LCOV - code coverage report
Current view: top level - src/backend/catalog - index.c (source / functions) Hit Total Coverage
Test: PostgreSQL 13devel Lines: 975 1041 93.7 %
Date: 2019-11-22 07:06:56 Functions: 37 37 100.0 %
Legend: Lines: hit not hit

          Line data    Source code
       1             : /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
       2             :  *
       3             :  * index.c
       4             :  *    code to create and destroy POSTGRES index relations
       5             :  *
       6             :  * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2019, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
       7             :  * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
       8             :  *
       9             :  *
      10             :  * IDENTIFICATION
      11             :  *    src/backend/catalog/index.c
      12             :  *
      13             :  *
      14             :  * INTERFACE ROUTINES
      15             :  *      index_create()          - Create a cataloged index relation
      16             :  *      index_drop()            - Removes index relation from catalogs
      17             :  *      BuildIndexInfo()        - Prepare to insert index tuples
      18             :  *      FormIndexDatum()        - Construct datum vector for one index tuple
      19             :  *
      20             :  *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
      21             :  */
      22             : #include "postgres.h"
      23             : 
      24             : #include <unistd.h>
      25             : 
      26             : #include "access/amapi.h"
      27             : #include "access/heapam.h"
      28             : #include "access/multixact.h"
      29             : #include "access/relscan.h"
      30             : #include "access/sysattr.h"
      31             : #include "access/tableam.h"
      32             : #include "access/transam.h"
      33             : #include "access/visibilitymap.h"
      34             : #include "access/xact.h"
      35             : #include "bootstrap/bootstrap.h"
      36             : #include "catalog/binary_upgrade.h"
      37             : #include "catalog/catalog.h"
      38             : #include "catalog/dependency.h"
      39             : #include "catalog/heap.h"
      40             : #include "catalog/index.h"
      41             : #include "catalog/objectaccess.h"
      42             : #include "catalog/partition.h"
      43             : #include "catalog/pg_am.h"
      44             : #include "catalog/pg_collation.h"
      45             : #include "catalog/pg_constraint.h"
      46             : #include "catalog/pg_depend.h"
      47             : #include "catalog/pg_description.h"
      48             : #include "catalog/pg_inherits.h"
      49             : #include "catalog/pg_opclass.h"
      50             : #include "catalog/pg_operator.h"
      51             : #include "catalog/pg_tablespace.h"
      52             : #include "catalog/pg_trigger.h"
      53             : #include "catalog/pg_type.h"
      54             : #include "catalog/storage.h"
      55             : #include "commands/event_trigger.h"
      56             : #include "commands/progress.h"
      57             : #include "commands/tablecmds.h"
      58             : #include "commands/trigger.h"
      59             : #include "executor/executor.h"
      60             : #include "miscadmin.h"
      61             : #include "nodes/makefuncs.h"
      62             : #include "nodes/nodeFuncs.h"
      63             : #include "optimizer/optimizer.h"
      64             : #include "parser/parser.h"
      65             : #include "pgstat.h"
      66             : #include "rewrite/rewriteManip.h"
      67             : #include "storage/bufmgr.h"
      68             : #include "storage/lmgr.h"
      69             : #include "storage/predicate.h"
      70             : #include "storage/procarray.h"
      71             : #include "storage/smgr.h"
      72             : #include "utils/builtins.h"
      73             : #include "utils/fmgroids.h"
      74             : #include "utils/guc.h"
      75             : #include "utils/inval.h"
      76             : #include "utils/lsyscache.h"
      77             : #include "utils/memutils.h"
      78             : #include "utils/pg_rusage.h"
      79             : #include "utils/snapmgr.h"
      80             : #include "utils/syscache.h"
      81             : #include "utils/tuplesort.h"
      82             : 
      83             : /* Potentially set by pg_upgrade_support functions */
      84             : Oid         binary_upgrade_next_index_pg_class_oid = InvalidOid;
      85             : 
      86             : /*
      87             :  * Pointer-free representation of variables used when reindexing system
      88             :  * catalogs; we use this to propagate those values to parallel workers.
      89             :  */
      90             : typedef struct
      91             : {
      92             :     Oid         currentlyReindexedHeap;
      93             :     Oid         currentlyReindexedIndex;
      94             :     int         numPendingReindexedIndexes;
      95             :     Oid         pendingReindexedIndexes[FLEXIBLE_ARRAY_MEMBER];
      96             : } SerializedReindexState;
      97             : 
      98             : /* non-export function prototypes */
      99             : static bool relationHasPrimaryKey(Relation rel);
     100             : static TupleDesc ConstructTupleDescriptor(Relation heapRelation,
     101             :                                           IndexInfo *indexInfo,
     102             :                                           List *indexColNames,
     103             :                                           Oid accessMethodObjectId,
     104             :                                           Oid *collationObjectId,
     105             :                                           Oid *classObjectId);
     106             : static void InitializeAttributeOids(Relation indexRelation,
     107             :                                     int numatts, Oid indexoid);
     108             : static void AppendAttributeTuples(Relation indexRelation, int numatts);
     109             : static void UpdateIndexRelation(Oid indexoid, Oid heapoid,
     110             :                                 Oid parentIndexId,
     111             :                                 IndexInfo *indexInfo,
     112             :                                 Oid *collationOids,
     113             :                                 Oid *classOids,
     114             :                                 int16 *coloptions,
     115             :                                 bool primary,
     116             :                                 bool isexclusion,
     117             :                                 bool immediate,
     118             :                                 bool isvalid,
     119             :                                 bool isready);
     120             : static void index_update_stats(Relation rel,
     121             :                                bool hasindex,
     122             :                                double reltuples);
     123             : static void IndexCheckExclusion(Relation heapRelation,
     124             :                                 Relation indexRelation,
     125             :                                 IndexInfo *indexInfo);
     126             : static bool validate_index_callback(ItemPointer itemptr, void *opaque);
     127             : static bool ReindexIsCurrentlyProcessingIndex(Oid indexOid);
     128             : static void SetReindexProcessing(Oid heapOid, Oid indexOid);
     129             : static void ResetReindexProcessing(void);
     130             : static void SetReindexPending(List *indexes);
     131             : static void RemoveReindexPending(Oid indexOid);
     132             : static void ResetReindexPending(void);
     133             : 
     134             : 
     135             : /*
     136             :  * relationHasPrimaryKey
     137             :  *      See whether an existing relation has a primary key.
     138             :  *
     139             :  * Caller must have suitable lock on the relation.
     140             :  *
     141             :  * Note: we intentionally do not check indisvalid here; that's because this
     142             :  * is used to enforce the rule that there can be only one indisprimary index,
     143             :  * and we want that to be true even if said index is invalid.
     144             :  */
     145             : static bool
     146         800 : relationHasPrimaryKey(Relation rel)
     147             : {
     148         800 :     bool        result = false;
     149             :     List       *indexoidlist;
     150             :     ListCell   *indexoidscan;
     151             : 
     152             :     /*
     153             :      * Get the list of index OIDs for the table from the relcache, and look up
     154             :      * each one in the pg_index syscache until we find one marked primary key
     155             :      * (hopefully there isn't more than one such).
     156             :      */
     157         800 :     indexoidlist = RelationGetIndexList(rel);
     158             : 
     159         954 :     foreach(indexoidscan, indexoidlist)
     160             :     {
     161         174 :         Oid         indexoid = lfirst_oid(indexoidscan);
     162             :         HeapTuple   indexTuple;
     163             : 
     164         174 :         indexTuple = SearchSysCache1(INDEXRELID, ObjectIdGetDatum(indexoid));
     165         174 :         if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))  /* should not happen */
     166           0 :             elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexoid);
     167         174 :         result = ((Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple))->indisprimary;
     168         174 :         ReleaseSysCache(indexTuple);
     169         174 :         if (result)
     170          20 :             break;
     171             :     }
     172             : 
     173         800 :     list_free(indexoidlist);
     174             : 
     175         800 :     return result;
     176             : }
     177             : 
     178             : /*
     179             :  * index_check_primary_key
     180             :  *      Apply special checks needed before creating a PRIMARY KEY index
     181             :  *
     182             :  * This processing used to be in DefineIndex(), but has been split out
     183             :  * so that it can be applied during ALTER TABLE ADD PRIMARY KEY USING INDEX.
     184             :  *
     185             :  * We check for a pre-existing primary key, and that all columns of the index
     186             :  * are simple column references (not expressions), and that all those
     187             :  * columns are marked NOT NULL.  If not, fail.
     188             :  *
     189             :  * We used to automatically change unmarked columns to NOT NULL here by doing
     190             :  * our own local ALTER TABLE command.  But that doesn't work well if we're
     191             :  * executing one subcommand of an ALTER TABLE: the operations may not get
     192             :  * performed in the right order overall.  Now we expect that the parser
     193             :  * inserted any required ALTER TABLE SET NOT NULL operations before trying
     194             :  * to create a primary-key index.
     195             :  *
     196             :  * Caller had better have at least ShareLock on the table, else the not-null
     197             :  * checking isn't trustworthy.
     198             :  */
     199             : void
     200        4830 : index_check_primary_key(Relation heapRel,
     201             :                         IndexInfo *indexInfo,
     202             :                         bool is_alter_table,
     203             :                         IndexStmt *stmt)
     204             : {
     205             :     int         i;
     206             : 
     207             :     /*
     208             :      * If ALTER TABLE or CREATE TABLE .. PARTITION OF, check that there isn't
     209             :      * already a PRIMARY KEY.  In CREATE TABLE for an ordinary relation, we
     210             :      * have faith that the parser rejected multiple pkey clauses; and CREATE
     211             :      * INDEX doesn't have a way to say PRIMARY KEY, so it's no problem either.
     212             :      */
     213        5630 :     if ((is_alter_table || heapRel->rd_rel->relispartition) &&
     214         800 :         relationHasPrimaryKey(heapRel))
     215             :     {
     216          20 :         ereport(ERROR,
     217             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
     218             :                  errmsg("multiple primary keys for table \"%s\" are not allowed",
     219             :                         RelationGetRelationName(heapRel))));
     220             :     }
     221             : 
     222             :     /*
     223             :      * Check that all of the attributes in a primary key are marked as not
     224             :      * null.  (We don't really expect to see that; it'd mean the parser messed
     225             :      * up.  But it seems wise to check anyway.)
