    7304         134 :     if (!is_connect)
    7305             :     {
    7306             :         /* make connections to the database before starting */
    7307         306 :         for (int i = 0; i < nstate; i++)
    7308             :         {
    7309         176 :             if ((state[i].con = doConnect()) == NULL)
    7310             :             {
    7311             :                 /* coldly abort on initial connection failure */
    7312           0 :                 pg_fatal("could not create connection for client %d",
    7313             :                          state[i].id);
    7314             :             }
    7315             :         }
    7316             :     }
    7317             : 
    7318             :     /* GO */
    7319         134 :     THREAD_BARRIER_WAIT(&barrier);
    7320             : 
    7321         134 :     start = pg_time_now();
    7322         134 :     thread->bench_start = start;
    7323         134 :     thread->throttle_trigger = start;
    7324             : 
    7325             :     /*
    7326             :      * The log format currently has Unix epoch timestamps with whole numbers
    7327             :      * of seconds.  Round the first aggregate's start time down to the nearest
    7328             :      * Unix epoch second (the very first aggregate might really have started a
    7329             :      * fraction of a second later, but later aggregates are measured from the
    7330             :      * whole number time that is actually logged).
    7331             :      */
    7332         134 :     initStats(&aggs, (start + epoch_shift) / 1000000 * 1000000);
    7333         134 :     last = aggs;
    7334             : 
    7335             :     /* loop till all clients have terminated */
    7336       13172 :     while (remains > 0)
    7337             :     {
    7338             :         int         nsocks;     /* number of sockets to be waited for */
    7339             :         pg_time_usec_t min_usec;
    7340       13038 :         pg_time_usec_t now = 0; /* set this only if needed */
    7341             : 
    7342             :         /*
    7343             :          * identify which client sockets should be checked for input, and
    7344             :          * compute the nearest time (if any) at which we need to wake up.
    7345             :          */
    7346       13038 :         clear_socket_set(sockets);
    7347       13038 :         nsocks = 0;
    7348       13038 :         min_usec = PG_INT64_MAX;
    7349       60600 :         for (int i = 0; i < nstate; i++)
    7350             :         {
    7351       51850 :             CState     *st = &state[i];
    7352             : 
    7353       51850 :             if (st->state == CSTATE_SLEEP || st->state == CSTATE_THROTTLE)
    7354           6 :             {
    7355             :                 /* a nap from the script, or under throttling */
    7356             :                 pg_time_usec_t this_usec;
    7357             : 
    7358             :                 /* get current time if needed */
    7359           6 :                 pg_time_now_lazy(&now);
    7360             : 
    7361             :                 /* min_usec should be the minimum delay across all clients */
    7362          12 :                 this_usec = (st->state == CSTATE_SLEEP ?
    7363           6 :                              st->sleep_until : st->txn_scheduled) - now;
    7364           6 :                 if (min_usec > this_usec)
    7365           6 :                     min_usec = this_usec;
    7366             :             }
    7367       51844 :             else if (st->state == CSTATE_WAIT_RESULT ||
    7368        9300 :                      st->state == CSTATE_WAIT_ROLLBACK_RESULT)
    7369       42546 :             {
    7370             :                 /*
    7371             :                  * waiting for result from server - nothing to do unless the
    7372             :                  * socket is readable
    7373             :                  */
    7374       42546 :                 int         sock = PQsocket(st->con);
    7375             : 
    7376       42546 :                 if (sock < 0)
    7377             :                 {
    7378           0 :                     pg_log_error("invalid socket: %s", PQerrorMessage(st->con));
    7379           0 :                     goto done;
    7380             :                 }
    7381             : 
    7382       42546 :                 add_socket_to_set(sockets, sock, nsocks++);
    7383             :             }
    7384        9298 :             else if (st->state != CSTATE_ABORTED &&
    7385        9298 :                      st->state != CSTATE_FINISHED)
    7386             :             {
    7387             :                 /*
    7388             :                  * This client thread is ready to do something, so we don't
    7389             :                  * want to wait.  No need to examine additional clients.
    7390             :                  */
    7391        4288 :                 min_usec = 0;
    7392        4288 :                 break;
    7393             :             }
    7394             :         }
    7395             : 
    7396             :         /* also wake up to print the next progress report on time */
    7397       13038 :         if (progress && min_usec > 0 && thread->tid == 0)
    7398             :         {
    7399           0 :             pg_time_now_lazy(&now);
    7400             : 
    7401           0 :             if (now >= next_report)
    7402           0 :                 min_usec = 0;
    7403           0 :             else if ((next_report - now) < min_usec)
    7404           0 :                 min_usec = next_report - now;
    7405             :         }
    7406             : 
    7407             :         /*
    7408             :          * If no clients are ready to execute actions, sleep until we receive
    7409             :          * data on some client socket or the timeout (if any) elapses.