     226             :      */
     227       10104 :     for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs; i++)
     228             :     {
     229        5294 :         AttrNumber  attnum = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
     230             :         HeapTuple   atttuple;
     231             :         Form_pg_attribute attform;
     232             : 
     233        5294 :         if (attnum == 0)
     234           0 :             ereport(ERROR,
     235             :                     (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
     236             :                      errmsg("primary keys cannot be expressions")));
     237             : 
     238             :         /* System attributes are never null, so no need to check */
     239        5294 :         if (attnum < 0)
     240           0 :             continue;
     241             : 
     242       10588 :         atttuple = SearchSysCache2(ATTNUM,
     243        5294 :                                    ObjectIdGetDatum(RelationGetRelid(heapRel)),
     244             :                                    Int16GetDatum(attnum));
     245        5294 :         if (!HeapTupleIsValid(atttuple))
     246           0 :             elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for attribute %d of relation %u",
     247             :                  attnum, RelationGetRelid(heapRel));
     248        5294 :         attform = (Form_pg_attribute) GETSTRUCT(atttuple);
     249             : 
     250        5294 :         if (!attform->attnotnull)
     251           0 :             ereport(ERROR,
     252             :                     (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TABLE_DEFINITION),
     253             :                      errmsg("primary key column \"%s\" is not marked NOT NULL",
     254             :                             NameStr(attform->attname))));
     255             : 
     256        5294 :         ReleaseSysCache(atttuple);
     257             :     }
     258        4810 : }
     259             : 
     260             : /*
     261             :  *      ConstructTupleDescriptor
     262             :  *
     263             :  * Build an index tuple descriptor for a new index
     264             :  */
     265             : static TupleDesc
     266       66154 : ConstructTupleDescriptor(Relation heapRelation,
     267             :                          IndexInfo *indexInfo,
     268             :                          List *indexColNames,
     269             :                          Oid accessMethodObjectId,
     270             :                          Oid *collationObjectId,
     271             :                          Oid *classObjectId)
     272             : {
     273       66154 :     int         numatts = indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs;
     274       66154 :     int         numkeyatts = indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs;
     275       66154 :     ListCell   *colnames_item = list_head(indexColNames);
     276       66154 :     ListCell   *indexpr_item = list_head(indexInfo->ii_Expressions);
     277             :     IndexAmRoutine *amroutine;
     278             :     TupleDesc   heapTupDesc;
     279             :     TupleDesc   indexTupDesc;
     280             :     int         natts;          /* #atts in heap rel --- for error checks */
     281             :     int         i;
     282             : 
     283             :     /* We need access to the index AM's API struct */
     284       66154 :     amroutine = GetIndexAmRoutineByAmId(accessMethodObjectId, false);
     285             : 
     286             :     /* ... and to the table's tuple descriptor */
     287       66154 :     heapTupDesc = RelationGetDescr(heapRelation);
     288       66154 :     natts = RelationGetForm(heapRelation)->relnatts;
     289             : 
     290             :     /*
     291             :      * allocate the new tuple descriptor
     292             :      */
     293       66154 :     indexTupDesc = CreateTemplateTupleDesc(numatts);
     294             : 
     295             :     /*
     296             :      * Fill in the pg_attribute row.
     297             :      */
     298      178790 :     for (i = 0; i < numatts; i++)
     299             :     {
     300      112636 :         AttrNumber  atnum = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
     301      112636 :         Form_pg_attribute to = TupleDescAttr(indexTupDesc, i);
     302             :         HeapTuple   tuple;
     303             :         Form_pg_type typeTup;
     304             :         Form_pg_opclass opclassTup;
     305             :         Oid         keyType;
     306             : 
     307      112636 :         MemSet(to, 0, ATTRIBUTE_FIXED_PART_SIZE);
     308      112636 :         to->attnum = i + 1;
     309      112636 :         to->attstattarget = -1;
     310      112636 :         to->attcacheoff = -1;
     311      112636 :         to->attislocal = true;
     312      112636 :         to->attcollation = (i < numkeyatts) ?
     313      112636 :             collationObjectId[i] : InvalidOid;
     314             : 
     315             :         /*
     316             :          * For simple index columns, we copy some pg_attribute fields from the
     317             :          * parent relation.  For expressions we have to look at the expression
     318             :          * result.
     319             :          */
     320      112636 :         if (atnum != 0)
     321             :         {
     322             :             /* Simple index column */
     323             :             const FormData_pg_attribute *from;
     324             : 
     325             :             Assert(atnum > 0);   /* should've been caught above */
     326             : 
     327      112258 :             if (atnum > natts)   /* safety check */
     328           0 :                 elog(ERROR, "invalid column number %d", atnum);
     329      112258 :             from = TupleDescAttr(heapTupDesc,
     330             :                                  AttrNumberGetAttrOffset(atnum));
     331             : 
     332      112258 :             namecpy(&to->attname, &from->attname);
     333      112258 :             to->atttypid = from->atttypid;
     334      112258 :             to->attlen = from->attlen;
     335      112258 :             to->attndims = from->attndims;
     336      112258 :             to->atttypmod = from->atttypmod;
     337      112258 :             to->attbyval = from->attbyval;
     338      112258 :             to->attstorage = from->attstorage;
     339      112258 :             to->attalign = from->attalign;
     340             :         }
     341             :         else
     342             :         {
     343             :             /* Expressional index */
     344             :             Node       *indexkey;
     345             : 
     346         378 :             if (indexpr_item == NULL)   /* shouldn't happen */
     347           0 :                 elog(ERROR, "too few entries in indexprs list");
     348         378 :             indexkey = (Node *) lfirst(indexpr_item);
     349         378 :             indexpr_item = lnext(indexInfo->ii_Expressions, indexpr_item);
     350             : 
     351             :             /*
     352             :              * Lookup the expression type in pg_type for the type length etc.
     353             :              */
     354         378 :             keyType = exprType(indexkey);
     355         378 :             tuple = SearchSysCache1(TYPEOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(keyType));
     356         378 :             if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
     357           0 :                 elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for type %u", keyType);
     358         378 :             typeTup = (Form_pg_type) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
     359             : 
     360             :             /*
     361             :              * Assign some of the attributes values. Leave the rest.
     362             :              */
     363         378 :             to->atttypid = keyType;
     364         378 :             to->attlen = typeTup->typlen;
     365         378 :             to->attbyval = typeTup->typbyval;
     366         378 :             to->attstorage = typeTup->typstorage;
     367         378 :             to->attalign = typeTup->typalign;
     368         378 :             to->atttypmod = exprTypmod(indexkey);
     369             : 
     370         378 :             ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
     371             : 
     372             :             /*
     373             :              * Make sure the expression yields a type that's safe to store in
     374             :              * an index.  We need this defense because we have index opclasses
     375             :              * for pseudo-types such as "record", and the actually stored type
     376             :              * had better be safe; eg, a named composite type is okay, an
     377             :              * anonymous record type is not.  The test is the same as for
     378             :              * whether a table column is of a safe type (which is why we
     379             :              * needn't check for the non-expression case).
     380             :              */
     381         378 :             CheckAttributeType(NameStr(to->attname),
     382             :                                to->atttypid, to->attcollation,
     383             :                                NIL, 0);
     384             :         }
     385             : 
     386             :         /*
     387             :          * We do not yet have the correct relation OID for the index, so just
     388             :          * set it invalid for now.  InitializeAttributeOids() will fix it
     389             :          * later.
     390             :          */
     391      112636 :         to->attrelid = InvalidOid;
     392             : 
     393             :         /*
     394             :          * Set the attribute name as specified by caller.
     395             :          */
     396      112636 :         if (colnames_item == NULL)  /* shouldn't happen */
     397           0 :             elog(ERROR, "too few entries in colnames list");
     398      112636 :         namestrcpy(&to->attname, (const char *) lfirst(colnames_item));
     399      112636 :         colnames_item = lnext(indexColNames, colnames_item);
     400             : 
     401             :         /*
     402             :          * Check the opclass and index AM to see if either provides a keytype
     403             :          * (overriding the attribute type).  Opclass (if exists) takes
     404             :          * precedence.
     405             :          */
     406      112636 :         keyType = amroutine->amkeytype;
     407             : 
     408             :         /*
     409             :          * Code below is concerned to the opclasses which are not used with
     410             :          * the included columns.
     411             :          */
     412      112636 :         if (i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs)
     413             :         {
     414      112196 :             tuple = SearchSysCache1(CLAOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(classObjectId[i]));
     415      112196 :             if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
     416           0 :                 elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for opclass %u",
     417             :                      classObjectId[i]);
     418      112196 :             opclassTup = (Form_pg_opclass) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
     419      112196 :             if (OidIsValid(opclassTup->opckeytype))
     420       11260 :                 keyType = opclassTup->opckeytype;
     421             : 
     422             :             /*
     423             :              * If keytype is specified as ANYELEMENT, and opcintype is
     424             :              * ANYARRAY, then the attribute type must be an array (else it'd
     425             :              * not have matched this opclass); use its element type.
     426             :              */
     427      112196 :             if (keyType == ANYELEMENTOID && opclassTup->opcintype == ANYARRAYOID)
     428             :             {
     429         102 :                 keyType = get_base_element_type(to->atttypid);
     430         102 :                 if (!OidIsValid(keyType))
     431           0 :                     elog(ERROR, "could not get element type of array type %u",
     432             :                          to->atttypid);
     433             :             }
     434             : 
     435      112196 :             ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
     436             :         }
     437             : 
     438             :         /*
     439             :          * If a key type different from the heap value is specified, update
     440             :          * the type-related fields in the index tupdesc.
     441             :          */
     442      112636 :         if (OidIsValid(keyType) && keyType != to->atttypid)
     443             :         {
     444       11122 :             tuple = SearchSysCache1(TYPEOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(keyType));
     445       11122 :             if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
     446           0 :                 elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for type %u", keyType);
     447       11122 :             typeTup = (Form_pg_type) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
     448             : 
     449       11122 :             to->atttypid = keyType;
     450       11122 :             to->atttypmod = -1;
     451       11122 :             to->attlen = typeTup->typlen;
     452       11122 :             to->attbyval = typeTup->typbyval;
     453       11122 :             to->attalign = typeTup->typalign;
     454       11122 :             to->attstorage = typeTup->typstorage;
     455             : 
     456       11122 :             ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
     457             :         }
     458             :     }
     459             : 
     460       66154 :     pfree(amroutine);
     461             : 
     462       66154 :     return indexTupDesc;
     463             : }
     464             : 
     465             : /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
     466             :  *      InitializeAttributeOids
     467             :  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
     468             :  */
     469             : static void
     470       66154 : InitializeAttributeOids(Relation indexRelation,
     471             :                         int numatts,
     472             :                         Oid indexoid)
     473             : {
     474             :     TupleDesc   tupleDescriptor;
     475             :     int         i;
     476             : 
     477       66154 :     tupleDescriptor = RelationGetDescr(indexRelation);
     478             : 
     479      178790 :     for (i = 0; i < numatts; i += 1)
     480      112636 :         TupleDescAttr(tupleDescriptor, i)->attrelid = indexoid;
     481       66154 : }
     482             : 
     483             : /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
     484             :  *      AppendAttributeTuples
     485             :  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
     486             :  */
     487             : static void
     488       66154 : AppendAttributeTuples(Relation indexRelation, int numatts)
     489             : {
     490             :     Relation    pg_attribute;
     491             :     CatalogIndexState indstate;
     492             :     TupleDesc   indexTupDesc;
     493             :     int         i;
     494             : 
     495             :     /*
     496             :      * open the attribute relation and its indexes
     497             :      */
     498       66154 :     pg_attribute = table_open(AttributeRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
     499             : 
     500       66154 :     indstate = CatalogOpenIndexes(pg_attribute);
     501             : 
     502             :     /*
     503             :      * insert data from new index's tupdesc into pg_attribute
     504             :      */
     505       66154 :     indexTupDesc = RelationGetDescr(indexRelation);
     506             : 
     507      178790 :     for (i = 0; i < numatts; i++)
     508             :     {
     509      112636 :         Form_pg_attribute attr = TupleDescAttr(indexTupDesc, i);
     510             : 
     511             :         Assert(attr->attnum == i + 1);
     512             : 
     513      112636 :         InsertPgAttributeTuple(pg_attribute, attr, indstate);
     514             :     }
     515             : 
     516       66154 :     CatalogCloseIndexes(indstate);
     517             : 
     518       66154 :     table_close(pg_attribute, RowExclusiveLock);
     519       66154 : }
     520             : 
     521             : /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
     522             :  *      UpdateIndexRelation
     523             :  *
     524             :  * Construct and insert a new entry in the pg_index catalog
     525             :  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
     526             :  */
     527             : static void
     528       66154 : UpdateIndexRelation(Oid indexoid,
     529             :                     Oid heapoid,
     530             :                     Oid parentIndexId,
     531             :                     IndexInfo *indexInfo,
     532             :                     Oid *collationOids,
     533             :                     Oid *classOids,
     534             :                     int16 *coloptions,
     535             :                     bool primary,
     536             :                     bool isexclusion,
     537             :                     bool immediate,
     538             :                     bool isvalid,
     539             :                     bool isready)
     540             : {
     541             :     int2vector *indkey;
     542             :     oidvector  *indcollation;
     543             :     oidvector  *indclass;
     544             :     int2vector *indoption;
     545             :     Datum       exprsDatum;
     546             :     Datum       predDatum;
     547             :     Datum       values[Natts_pg_index];
     548             :     bool        nulls[Natts_pg_index];
     549             :     Relation    pg_index;
     550             :     HeapTuple   tuple;
     551             :     int         i;
     552             : 
     553             :     /*
     554             :      * Copy the index key, opclass, and indoption info into arrays (should we
     555             :      * make the caller pass them like this to start with?)
     556             :      */
     557       66154 :     indkey = buildint2vector(NULL, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs);
     558      178790 :     for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
     559      112636 :         indkey->values[i] = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
     560       66154 :     indcollation = buildoidvector(collationOids, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs);
     561       66154 :     indclass = buildoidvector(classOids, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs);
     562       66154 :     indoption = buildint2vector(coloptions, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs);
     563             : 
     564             :     /*
     565             :      * Convert the index expressions (if any) to a text datum
     566             :      */
     567       66154 :     if (indexInfo->ii_Expressions != NIL)
     568             :     {
     569             :         char       *exprsString;
     570             : 
     571         366 :         exprsString = nodeToString(indexInfo->ii_Expressions);
     572         366 :         exprsDatum = CStringGetTextDatum(exprsString);
     573         366 :         pfree(exprsString);
     574             :     }
     575             :     else
     576       65788 :         exprsDatum = (Datum) 0;
     577             : 
     578             :     /*
     579             :      * Convert the index predicate (if any) to a text datum.  Note we convert
     580             :      * implicit-AND format to normal explicit-AND for storage.
     581             :      */
     582       66154 :     if (indexInfo->ii_Predicate != NIL)
     583             :     {
     584             :         char       *predString;
     585             : 
     586         230 :         predString = nodeToString(make_ands_explicit(indexInfo->ii_Predicate));
     587         230 :         predDatum = CStringGetTextDatum(predString);
     588         230 :         pfree(predString);
     589             :     }
     590             :     else
     591       65924 :         predDatum = (Datum) 0;
     592             : 
     593             :     /*
     594             :      * open the system catalog index relation
     595             :      */
     596       66154 :     pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
     597             : 
     598             :     /*
     599             :      * Build a pg_index tuple
     600             :      */
     601       66154 :     MemSet(nulls, false, sizeof(nulls));
     602             : 
     603       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indexrelid - 1] = ObjectIdGetDatum(indexoid);
     604       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indrelid - 1] = ObjectIdGetDatum(heapoid);
     605       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indnatts - 1] = Int16GetDatum(indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs);
     606       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indnkeyatts - 1] = Int16GetDatum(indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs);
     607       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indisunique - 1] = BoolGetDatum(indexInfo->ii_Unique);
     608       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indisprimary - 1] = BoolGetDatum(primary);
     609       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indisexclusion - 1] = BoolGetDatum(isexclusion);
     610       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indimmediate - 1] = BoolGetDatum(immediate);
     611       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indisclustered - 1] = BoolGetDatum(false);
     612       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indisvalid - 1] = BoolGetDatum(isvalid);
     613       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indcheckxmin - 1] = BoolGetDatum(false);
     614       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indisready - 1] = BoolGetDatum(isready);
     615       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indislive - 1] = BoolGetDatum(true);
     616       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indisreplident - 1] = BoolGetDatum(false);
     617       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indkey - 1] = PointerGetDatum(indkey);
     618       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indcollation - 1] = PointerGetDatum(indcollation);
     619       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indclass - 1] = PointerGetDatum(indclass);
     620       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indoption - 1] = PointerGetDatum(indoption);
     621       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indexprs - 1] = exprsDatum;
     622       66154 :     if (exprsDatum == (Datum) 0)
     623       65788 :         nulls[Anum_pg_index_indexprs - 1] = true;
     624       66154 :     values[Anum_pg_index_indpred - 1] = predDatum;
     625       66154 :     if (predDatum == (Datum) 0)
     626       65924 :         nulls[Anum_pg_index_indpred - 1] = true;
     627             : 
     628       66154 :     tuple = heap_form_tuple(RelationGetDescr(pg_index), values, nulls);
     629             : 
     630             :     /*
     631             :      * insert the tuple into the pg_index catalog
     632             :      */
     633       66154 :     CatalogTupleInsert(pg_index, tuple);
     634             : 
     635             :     /*
     636             :      * close the relation and free the tuple
     637             :      */
     638       66154 :     table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
     639       66154 :     heap_freetuple(tuple);
     640       66154 : }
     641             : 
     642             : 
     643             : /*
     644             :  * index_create
     645             :  *
     646             :  * heapRelation: table to build index on (suitably locked by caller)
     647             :  * indexRelationName: what it say
     648             :  * indexRelationId: normally, pass InvalidOid to let this routine
     649             :  *      generate an OID for the index.  During bootstrap this may be
     650             :  *      nonzero to specify a preselected OID.
     651             :  * parentIndexRelid: if creating an index partition, the OID of the
     652             :  *      parent index; otherwise InvalidOid.
     653             :  * parentConstraintId: if creating a constraint on a partition, the OID
     654             :  *      of the constraint in the parent; otherwise InvalidOid.
     655             :  * relFileNode: normally, pass InvalidOid to get new storage.  May be
     656             :  *      nonzero to attach an existing valid build.
     657             :  * indexInfo: same info executor uses to insert into the index
     658             :  * indexColNames: column names to use for index (List of char *)
     659             :  * accessMethodObjectId: OID of index AM to use
     660             :  * tableSpaceId: OID of tablespace to use
     661             :  * collationObjectId: array of collation OIDs, one per index column
     662             :  * classObjectId: array of index opclass OIDs, one per index column
     663             :  * coloptions: array of per-index-column indoption settings
     664             :  * reloptions: AM-specific options
     665             :  * flags: bitmask that can include any combination of these bits:
     666             :  *      INDEX_CREATE_IS_PRIMARY
     667             :  *          the index is a primary key
     668             :  *      INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT:
     669             :  *          invoke index_constraint_create also
     670             :  *      INDEX_CREATE_SKIP_BUILD:
     671             :  *          skip the index_build() step for the moment; caller must do it
     672             :  *          later (typically via reindex_index())
     673             :  *      INDEX_CREATE_CONCURRENT:
     674             :  *          do not lock the table against writers.  The index will be
     675             :  *          marked "invalid" and the caller must take additional steps
     676             :  *          to fix it up.
     677             :  *      INDEX_CREATE_IF_NOT_EXISTS:
     678             :  *          do not throw an error if a relation with the same name
     679             :  *          already exists.
     680             :  *      INDEX_CREATE_PARTITIONED:
     681             :  *          create a partitioned index (table must be partitioned)
     682             :  * constr_flags: flags passed to index_constraint_create
     683             :  *      (only if INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT is set)
     684             :  * allow_system_table_mods: allow table to be a system catalog
     685             :  * is_internal: if true, post creation hook for new index
     686             :  * constraintId: if not NULL, receives OID of created constraint
     687             :  *
     688             :  * Returns the OID of the created index.