    7410             :          */
    7411       13038 :         if (min_usec > 0)
    7412             :         {
    7413        8750 :             int         rc = 0;
    7414             : 
    7415        8750 :             if (min_usec != PG_INT64_MAX)
    7416             :             {
    7417           6 :                 if (nsocks > 0)
    7418             :                 {
    7419           0 :                     rc = wait_on_socket_set(sockets, min_usec);
    7420             :                 }
    7421             :                 else            /* nothing active, simple sleep */
    7422             :                 {
    7423           6 :                     pg_usleep(min_usec);
    7424             :                 }
    7425             :             }
    7426             :             else                /* no explicit delay, wait without timeout */
    7427             :             {
    7428        8744 :                 rc = wait_on_socket_set(sockets, 0);
    7429             :             }
    7430             : 
    7431        8750 :             if (rc < 0)
    7432             :             {
    7433           0 :                 if (errno == EINTR)
    7434             :                 {
    7435             :                     /* On EINTR, go back to top of loop */
    7436           0 :                     continue;
    7437             :                 }
    7438             :                 /* must be something wrong */
    7439           0 :                 pg_log_error("%s() failed: %m", SOCKET_WAIT_METHOD);
    7440           0 :                 goto done;
    7441             :             }
    7442             :         }
    7443             :         else
    7444             :         {
    7445             :             /* min_usec <= 0, i.e. something needs to be executed now */
    7446             : 
    7447             :             /* If we didn't wait, don't try to read any data */
    7448        4288 :             clear_socket_set(sockets);
    7449             :         }
    7450             : 
    7451             :         /* ok, advance the state machine of each connection */
    7452       13038 :         nsocks = 0;
    7453       73112 :         for (int i = 0; i < nstate; i++)
    7454             :         {
    7455       60074 :             CState     *st = &state[i];
    7456             : 
    7457       60074 :             if (st->state == CSTATE_WAIT_RESULT ||
    7458       10780 :                 st->state == CSTATE_WAIT_ROLLBACK_RESULT)
    7459        9994 :             {
    7460             :                 /* don't call advanceConnectionState unless data is available */
    7461       49296 :                 int         sock = PQsocket(st->con);
    7462             : 
    7463       49296 :                 if (sock < 0)
    7464             :                 {
    7465           0 :                     pg_log_error("invalid socket: %s", PQerrorMessage(st->con));
    7466           0 :                     goto done;
    7467             :                 }
    7468             : 
    7469       49296 :                 if (!socket_has_input(sockets, sock, nsocks++))
    7470       39302 :                     continue;
    7471             :             }
    7472       10778 :             else if (st->state == CSTATE_FINISHED ||
    7473        4872 :                      st->state == CSTATE_ABORTED)
    7474             :             {
    7475             :                 /* this client is done, no need to consider it anymore */
    7476        5906 :                 continue;
    7477             :             }
    7478             : 
    7479       14866 :             advanceConnectionState(thread, st, &aggs);
    7480             : 
    7481             :             /*
    7482             :              * If advanceConnectionState changed client to finished state,
    7483             :              * that's one fewer client that remains.
    7484             :              */
    7485       14866 :             if (st->state == CSTATE_FINISHED || st->state == CSTATE_ABORTED)
    7486         190 :                 remains--;
    7487             :         }
    7488             : 
    7489             :         /* progress report is made by thread 0 for all threads */
    7490       13038 :         if (progress && thread->tid == 0)
    7491             :         {
    7492           0 :             pg_time_usec_t now2 = pg_time_now();
    7493             : 
    7494           0 :             if (now2 >= next_report)
    7495             :             {
    7496             :                 /*
    7497             :                  * Horrible hack: this relies on the thread pointer we are
    7498             :                  * passed to be equivalent to threads[0], that is the first
    7499             :                  * entry of the threads array.  That is why this MUST be done
    7500             :                  * by thread 0 and not any other.
    7501             :                  */
    7502           0 :                 printProgressReport(thread, thread_start, now2,
    7503             :                                     &last, &last_report);
    7504             : 
    7505             :                 /*
    7506             :                  * Ensure that the next report is in the future, in case
    7507             :                  * pgbench/postgres got stuck somewhere.