     689             :  */
     690             : Oid
     691       66174 : index_create(Relation heapRelation,
     692             :              const char *indexRelationName,
     693             :              Oid indexRelationId,
     694             :              Oid parentIndexRelid,
     695             :              Oid parentConstraintId,
     696             :              Oid relFileNode,
     697             :              IndexInfo *indexInfo,
     698             :              List *indexColNames,
     699             :              Oid accessMethodObjectId,
     700             :              Oid tableSpaceId,
     701             :              Oid *collationObjectId,
     702             :              Oid *classObjectId,
     703             :              int16 *coloptions,
     704             :              Datum reloptions,
     705             :              bits16 flags,
     706             :              bits16 constr_flags,
     707             :              bool allow_system_table_mods,
     708             :              bool is_internal,
     709             :              Oid *constraintId)
     710             : {
     711       66174 :     Oid         heapRelationId = RelationGetRelid(heapRelation);
     712             :     Relation    pg_class;
     713             :     Relation    indexRelation;
     714             :     TupleDesc   indexTupDesc;
     715             :     bool        shared_relation;
     716             :     bool        mapped_relation;
     717             :     bool        is_exclusion;
     718             :     Oid         namespaceId;
     719             :     int         i;
     720             :     char        relpersistence;
     721       66174 :     bool        isprimary = (flags & INDEX_CREATE_IS_PRIMARY) != 0;
     722       66174 :     bool        invalid = (flags & INDEX_CREATE_INVALID) != 0;
     723       66174 :     bool        concurrent = (flags & INDEX_CREATE_CONCURRENT) != 0;
     724       66174 :     bool        partitioned = (flags & INDEX_CREATE_PARTITIONED) != 0;
     725             :     char        relkind;
     726             :     TransactionId relfrozenxid;
     727             :     MultiXactId relminmxid;
     728             : 
     729             :     /* constraint flags can only be set when a constraint is requested */
     730             :     Assert((constr_flags == 0) ||
     731             :            ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT) != 0));
     732             :     /* partitioned indexes must never be "built" by themselves */
     733             :     Assert(!partitioned || (flags & INDEX_CREATE_SKIP_BUILD));
     734             : 
     735       66174 :     relkind = partitioned ? RELKIND_PARTITIONED_INDEX : RELKIND_INDEX;
     736       66174 :     is_exclusion = (indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL);
     737             : 
     738       66174 :     pg_class = table_open(RelationRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
     739             : 
     740             :     /*
     741             :      * The index will be in the same namespace as its parent table, and is
     742             :      * shared across databases if and only if the parent is.  Likewise, it
     743             :      * will use the relfilenode map if and only if the parent does; and it
     744             :      * inherits the parent's relpersistence.
     745             :      */
     746       66174 :     namespaceId = RelationGetNamespace(heapRelation);
     747       66174 :     shared_relation = heapRelation->rd_rel->relisshared;
     748       66174 :     mapped_relation = RelationIsMapped(heapRelation);
     749       66174 :     relpersistence = heapRelation->rd_rel->relpersistence;
     750             : 
     751             :     /*
     752             :      * check parameters
     753             :      */
     754       66174 :     if (indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs < 1)
     755           0 :         elog(ERROR, "must index at least one column");
     756             : 
     757      112474 :     if (!allow_system_table_mods &&
     758       83974 :         IsSystemRelation(heapRelation) &&
     759       37674 :         IsNormalProcessingMode())
     760           0 :         ereport(ERROR,
     761             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
     762             :                  errmsg("user-defined indexes on system catalog tables are not supported")));
     763             : 
     764             :     /*
     765             :      * Btree text_pattern_ops uses text_eq as the equality operator, which is
     766             :      * fine as long as the collation is deterministic; text_eq then reduces to
     767             :      * bitwise equality and so it is semantically compatible with the other
     768             :      * operators and functions in that opclass.  But with a nondeterministic
     769             :      * collation, text_eq could yield results that are incompatible with the
     770             :      * actual behavior of the index (which is determined by the opclass's
     771             :      * comparison function).  We prevent such problems by refusing creation of
     772             :      * an index with that opclass and a nondeterministic collation.
     773             :      *
     774             :      * The same applies to varchar_pattern_ops and bpchar_pattern_ops.  If we
     775             :      * find more cases, we might decide to create a real mechanism for marking
     776             :      * opclasses as incompatible with nondeterminism; but for now, this small
     777             :      * hack suffices.
     778             :      *
     779             :      * Another solution is to use a special operator, not text_eq, as the
     780             :      * equality opclass member; but that is undesirable because it would
     781             :      * prevent index usage in many queries that work fine today.
     782             :      */
     783      178394 :     for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs; i++)
     784             :     {
     785      112220 :         Oid         collation = collationObjectId[i];
     786      112220 :         Oid         opclass = classObjectId[i];
     787             : 
     788      112220 :         if (collation)
     789             :         {
     790       13384 :             if ((opclass == TEXT_BTREE_PATTERN_OPS_OID ||
     791       13338 :                  opclass == VARCHAR_BTREE_PATTERN_OPS_OID ||
     792          50 :                  opclass == BPCHAR_BTREE_PATTERN_OPS_OID) &&
     793          50 :                 !get_collation_isdeterministic(collation))
     794             :             {
     795             :                 HeapTuple   classtup;
     796             : 
     797           0 :                 classtup = SearchSysCache1(CLAOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(opclass));
     798           0 :                 if (!HeapTupleIsValid(classtup))
     799           0 :                     elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for operator class %u", opclass);
     800           0 :                 ereport(ERROR,
     801             :                         (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
     802             :                          errmsg("nondeterministic collations are not supported for operator class \"%s\"",
     803             :                                 NameStr(((Form_pg_opclass) GETSTRUCT(classtup))->opcname))));
     804             :                 ReleaseSysCache(classtup);
     805             :             }
     806             :         }
     807             :     }
     808             : 
     809             :     /*
     810             :      * Concurrent index build on a system catalog is unsafe because we tend to
     811             :      * release locks before committing in catalogs.
     812             :      */
     813       66354 :     if (concurrent &&
     814         180 :         IsCatalogRelation(heapRelation))
     815           0 :         ereport(ERROR,
     816             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
     817             :                  errmsg("concurrent index creation on system catalog tables is not supported")));
     818             : 
     819             :     /*
     820             :      * This case is currently not supported.  There's no way to ask for it in
     821             :      * the grammar with CREATE INDEX, but it can happen with REINDEX.
     822             :      */
     823       66174 :     if (concurrent && is_exclusion)
     824           0 :         ereport(ERROR,
     825             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
     826             :                  errmsg("concurrent index creation for exclusion constraints is not supported")));
     827             : 
     828             :     /*
     829             :      * We cannot allow indexing a shared relation after initdb (because
     830             :      * there's no way to make the entry in other databases' pg_class).
     831             :      */
     832       66174 :     if (shared_relation && !IsBootstrapProcessingMode())
     833           0 :         ereport(ERROR,
     834             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_OBJECT_NOT_IN_PREREQUISITE_STATE),
     835             :                  errmsg("shared indexes cannot be created after initdb")));
     836             : 
     837             :     /*
     838             :      * Shared relations must be in pg_global, too (last-ditch check)
     839             :      */
     840       66174 :     if (shared_relation && tableSpaceId != GLOBALTABLESPACE_OID)
     841           0 :         elog(ERROR, "shared relations must be placed in pg_global tablespace");
     842             : 
     843             :     /*
     844             :      * Check for duplicate name (both as to the index, and as to the
     845             :      * associated constraint if any).  Such cases would fail on the relevant
     846             :      * catalogs' unique indexes anyway, but we prefer to give a friendlier
     847             :      * error message.
     848             :      */
     849       66174 :     if (get_relname_relid(indexRelationName, namespaceId))
     850             :     {
     851          16 :         if ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_IF_NOT_EXISTS) != 0)
     852             :         {
     853          12 :             ereport(NOTICE,
     854             :                     (errcode(ERRCODE_DUPLICATE_TABLE),
     855             :                      errmsg("relation \"%s\" already exists, skipping",
     856             :                             indexRelationName)));
     857          12 :             table_close(pg_class, RowExclusiveLock);
     858          12 :             return InvalidOid;
     859             :         }
     860             : 
     861           4 :         ereport(ERROR,
     862             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_DUPLICATE_TABLE),
     863             :                  errmsg("relation \"%s\" already exists",
     864             :                         indexRelationName)));
     865             :     }
     866             : 
     867       71476 :     if ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT) != 0 &&
     868        5318 :         ConstraintNameIsUsed(CONSTRAINT_RELATION, heapRelationId,
     869             :                              indexRelationName))
     870             :     {
     871             :         /*
     872             :          * INDEX_CREATE_IF_NOT_EXISTS does not apply here, since the
     873             :          * conflicting constraint is not an index.
     874             :          */
     875           4 :         ereport(ERROR,
     876             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_DUPLICATE_OBJECT),
     877             :                  errmsg("constraint \"%s\" for relation \"%s\" already exists",
     878             :                         indexRelationName, RelationGetRelationName(heapRelation))));
     879             :     }
     880             : 
     881             :     /*
     882             :      * construct tuple descriptor for index tuples
     883             :      */
     884       66154 :     indexTupDesc = ConstructTupleDescriptor(heapRelation,
     885             :                                             indexInfo,
     886             :                                             indexColNames,
     887             :                                             accessMethodObjectId,
     888             :                                             collationObjectId,
     889             :                                             classObjectId);
     890             : 
     891             :     /*
     892             :      * Allocate an OID for the index, unless we were told what to use.
     893             :      *
     894             :      * The OID will be the relfilenode as well, so make sure it doesn't
     895             :      * collide with either pg_class OIDs or existing physical files.
     896             :      */
     897       66154 :     if (!OidIsValid(indexRelationId))
     898             :     {
     899             :         /* Use binary-upgrade override for pg_class.oid/relfilenode? */
     900       17210 :         if (IsBinaryUpgrade)
     901             :         {
     902         826 :             if (!OidIsValid(binary_upgrade_next_index_pg_class_oid))
     903           0 :                 ereport(ERROR,
     904             :                         (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_PARAMETER_VALUE),
     905             :                          errmsg("pg_class index OID value not set when in binary upgrade mode")));
     906             : 
     907         826 :             indexRelationId = binary_upgrade_next_index_pg_class_oid;
     908         826 :             binary_upgrade_next_index_pg_class_oid = InvalidOid;
     909             :         }
     910             :         else
     911             :         {
     912       16384 :             indexRelationId =
     913       16384 :                 GetNewRelFileNode(tableSpaceId, pg_class, relpersistence);
     914             :         }
     915             :     }
     916             : 
     917             :     /*
     918             :      * create the index relation's relcache entry and, if necessary, the
     919             :      * physical disk file. (If we fail further down, it's the smgr's
     920             :      * responsibility to remove the disk file again, if any.)