    7508             :                  */
    7509             :                 do
    7510             :                 {
    7511           0 :                     next_report += (int64) 1000000 * progress;
    7512           0 :                 } while (now2 >= next_report);
    7513             :             }
    7514             :         }
    7515             :     }
    7516             : 
    7517         134 : done:
    7518         134 :     disconnect_all(state, nstate);
    7519             : 
    7520         134 :     if (thread->logfile)
    7521             :     {
    7522           4 :         if (agg_interval > 0)
    7523             :         {
    7524             :             /* log aggregated but not yet reported transactions */
    7525           0 :             doLog(thread, state, &aggs, false, 0, 0);
    7526             :         }
    7527           4 :         fclose(thread->logfile);
    7528           4 :         thread->logfile = NULL;
    7529             :     }
    7530         134 :     free_socket_set(sockets);
    7531         134 :     THREAD_FUNC_RETURN;
    7532             : }
    7533             : 
    7534             : static void
    7535         790 : finishCon(CState *st)
    7536             : {
    7537         790 :     if (st->con != NULL)
    7538             :     {
    7539         396 :         PQfinish(st->con);
    7540         396 :         st->con = NULL;
    7541             :     }
    7542         790 : }
    7543             : 
    7544             : /*
    7545             :  * Support for duration option: set timer_exceeded after so many seconds.
    7546             :  */
    7547             : 
    7548             : #ifndef WIN32
    7549             : 
    7550             : static void
    7551           0 : handle_sig_alarm(SIGNAL_ARGS)
    7552             : {
    7553           0 :     timer_exceeded = true;
    7554           0 : }
    7555             : 
    7556             : static void
    7557           0 : setalarm(int seconds)
    7558             : {
    7559           0 :     pqsignal(SIGALRM, handle_sig_alarm);
    7560           0 :     alarm(seconds);
    7561           0 : }
    7562             : 
    7563             : #else                           /* WIN32 */
    7564             : 
    7565             : static VOID CALLBACK
    7566             : win32_timer_callback(PVOID lpParameter, BOOLEAN TimerOrWaitFired)
    7567             : {
    7568             :     timer_exceeded = true;
    7569             : }
    7570             : 
    7571             : static void
    7572             : setalarm(int seconds)
    7573             : {
    7574             :     HANDLE      queue;
    7575             :     HANDLE      timer;
    7576             : 
    7577             :     /* This function will be called at most once, so we can cheat a bit. */
    7578             :     queue = CreateTimerQueue();
    7579             :     if (seconds > ((DWORD) -1) / 1000 ||
    7580             :         !CreateTimerQueueTimer(&timer, queue,
    7581             :                                win32_timer_callback, NULL, seconds * 1000, 0,
    7582             :                                WT_EXECUTEINTIMERTHREAD | WT_EXECUTEONLYONCE))
    7583             :         pg_fatal("failed to set timer");
    7584             : }
    7585             : 
    7586             : #endif                          /* WIN32 */
    7587             : 
    7588             : 
    7589             : /*
    7590             :  * These functions provide an abstraction layer that hides the syscall
    7591             :  * we use to wait for input on a set of sockets.
    7592             :  *
    7593             :  * Currently there are two implementations, based on ppoll(2) and select(2).
    7594             :  * ppoll() is preferred where available due to its typically higher ceiling
    7595             :  * on the number of usable sockets.  We do not use the more-widely-available
    7596             :  * poll(2) because it only offers millisecond timeout resolution, which could
    7597             :  * be problematic with high --rate settings.
    7598             :  *
    7599             :  * Function APIs:
    7600             :  *
    7601             :  * alloc_socket_set: allocate an empty socket set with room for up to
    7602             :  *      "count" sockets.
    7603             :  *
    7604             :  * free_socket_set: deallocate a socket set.
    7605             :  *
    7606             :  * clear_socket_set: reset a socket set to empty.
    7607             :  *
    7608             :  * add_socket_to_set: add socket with indicated FD to slot "idx" in the
    7609             :  *      socket set.  Slots must be filled in order, starting with 0.
    7610             :  *
    7611             :  * wait_on_socket_set: wait for input on any socket in set, or for timeout
    7612             :  *      to expire.  timeout is measured in microseconds; 0 means wait forever.
    7613             :  *      Returns result code of underlying syscall (>=0 if OK, else see errno).
    7614             :  *
    7615             :  * socket_has_input: after waiting, call this to see if given socket has
    7616             :  *      input.  fd and idx parameters should match some previous call to
    7617             :  *      add_socket_to_set.
    7618             :  *
    7619             :  * Note that wait_on_socket_set destructively modifies the state of the
    7620             :  * socket set.  After checking for input, caller must apply clear_socket_set
    7621             :  * and add_socket_to_set again before waiting again.