     921             :      */
     922       66154 :     indexRelation = heap_create(indexRelationName,
     923             :                                 namespaceId,
     924             :                                 tableSpaceId,
     925             :                                 indexRelationId,
     926             :                                 relFileNode,
     927             :                                 accessMethodObjectId,
     928             :                                 indexTupDesc,
     929             :                                 relkind,
     930             :                                 relpersistence,
     931             :                                 shared_relation,
     932             :                                 mapped_relation,
     933             :                                 allow_system_table_mods,
     934             :                                 &relfrozenxid,
     935             :                                 &relminmxid);
     936             : 
     937             :     Assert(relfrozenxid == InvalidTransactionId);
     938             :     Assert(relminmxid == InvalidMultiXactId);
     939             :     Assert(indexRelationId == RelationGetRelid(indexRelation));
     940             : 
     941             :     /*
     942             :      * Obtain exclusive lock on it.  Although no other transactions can see it
     943             :      * until we commit, this prevents deadlock-risk complaints from lock
     944             :      * manager in cases such as CLUSTER.
     945             :      */
     946       66154 :     LockRelation(indexRelation, AccessExclusiveLock);
     947             : 
     948             :     /*
     949             :      * Fill in fields of the index's pg_class entry that are not set correctly
     950             :      * by heap_create.
     951             :      *
     952             :      * XXX should have a cleaner way to create cataloged indexes
     953             :      */
     954       66154 :     indexRelation->rd_rel->relowner = heapRelation->rd_rel->relowner;
     955       66154 :     indexRelation->rd_rel->relam = accessMethodObjectId;
     956       66154 :     indexRelation->rd_rel->relispartition = OidIsValid(parentIndexRelid);
     957             : 
     958             :     /*
     959             :      * store index's pg_class entry
     960             :      */
     961       66154 :     InsertPgClassTuple(pg_class, indexRelation,
     962             :                        RelationGetRelid(indexRelation),
     963             :                        (Datum) 0,
     964             :                        reloptions);
     965             : 
     966             :     /* done with pg_class */
     967       66154 :     table_close(pg_class, RowExclusiveLock);
     968             : 
     969             :     /*
     970             :      * now update the object id's of all the attribute tuple forms in the
     971             :      * index relation's tuple descriptor
     972             :      */
     973       66154 :     InitializeAttributeOids(indexRelation,
     974             :                             indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs,
     975             :                             indexRelationId);
     976             : 
     977             :     /*
     978             :      * append ATTRIBUTE tuples for the index
     979             :      */
     980       66154 :     AppendAttributeTuples(indexRelation, indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs);
     981             : 
     982             :     /* ----------------
     983             :      *    update pg_index
     984             :      *    (append INDEX tuple)
     985             :      *
     986             :      *    Note that this stows away a representation of "predicate".
     987             :      *    (Or, could define a rule to maintain the predicate) --Nels, Feb '92
     988             :      * ----------------
     989             :      */
     990      198462 :     UpdateIndexRelation(indexRelationId, heapRelationId, parentIndexRelid,
     991             :                         indexInfo,
     992             :                         collationObjectId, classObjectId, coloptions,
     993             :                         isprimary, is_exclusion,
     994       66154 :                         (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_DEFERRABLE) == 0,
     995       66154 :                         !concurrent && !invalid,
     996       66154 :                         !concurrent);
     997             : 
     998             :     /*
     999             :      * Register relcache invalidation on the indexes' heap relation, to
    1000             :      * maintain consistency of its index list
    1001             :      */
    1002       66154 :     CacheInvalidateRelcache(heapRelation);
    1003             : 
    1004             :     /* update pg_inherits and the parent's relhassubclass, if needed */
    1005       66154 :     if (OidIsValid(parentIndexRelid))
    1006             :     {
    1007         852 :         StoreSingleInheritance(indexRelationId, parentIndexRelid, 1);
    1008         852 :         SetRelationHasSubclass(parentIndexRelid, true);
    1009             :     }
    1010             : 
    1011             :     /*
    1012             :      * Register constraint and dependencies for the index.
    1013             :      *
    1014             :      * If the index is from a CONSTRAINT clause, construct a pg_constraint
    1015             :      * entry.  The index will be linked to the constraint, which in turn is
    1016             :      * linked to the table.  If it's not a CONSTRAINT, we need to make a
    1017             :      * dependency directly on the table.
    1018             :      *
    1019             :      * We don't need a dependency on the namespace, because there'll be an
    1020             :      * indirect dependency via our parent table.
    1021             :      *
    1022             :      * During bootstrap we can't register any dependencies, and we don't try
    1023             :      * to make a constraint either.
    1024             :      */
    1025       66154 :     if (!IsBootstrapProcessingMode())
    1026             :     {
    1027             :         ObjectAddress myself,
    1028             :                     referenced;
    1029             : 
    1030       17210 :         myself.classId = RelationRelationId;
    1031       17210 :         myself.objectId = indexRelationId;
    1032       17210 :         myself.objectSubId = 0;
    1033             : 
    1034       17210 :         if ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT) != 0)
    1035             :         {
    1036             :             char        constraintType;
    1037             :             ObjectAddress localaddr;
    1038             : 
    1039        5314 :             if (isprimary)
    1040        4770 :                 constraintType = CONSTRAINT_PRIMARY;
    1041         544 :             else if (indexInfo->ii_Unique)
    1042         462 :                 constraintType = CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE;
    1043          82 :             else if (is_exclusion)
    1044          82 :                 constraintType = CONSTRAINT_EXCLUSION;
    1045             :             else
    1046             :             {
    1047           0 :                 elog(ERROR, "constraint must be PRIMARY, UNIQUE or EXCLUDE");
    1048             :                 constraintType = 0; /* keep compiler quiet */
    1049             :             }
    1050             : 
    1051        5314 :             localaddr = index_constraint_create(heapRelation,
    1052             :                                                 indexRelationId,
    1053             :                                                 parentConstraintId,
    1054             :                                                 indexInfo,
    1055             :                                                 indexRelationName,
    1056             :                                                 constraintType,
    1057             :                                                 constr_flags,
    1058             :                                                 allow_system_table_mods,
    1059             :                                                 is_internal);
    1060        5314 :             if (constraintId)
    1061        5314 :                 *constraintId = localaddr.objectId;
    1062             :         }
    1063             :         else
    1064             :         {
    1065       11896 :             bool        have_simple_col = false;
    1066             : 
    1067             :             /* Create auto dependencies on simply-referenced columns */
    1068       33368 :             for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
    1069             :             {
    1070       21472 :                 if (indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] != 0)
    1071             :                 {
    1072       21102 :                     referenced.classId = RelationRelationId;
    1073       21102 :                     referenced.objectId = heapRelationId;
    1074       21102 :                     referenced.objectSubId = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
    1075             : 
    1076       21102 :                     recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_AUTO);
    1077             : 
    1078       21102 :                     have_simple_col = true;
    1079             :                 }
    1080             :             }
    1081             : 
    1082             :             /*
    1083             :              * If there are no simply-referenced columns, give the index an
    1084             :              * auto dependency on the whole table.  In most cases, this will
    1085             :              * be redundant, but it might not be if the index expressions and
    1086             :              * predicate contain no Vars or only whole-row Vars.
    1087             :              */
    1088       11896 :             if (!have_simple_col)
    1089             :             {
    1090         254 :                 referenced.classId = RelationRelationId;
    1091         254 :                 referenced.objectId = heapRelationId;
    1092         254 :                 referenced.objectSubId = 0;
    1093             : 
    1094         254 :                 recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_AUTO);
    1095             :             }
    1096             :         }
    1097             : 
    1098             :         /*
    1099             :          * If this is an index partition, create partition dependencies on
    1100             :          * both the parent index and the table.  (Note: these must be *in
    1101             :          * addition to*, not instead of, all other dependencies.  Otherwise
    1102             :          * we'll be short some dependencies after DETACH PARTITION.)
    1103             :          */
    1104       17210 :         if (OidIsValid(parentIndexRelid))
    1105             :         {
    1106         852 :             referenced.classId = RelationRelationId;
    1107         852 :             referenced.objectId = parentIndexRelid;
    1108         852 :             referenced.objectSubId = 0;
    1109             : 
    1110         852 :             recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_PARTITION_PRI);
    1111             : 
    1112         852 :             referenced.classId = RelationRelationId;
    1113         852 :             referenced.objectId = heapRelationId;
    1114         852 :             referenced.objectSubId = 0;
    1115             : 
    1116         852 :             recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_PARTITION_SEC);
    1117             :         }
    1118             : 
    1119             :         /* Store dependency on collations */
    1120             :         /* The default collation is pinned, so don't bother recording it */
    1121       44398 :         for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs; i++)
    1122             :         {
    1123       28968 :             if (OidIsValid(collationObjectId[i]) &&
    1124        1780 :                 collationObjectId[i] != DEFAULT_COLLATION_OID)
    1125             :             {
    1126         158 :                 referenced.classId = CollationRelationId;
    1127         158 :                 referenced.objectId = collationObjectId[i];
    1128         158 :                 referenced.objectSubId = 0;
    1129             : 
    1130         158 :                 recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_NORMAL);
    1131             :             }
    1132             :         }
    1133             : 
    1134             :         /* Store dependency on operator classes */
    1135       44398 :         for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs; i++)
    1136             :         {
    1137       27188 :             referenced.classId = OperatorClassRelationId;
    1138       27188 :             referenced.objectId = classObjectId[i];
    1139       27188 :             referenced.objectSubId = 0;
    1140             : 
    1141       27188 :             recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_NORMAL);
    1142             :         }
    1143             : 
    1144             :         /* Store dependencies on anything mentioned in index expressions */
    1145       17210 :         if (indexInfo->ii_Expressions)
    1146             :         {
    1147         366 :             recordDependencyOnSingleRelExpr(&myself,
    1148         366 :                                             (Node *) indexInfo->ii_Expressions,
    1149             :                                             heapRelationId,
    1150             :                                             DEPENDENCY_NORMAL,
    1151             :                                             DEPENDENCY_AUTO, false);
    1152             :         }
    1153             : 
    1154             :         /* Store dependencies on anything mentioned in predicate */
    1155       17210 :         if (indexInfo->ii_Predicate)
    1156             :         {
    1157         230 :             recordDependencyOnSingleRelExpr(&myself,
    1158         230 :                                             (Node *) indexInfo->ii_Predicate,
    1159             :                                             heapRelationId,
    1160             :                                             DEPENDENCY_NORMAL,
    1161             :                                             DEPENDENCY_AUTO, false);
    1162             :         }
    1163             :     }
    1164             :     else
    1165             :     {
    1166             :         /* Bootstrap mode - assert we weren't asked for constraint support */
    1167             :         Assert((flags & INDEX_CREATE_ADD_CONSTRAINT) == 0);
    1168             :     }
    1169             : 
    1170             :     /* Post creation hook for new index */
    1171       66154 :     InvokeObjectPostCreateHookArg(RelationRelationId,
    1172             :                                   indexRelationId, 0, is_internal);
    1173             : 
    1174             :     /*
    1175             :      * Advance the command counter so that we can see the newly-entered
    1176             :      * catalog tuples for the index.