    7622             :  */
    7623             : 
    7624             : #ifdef POLL_USING_PPOLL
    7625             : 
    7626             : static socket_set *
    7627         134 : alloc_socket_set(int count)
    7628             : {
    7629             :     socket_set *sa;
    7630             : 
    7631         134 :     sa = (socket_set *) pg_malloc0(offsetof(socket_set, pollfds) +
    7632             :                                    sizeof(struct pollfd) * count);
    7633         134 :     sa->maxfds = count;
    7634         134 :     sa->curfds = 0;
    7635         134 :     return sa;
    7636             : }
    7637             : 
    7638             : static void
    7639         134 : free_socket_set(socket_set *sa)
    7640             : {
    7641         134 :     pg_free(sa);
    7642         134 : }
    7643             : 
    7644             : static void
    7645       17326 : clear_socket_set(socket_set *sa)
    7646             : {
    7647       17326 :     sa->curfds = 0;
    7648       17326 : }
    7649             : 
    7650             : static void
    7651       42546 : add_socket_to_set(socket_set *sa, int fd, int idx)
    7652             : {
    7653             :     Assert(idx < sa->maxfds && idx == sa->curfds);
    7654       42546 :     sa->pollfds[idx].fd = fd;
    7655       42546 :     sa->pollfds[idx].events = POLLIN;
    7656       42546 :     sa->pollfds[idx].revents = 0;
    7657       42546 :     sa->curfds++;
    7658       42546 : }
    7659             : 
    7660             : static int
    7661        8744 : wait_on_socket_set(socket_set *sa, int64 usecs)
    7662             : {
    7663        8744 :     if (usecs > 0)
    7664             :     {
    7665             :         struct timespec timeout;
    7666             : 
    7667           0 :         timeout.tv_sec = usecs / 1000000;
    7668           0 :         timeout.tv_nsec = (usecs % 1000000) * 1000;
    7669           0 :         return ppoll(sa->pollfds, sa->curfds, &timeout, NULL);
    7670             :     }
    7671             :     else
    7672             :     {
    7673        8744 :         return ppoll(sa->pollfds, sa->curfds, NULL, NULL);
    7674             :     }
    7675             : }
    7676             : 
    7677             : static bool
    7678       49296 : socket_has_input(socket_set *sa, int fd, int idx)
    7679             : {
    7680             :     /*
    7681             :      * In some cases, threadRun will apply clear_socket_set and then try to
    7682             :      * apply socket_has_input anyway with arguments that it used before that,
    7683             :      * or might've used before that except that it exited its setup loop
    7684             :      * early.  Hence, if the socket set is empty, silently return false
    7685             :      * regardless of the parameters.  If it's not empty, we can Assert that
    7686             :      * the parameters match a previous call.
    7687             :      */
    7688       49296 :     if (sa->curfds == 0)
    7689       13112 :         return false;
    7690             : 
    7691             :     Assert(idx < sa->curfds && sa->pollfds[idx].fd == fd);
    7692       36184 :     return (sa->pollfds[idx].revents & POLLIN) != 0;
    7693             : }
    7694             : 
    7695             : #endif                          /* POLL_USING_PPOLL */
    7696             : 
    7697             : #ifdef POLL_USING_SELECT
    7698             : 
    7699             : static socket_set *
    7700             : alloc_socket_set(int count)
    7701             : {
    7702             :     return (socket_set *) pg_malloc0(sizeof(socket_set));
    7703             : }
    7704             : 
    7705             : static void
    7706             : free_socket_set(socket_set *sa)
    7707             : {
    7708             :     pg_free(sa);
    7709             : }
    7710             : 
    7711             : static void
    7712             : clear_socket_set(socket_set *sa)
    7713             : {
    7714             :     FD_ZERO(&sa->fds);
    7715             :     sa->maxfd = -1;
    7716             : }
    7717             : 
    7718             : static void
    7719             : add_socket_to_set(socket_set *sa, int fd, int idx)
    7720             : {
    7721             :     if (fd < 0 || fd >= FD_SETSIZE)
    7722             :     {
    7723             :         /*
    7724             :          * Doing a hard exit here is a bit grotty, but it doesn't seem worth
    7725             :          * complicating the API to make it less grotty.
    7726             :          */
    7727             :         pg_fatal("too many client connections for select()");
    7728             :     }
    7729             :     FD_SET(fd, &sa->fds);
    7730             :     if (fd > sa->maxfd)
    7731             :         sa->maxfd = fd;
    7732             : }
    7733             : 
    7734             : static int
    7735             : wait_on_socket_set(socket_set *sa, int64 usecs)
    7736             : {
    7737             :     if (usecs > 0)
    7738             :     {
    7739             :         struct timeval timeout;
    7740             : 
    7741             :         timeout.tv_sec = usecs / 1000000;
    7742             :         timeout.tv_usec = usecs % 1000000;
    7743             :         return select(sa->maxfd + 1, &sa->fds, NULL, NULL, &timeout);
    7744             :     }
    7745             :     else
    7746             :     {
    7747             :         return select(sa->maxfd + 1, &sa->fds, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    7748             :     }
    7749             : }
    7750             : 
    7751             : static bool
    7752             : socket_has_input(socket_set *sa, int fd, int idx)
    7753             : {
    7754             :     return (FD_ISSET(fd, &sa->fds) != 0);
    7755             : }
    7756             : 
    7757             : #endif                          /* POLL_USING_SELECT */

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