    1177             :      */
    1178       66154 :     CommandCounterIncrement();
    1179             : 
    1180             :     /*
    1181             :      * In bootstrap mode, we have to fill in the index strategy structure with
    1182             :      * information from the catalogs.  If we aren't bootstrapping, then the
    1183             :      * relcache entry has already been rebuilt thanks to sinval update during
    1184             :      * CommandCounterIncrement.
    1185             :      */
    1186       66154 :     if (IsBootstrapProcessingMode())
    1187       48944 :         RelationInitIndexAccessInfo(indexRelation);
    1188             :     else
    1189             :         Assert(indexRelation->rd_indexcxt != NULL);
    1190             : 
    1191       66154 :     indexRelation->rd_index->indnkeyatts = indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs;
    1192             : 
    1193             :     /*
    1194             :      * If this is bootstrap (initdb) time, then we don't actually fill in the
    1195             :      * index yet.  We'll be creating more indexes and classes later, so we
    1196             :      * delay filling them in until just before we're done with bootstrapping.
    1197             :      * Similarly, if the caller specified to skip the build then filling the
    1198             :      * index is delayed till later (ALTER TABLE can save work in some cases
    1199             :      * with this).  Otherwise, we call the AM routine that constructs the
    1200             :      * index.
    1201             :      */
    1202       66154 :     if (IsBootstrapProcessingMode())
    1203             :     {
    1204       48944 :         index_register(heapRelationId, indexRelationId, indexInfo);
    1205             :     }
    1206       17210 :     else if ((flags & INDEX_CREATE_SKIP_BUILD) != 0)
    1207             :     {
    1208             :         /*
    1209             :          * Caller is responsible for filling the index later on.  However,
    1210             :          * we'd better make sure that the heap relation is correctly marked as
    1211             :          * having an index.
    1212             :          */
    1213        1142 :         index_update_stats(heapRelation,
    1214             :                            true,
    1215             :                            -1.0);
    1216             :         /* Make the above update visible */
    1217        1142 :         CommandCounterIncrement();
    1218             :     }
    1219             :     else
    1220             :     {
    1221       16068 :         index_build(heapRelation, indexRelation, indexInfo, false, true);
    1222             :     }
    1223             : 
    1224             :     /*
    1225             :      * Close the index; but we keep the lock that we acquired above until end
    1226             :      * of transaction.  Closing the heap is caller's responsibility.
    1227             :      */
    1228       66126 :     index_close(indexRelation, NoLock);
    1229             : 
    1230       66126 :     return indexRelationId;
    1231             : }
    1232             : 
    1233             : /*
    1234             :  * index_concurrently_create_copy
    1235             :  *
    1236             :  * Create concurrently an index based on the definition of the one provided by
    1237             :  * caller.  The index is inserted into catalogs and needs to be built later
    1238             :  * on.  This is called during concurrent reindex processing.
    1239             :  */
    1240             : Oid
    1241         136 : index_concurrently_create_copy(Relation heapRelation, Oid oldIndexId, const char *newName)
    1242             : {
    1243             :     Relation    indexRelation;
    1244             :     IndexInfo  *oldInfo,
    1245             :                *newInfo;
    1246         136 :     Oid         newIndexId = InvalidOid;
    1247             :     HeapTuple   indexTuple,
    1248             :                 classTuple;
    1249             :     Datum       indclassDatum,
    1250             :                 colOptionDatum,
    1251             :                 optionDatum;
    1252             :     oidvector  *indclass;
    1253             :     int2vector *indcoloptions;
    1254             :     bool        isnull;
    1255         136 :     List       *indexColNames = NIL;
    1256         136 :     List       *indexExprs = NIL;
    1257         136 :     List       *indexPreds = NIL;
    1258             : 
    1259         136 :     indexRelation = index_open(oldIndexId, RowExclusiveLock);
    1260             : 
    1261             :     /* The new index needs some information from the old index */
    1262         136 :     oldInfo = BuildIndexInfo(indexRelation);
    1263             : 
    1264             :     /*
    1265             :      * Concurrent build of an index with exclusion constraints is not
    1266             :      * supported.
    1267             :      */
    1268         136 :     if (oldInfo->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL)
    1269           4 :         ereport(ERROR,
    1270             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
    1271             :                  errmsg("concurrent index creation for exclusion constraints is not supported")));
    1272             : 
    1273             :     /* Get the array of class and column options IDs from index info */
    1274         132 :     indexTuple = SearchSysCache1(INDEXRELID, ObjectIdGetDatum(oldIndexId));
    1275         132 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
    1276           0 :         elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", oldIndexId);
    1277         132 :     indclassDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(INDEXRELID, indexTuple,
    1278             :                                     Anum_pg_index_indclass, &isnull);
    1279             :     Assert(!isnull);
    1280         132 :     indclass = (oidvector *) DatumGetPointer(indclassDatum);
    1281             : 
    1282         132 :     colOptionDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(INDEXRELID, indexTuple,
    1283             :                                      Anum_pg_index_indoption, &isnull);
    1284             :     Assert(!isnull);
    1285         132 :     indcoloptions = (int2vector *) DatumGetPointer(colOptionDatum);
    1286             : 
    1287             :     /* Fetch options of index if any */
    1288         132 :     classTuple = SearchSysCache1(RELOID, oldIndexId);
    1289         132 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(classTuple))
    1290           0 :         elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for relation %u", oldIndexId);
    1291         132 :     optionDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(RELOID, classTuple,
    1292             :                                   Anum_pg_class_reloptions, &isnull);
    1293             : 
    1294             :     /*
    1295             :      * Fetch the list of expressions and predicates directly from the
    1296             :      * catalogs.  This cannot rely on the information from IndexInfo of the
    1297             :      * old index as these have been flattened for the planner.
    1298             :      */
    1299         132 :     if (oldInfo->ii_Expressions != NIL)
    1300             :     {
    1301             :         Datum       exprDatum;
    1302             :         char       *exprString;
    1303             : 
    1304          12 :         exprDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(INDEXRELID, indexTuple,
    1305             :                                     Anum_pg_index_indexprs, &isnull);
    1306             :         Assert(!isnull);
    1307          12 :         exprString = TextDatumGetCString(exprDatum);
    1308          12 :         indexExprs = (List *) stringToNode(exprString);
    1309          12 :         pfree(exprString);
    1310             :     }
    1311         132 :     if (oldInfo->ii_Predicate != NIL)
    1312             :     {
    1313             :         Datum       predDatum;
    1314             :         char       *predString;
    1315             : 
    1316           8 :         predDatum = SysCacheGetAttr(INDEXRELID, indexTuple,
    1317             :                                     Anum_pg_index_indpred, &isnull);
    1318             :         Assert(!isnull);
    1319           8 :         predString = TextDatumGetCString(predDatum);
    1320           8 :         indexPreds = (List *) stringToNode(predString);
    1321             : 
    1322             :         /* Also convert to implicit-AND format */
    1323           8 :         indexPreds = make_ands_implicit((Expr *) indexPreds);
    1324           8 :         pfree(predString);
    1325             :     }
    1326             : 
    1327             :     /*
    1328             :      * Build the index information for the new index.  Note that rebuild of
    1329             :      * indexes with exclusion constraints is not supported, hence there is no
    1330             :      * need to fill all the ii_Exclusion* fields.
    1331             :      */
    1332         132 :     newInfo = makeIndexInfo(oldInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs,
    1333             :                             oldInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs,
    1334             :                             oldInfo->ii_Am,
    1335             :                             indexExprs,
    1336             :                             indexPreds,
    1337         132 :                             oldInfo->ii_Unique,
    1338             :                             false,  /* not ready for inserts */
    1339             :                             true);
    1340             : 
    1341             :     /*
    1342             :      * Extract the list of column names and the column numbers for the new
    1343             :      * index information.  All this information will be used for the index
    1344             :      * creation.
    1345             :      */
    1346         308 :     for (int i = 0; i < oldInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
    1347             :     {
    1348         176 :         TupleDesc   indexTupDesc = RelationGetDescr(indexRelation);
    1349         176 :         Form_pg_attribute att = TupleDescAttr(indexTupDesc, i);
    1350             : 
    1351         176 :         indexColNames = lappend(indexColNames, NameStr(att->attname));
    1352         176 :         newInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] = oldInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
    1353             :     }
    1354             : 
    1355             :     /*
    1356             :      * Now create the new index.
    1357             :      *
    1358             :      * For a partition index, we adjust the partition dependency later, to
    1359             :      * ensure a consistent state at all times.  That is why parentIndexRelid
    1360             :      * is not set here.
    1361             :      */
    1362         396 :     newIndexId = index_create(heapRelation,
    1363             :                               newName,
    1364             :                               InvalidOid,   /* indexRelationId */
    1365             :                               InvalidOid,   /* parentIndexRelid */
    1366             :                               InvalidOid,   /* parentConstraintId */
    1367             :                               InvalidOid,   /* relFileNode */
    1368             :                               newInfo,
    1369             :                               indexColNames,
    1370         132 :                               indexRelation->rd_rel->relam,
    1371         132 :                               indexRelation->rd_rel->reltablespace,
    1372             :                               indexRelation->rd_indcollation,
    1373         132 :                               indclass->values,
    1374         132 :                               indcoloptions->values,
    1375             :                               optionDatum,
    1376             :                               INDEX_CREATE_SKIP_BUILD | INDEX_CREATE_CONCURRENT,
    1377             :                               0,
    1378             :                               true, /* allow table to be a system catalog? */
    1379             :                               false,    /* is_internal? */
    1380             :                               NULL);
    1381             : 
    1382             :     /* Close the relations used and clean up */
    1383         132 :     index_close(indexRelation, NoLock);
    1384         132 :     ReleaseSysCache(indexTuple);
    1385         132 :     ReleaseSysCache(classTuple);
    1386             : 
    1387         132 :     return newIndexId;
    1388             : }
    1389             : 
    1390             : /*
    1391             :  * index_concurrently_build
    1392             :  *
    1393             :  * Build index for a concurrent operation.  Low-level locks are taken when
    1394             :  * this operation is performed to prevent only schema changes, but they need
    1395             :  * to be kept until the end of the transaction performing this operation.
    1396             :  * 'indexOid' refers to an index relation OID already created as part of
    1397             :  * previous processing, and 'heapOid' refers to its parent heap relation.
    1398             :  */
    1399             : void
    1400         172 : index_concurrently_build(Oid heapRelationId,
    1401             :                          Oid indexRelationId)
    1402             : {
    1403             :     Relation    heapRel;
    1404             :     Relation    indexRelation;
    1405             :     IndexInfo  *indexInfo;
    1406             : 
    1407             :     /* This had better make sure that a snapshot is active */
    1408             :     Assert(ActiveSnapshotSet());
    1409             : 
    1410             :     /* Open and lock the parent heap relation */
    1411         172 :     heapRel = table_open(heapRelationId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    1412             : 
    1413             :     /* And the target index relation */
    1414         172 :     indexRelation = index_open(indexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    1415             : 
    1416             :     /*
    1417             :      * We have to re-build the IndexInfo struct, since it was lost in the
    1418             :      * commit of the transaction where this concurrent index was created at
    1419             :      * the catalog level.
    1420             :      */
    1421         172 :     indexInfo = BuildIndexInfo(indexRelation);
    1422             :     Assert(!indexInfo->ii_ReadyForInserts);
    1423         172 :     indexInfo->ii_Concurrent = true;
    1424         172 :     indexInfo->ii_BrokenHotChain = false;
    1425             : 
    1426             :     /* Now build the index */
    1427         172 :     index_build(heapRel, indexRelation, indexInfo, false, true);
    1428             : 
    1429             :     /* Close both the relations, but keep the locks */
    1430         160 :     table_close(heapRel, NoLock);
    1431         160 :     index_close(indexRelation, NoLock);
    1432             : 
    1433             :     /*
    1434             :      * Update the pg_index row to mark the index as ready for inserts. Once we
    1435             :      * commit this transaction, any new transactions that open the table must
    1436             :      * insert new entries into the index for insertions and non-HOT updates.
    1437             :      */
    1438         160 :     index_set_state_flags(indexRelationId, INDEX_CREATE_SET_READY);
    1439         160 : }
    1440             : 
    1441             : /*
    1442             :  * index_concurrently_swap
    1443             :  *
    1444             :  * Swap name, dependencies, and constraints of the old index over to the new
    1445             :  * index, while marking the old index as invalid and the new as valid.
    1446             :  */
    1447             : void
    1448         128 : index_concurrently_swap(Oid newIndexId, Oid oldIndexId, const char *oldName)
    1449             : {
    1450             :     Relation    pg_class,
    1451             :                 pg_index,
    1452             :                 pg_constraint,
    1453             :                 pg_trigger;
    1454             :     Relation    oldClassRel,
    1455             :                 newClassRel;
    1456             :     HeapTuple   oldClassTuple,
    1457             :                 newClassTuple;
    1458             :     Form_pg_class oldClassForm,
    1459             :                 newClassForm;
    1460             :     HeapTuple   oldIndexTuple,
    1461             :                 newIndexTuple;
    1462             :     Form_pg_index oldIndexForm,
    1463             :                 newIndexForm;
    1464             :     bool        isPartition;
    1465             :     Oid         indexConstraintOid;
    1466         128 :     List       *constraintOids = NIL;
    1467             :     ListCell   *lc;
    1468             : 
    1469             :     /*
    1470             :      * Take a necessary lock on the old and new index before swapping them.
    1471             :      */
    1472         128 :     oldClassRel = relation_open(oldIndexId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    1473         128 :     newClassRel = relation_open(newIndexId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    1474             : 
    1475             :     /* Now swap names and dependencies of those indexes */
    1476         128 :     pg_class = table_open(RelationRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    1477             : 
    1478         128 :     oldClassTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(RELOID,
    1479             :                                         ObjectIdGetDatum(oldIndexId));
    1480         128 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(oldClassTuple))
    1481           0 :         elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", oldIndexId);
    1482         128 :     newClassTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(RELOID,
    1483             :                                         ObjectIdGetDatum(newIndexId));
    1484         128 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(newClassTuple))
    1485           0 :         elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", newIndexId);
    1486             : 
    1487         128 :     oldClassForm = (Form_pg_class) GETSTRUCT(oldClassTuple);
    1488         128 :     newClassForm = (Form_pg_class) GETSTRUCT(newClassTuple);
    1489             : 
    1490             :     /* Swap the names */
    1491         128 :     namestrcpy(&newClassForm->relname, NameStr(oldClassForm->relname));
    1492         128 :     namestrcpy(&oldClassForm->relname, oldName);
    1493             : 
    1494             :     /* Swap the partition flags to track inheritance properly */
    1495         128 :     isPartition = newClassForm->relispartition;
    1496         128 :     newClassForm->relispartition = oldClassForm->relispartition;
    1497         128 :     oldClassForm->relispartition = isPartition;
    1498             : 
    1499         128 :     CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_class, &oldClassTuple->t_self, oldClassTuple);
    1500         128 :     CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_class, &newClassTuple->t_self, newClassTuple);
    1501             : 
    1502         128 :     heap_freetuple(oldClassTuple);
    1503         128 :     heap_freetuple(newClassTuple);
    1504             : 
    1505             :     /* Now swap index info */
    1506         128 :     pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    1507             : 
    1508         128 :     oldIndexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
    1509             :                                         ObjectIdGetDatum(oldIndexId));
    1510         128 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(oldIndexTuple))
    1511           0 :         elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", oldIndexId);
    1512         128 :     newIndexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
    1513             :                                         ObjectIdGetDatum(newIndexId));
    1514         128 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(newIndexTuple))
    1515           0 :         elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", newIndexId);
    1516             : 
    1517         128 :     oldIndexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(oldIndexTuple);
    1518         128 :     newIndexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(newIndexTuple);
    1519             : 
    1520             :     /*
    1521             :      * Copy constraint flags from the old index. This is safe because the old
    1522             :      * index guaranteed uniqueness.
    1523             :      */
    1524         128 :     newIndexForm->indisprimary = oldIndexForm->indisprimary;
    1525         128 :     oldIndexForm->indisprimary = false;
    1526         128 :     newIndexForm->indisexclusion = oldIndexForm->indisexclusion;
    1527         128 :     oldIndexForm->indisexclusion = false;
    1528         128 :     newIndexForm->indimmediate = oldIndexForm->indimmediate;
    1529         128 :     oldIndexForm->indimmediate = true;
    1530             : 
    1531             :     /* Mark old index as valid and new as invalid as index_set_state_flags */
    1532         128 :     newIndexForm->indisvalid = true;
    1533         128 :     oldIndexForm->indisvalid = false;
    1534         128 :     oldIndexForm->indisclustered = false;
    1535             : 
    1536         128 :     CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &oldIndexTuple->t_self, oldIndexTuple);
    1537         128 :     CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &newIndexTuple->t_self, newIndexTuple);
    1538             : 
    1539         128 :     heap_freetuple(oldIndexTuple);
    1540         128 :     heap_freetuple(newIndexTuple);
    1541             : 
    1542             :     /*
    1543             :      * Move constraints and triggers over to the new index
    1544             :      */
    1545             : 
    1546         128 :     constraintOids = get_index_ref_constraints(oldIndexId);
    1547             : 
    1548         128 :     indexConstraintOid = get_index_constraint(oldIndexId);
    1549             : 
    1550         128 :     if (OidIsValid(indexConstraintOid))
    1551          28 :         constraintOids = lappend_oid(constraintOids, indexConstraintOid);
    1552             : 
    1553         128 :     pg_constraint = table_open(ConstraintRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    1554         128 :     pg_trigger = table_open(TriggerRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    1555             : 
    1556         164 :     foreach(lc, constraintOids)
    1557             :     {
    1558             :         HeapTuple   constraintTuple,
    1559             :                     triggerTuple;
    1560             :         Form_pg_constraint conForm;
    1561             :         ScanKeyData key[1];
    1562             :         SysScanDesc scan;
    1563          36 :         Oid         constraintOid = lfirst_oid(lc);
    1564             : 
    1565             :         /* Move the constraint from the old to the new index */
    1566          36 :         constraintTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(CONSTROID,
    1567             :                                               ObjectIdGetDatum(constraintOid));
    1568          36 :         if (!HeapTupleIsValid(constraintTuple))
    1569           0 :             elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for constraint %u", constraintOid);
    1570             : 
    1571          36 :         conForm = ((Form_pg_constraint) GETSTRUCT(constraintTuple));
    1572             : 
    1573          36 :         if (conForm->conindid == oldIndexId)
    1574             :         {
    1575          36 :             conForm->conindid = newIndexId;
    1576             : 
    1577          36 :             CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_constraint, &constraintTuple->t_self, constraintTuple);
    1578             :         }
    1579             : 
    1580          36 :         heap_freetuple(constraintTuple);
    1581             : 
    1582             :         /* Search for trigger records */
    1583          36 :         ScanKeyInit(&key[0],
    1584             :                     Anum_pg_trigger_tgconstraint,
    1585             :                     BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_OIDEQ,
    1586             :                     ObjectIdGetDatum(constraintOid));
    1587             : 
    1588          36 :         scan = systable_beginscan(pg_trigger, TriggerConstraintIndexId, true,
    1589             :                                   NULL, 1, key);
    1590             : 
    1591         104 :         while (HeapTupleIsValid((triggerTuple = systable_getnext(scan))))
    1592             :         {
    1593          32 :             Form_pg_trigger tgForm = (Form_pg_trigger) GETSTRUCT(triggerTuple);
    1594             : 
    1595          32 :             if (tgForm->tgconstrindid != oldIndexId)
    1596           0 :                 continue;
    1597             : 
    1598             :             /* Make a modifiable copy */
    1599          32 :             triggerTuple = heap_copytuple(triggerTuple);
    1600          32 :             tgForm = (Form_pg_trigger) GETSTRUCT(triggerTuple);
    1601             : 
    1602          32 :             tgForm->tgconstrindid = newIndexId;
    1603             : 
    1604          32 :             CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_trigger, &triggerTuple->t_self, triggerTuple);
    1605             : 
    1606          32 :             heap_freetuple(triggerTuple);
    1607             :         }
    1608             : 
    1609          36 :         systable_endscan(scan);
    1610             :     }
    1611             : 
    1612             :     /*
    1613             :      * Move comment if any
    1614             :      */
    1615             :     {
    1616             :         Relation    description;
    1617             :         ScanKeyData skey[3];
    1618             :         SysScanDesc sd;
    1619             :         HeapTuple   tuple;
    1620         128 :         Datum       values[Natts_pg_description] = {0};
    1621         128 :         bool        nulls[Natts_pg_description] = {0};
    1622         128 :         bool        replaces[Natts_pg_description] = {0};
    1623             : 
    1624         128 :         values[Anum_pg_description_objoid - 1] = ObjectIdGetDatum(newIndexId);
    1625         128 :         replaces[Anum_pg_description_objoid - 1] = true;
    1626             : 
    1627         128 :         ScanKeyInit(&skey[0],
    1628             :                     Anum_pg_description_objoid,
    1629             :                     BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_OIDEQ,
    1630             :                     ObjectIdGetDatum(oldIndexId));
    1631         128 :         ScanKeyInit(&skey[1],
    1632             :                     Anum_pg_description_classoid,
    1633             :                     BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_OIDEQ,
    1634             :                     ObjectIdGetDatum(RelationRelationId));
    1635         128 :         ScanKeyInit(&skey[2],
    1636             :                     Anum_pg_description_objsubid,
    1637             :                     BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_INT4EQ,
    1638             :                     Int32GetDatum(0));
    1639             : 
    1640         128 :         description = table_open(DescriptionRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    1641             : 
    1642         128 :         sd = systable_beginscan(description, DescriptionObjIndexId, true,
    1643             :                                 NULL, 3, skey);
    1644             : 
    1645         128 :         while ((tuple = systable_getnext(sd)) != NULL)
    1646             :         {
    1647           4 :             tuple = heap_modify_tuple(tuple, RelationGetDescr(description),
    1648             :                                       values, nulls, replaces);
    1649           4 :             CatalogTupleUpdate(description, &tuple->t_self, tuple);
    1650             : 
    1651           4 :             break;              /* Assume there can be only one match */
    1652             :         }
    1653             : 
    1654         128 :         systable_endscan(sd);
    1655         128 :         table_close(description, NoLock);
    1656             :     }
    1657             : 
    1658             :     /*
    1659             :      * Swap inheritance relationship with parent index
    1660             :      */
    1661         128 :     if (get_rel_relispartition(oldIndexId))
    1662             :     {
    1663          16 :         List       *ancestors = get_partition_ancestors(oldIndexId);
    1664          16 :         Oid         parentIndexRelid = linitial_oid(ancestors);
    1665             : 
    1666          16 :         DeleteInheritsTuple(oldIndexId, parentIndexRelid);
    1667          16 :         StoreSingleInheritance(newIndexId, parentIndexRelid, 1);
    1668             : 
    1669          16 :         list_free(ancestors);
    1670             :     }
    1671             : 
    1672             :     /*
    1673             :      * Move all dependencies of and on the old index to the new one.  First
    1674             :      * remove any dependencies that the new index may have to provide an
    1675             :      * initial clean state for the dependency switch, and then move all the
    1676             :      * dependencies from the old index to the new one.
    1677             :      */
    1678         128 :     deleteDependencyRecordsFor(RelationRelationId, newIndexId, false);
    1679         128 :     changeDependenciesOf(RelationRelationId, oldIndexId, newIndexId);
    1680         128 :     changeDependenciesOn(RelationRelationId, oldIndexId, newIndexId);
    1681             : 
    1682             :     /*
    1683             :      * Copy over statistics from old to new index
    1684             :      */
    1685             :     {
    1686             :         PgStat_StatTabEntry *tabentry;
    1687             : 
    1688         128 :         tabentry = pgstat_fetch_stat_tabentry(oldIndexId);
    1689         128 :         if (tabentry)
    1690             :         {
    1691           2 :             if (newClassRel->pgstat_info)
    1692             :             {
    1693           2 :                 newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_numscans = tabentry->numscans;
    1694           2 :                 newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_tuples_returned = tabentry->tuples_returned;
    1695           2 :                 newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_tuples_fetched = tabentry->tuples_fetched;
    1696           2 :                 newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_blocks_fetched = tabentry->blocks_fetched;
    1697           2 :                 newClassRel->pgstat_info->t_counts.t_blocks_hit = tabentry->blocks_hit;
    1698             : 
    1699             :                 /*
    1700             :                  * The data will be sent by the next pgstat_report_stat()
    1701             :                  * call.
    1702             :                  */
    1703             :             }
    1704             :         }
    1705             :     }
    1706             : 
    1707             :     /* Close relations */
    1708         128 :     table_close(pg_class, RowExclusiveLock);
    1709         128 :     table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
    1710         128 :     table_close(pg_constraint, RowExclusiveLock);
    1711         128 :     table_close(pg_trigger, RowExclusiveLock);
    1712             : 
    1713             :     /* The lock taken previously is not released until the end of transaction */
    1714         128 :     relation_close(oldClassRel, NoLock);
    1715         128 :     relation_close(newClassRel, NoLock);
    1716         128 : }
    1717             : 
    1718             : /*
    1719             :  * index_concurrently_set_dead
    1720             :  *
    1721             :  * Perform the last invalidation stage of DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY or REINDEX
    1722             :  * CONCURRENTLY before actually dropping the index.  After calling this
    1723             :  * function, the index is seen by all the backends as dead.  Low-level locks
    1724             :  * taken here are kept until the end of the transaction calling this function.
    1725             :  */
    1726             : void
    1727         154 : index_concurrently_set_dead(Oid heapId, Oid indexId)
    1728             : {
    1729             :     Relation    userHeapRelation;
    1730             :     Relation    userIndexRelation;
    1731             : 
    1732             :     /*
    1733             :      * No more predicate locks will be acquired on this index, and we're about
    1734             :      * to stop doing inserts into the index which could show conflicts with
    1735             :      * existing predicate locks, so now is the time to move them to the heap
    1736             :      * relation.
    1737             :      */
    1738         154 :     userHeapRelation = table_open(heapId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    1739         154 :     userIndexRelation = index_open(indexId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    1740         154 :     TransferPredicateLocksToHeapRelation(userIndexRelation);
    1741             : 
    1742             :     /*
    1743             :      * Now we are sure that nobody uses the index for queries; they just might
    1744             :      * have it open for updating it.  So now we can unset indisready and
    1745             :      * indislive, then wait till nobody could be using it at all anymore.
    1746             :      */
    1747         154 :     index_set_state_flags(indexId, INDEX_DROP_SET_DEAD);
    1748             : 
    1749             :     /*
    1750             :      * Invalidate the relcache for the table, so that after this commit all
    1751             :      * sessions will refresh the table's index list.  Forgetting just the
    1752             :      * index's relcache entry is not enough.
    1753             :      */
    1754         154 :     CacheInvalidateRelcache(userHeapRelation);
    1755             : 
    1756             :     /*
    1757             :      * Close the relations again, though still holding session lock.
    1758             :      */
    1759         154 :     table_close(userHeapRelation, NoLock);
    1760         154 :     index_close(userIndexRelation, NoLock);
    1761         154 : }
    1762             : 
    1763             : /*
    1764             :  * index_constraint_create
    1765             :  *
    1766             :  * Set up a constraint associated with an index.  Return the new constraint's
    1767             :  * address.
    1768             :  *
    1769             :  * heapRelation: table owning the index (must be suitably locked by caller)
    1770             :  * indexRelationId: OID of the index
    1771             :  * parentConstraintId: if constraint is on a partition, the OID of the
    1772             :  *      constraint in the parent.
    1773             :  * indexInfo: same info executor uses to insert into the index
    1774             :  * constraintName: what it say (generally, should match name of index)
    1775             :  * constraintType: one of CONSTRAINT_PRIMARY, CONSTRAINT_UNIQUE, or
    1776             :  *      CONSTRAINT_EXCLUSION
    1777             :  * flags: bitmask that can include any combination of these bits:
    1778             :  *      INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_MARK_AS_PRIMARY: index is a PRIMARY KEY
    1779             :  *      INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_DEFERRABLE: constraint is DEFERRABLE
    1780             :  *      INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_INIT_DEFERRED: constraint is INITIALLY DEFERRED
    1781             :  *      INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_UPDATE_INDEX: update the pg_index row
    1782             :  *      INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_REMOVE_OLD_DEPS: remove existing dependencies
    1783             :  *          of index on table's columns
    1784             :  * allow_system_table_mods: allow table to be a system catalog
    1785             :  * is_internal: index is constructed due to internal process
    1786             :  */
    1787             : ObjectAddress
    1788        5338 : index_constraint_create(Relation heapRelation,
    1789             :                         Oid indexRelationId,
    1790             :                         Oid parentConstraintId,
    1791             :                         IndexInfo *indexInfo,
    1792             :                         const char *constraintName,
    1793             :                         char constraintType,
    1794             :                         bits16 constr_flags,
    1795             :                         bool allow_system_table_mods,
    1796             :                         bool is_internal)
    1797             : {
    1798        5338 :     Oid         namespaceId = RelationGetNamespace(heapRelation);
    1799             :     ObjectAddress myself,
    1800             :                 idxaddr;
    1801             :     Oid         conOid;
    1802             :     bool        deferrable;
    1803             :     bool        initdeferred;
    1804             :     bool        mark_as_primary;
    1805             :     bool        islocal;
    1806             :     bool        noinherit;
    1807             :     int         inhcount;
    1808             : 
    1809        5338 :     deferrable = (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_DEFERRABLE) != 0;
    1810        5338 :     initdeferred = (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_INIT_DEFERRED) != 0;
    1811        5338 :     mark_as_primary = (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_MARK_AS_PRIMARY) != 0;
    1812             : 
    1813             :     /* constraint creation support doesn't work while bootstrapping */
    1814             :     Assert(!IsBootstrapProcessingMode());
    1815             : 
    1816             :     /* enforce system-table restriction */
    1817       10676 :     if (!allow_system_table_mods &&
    1818        5338 :         IsSystemRelation(heapRelation) &&
    1819           0 :         IsNormalProcessingMode())
    1820           0 :         ereport(ERROR,
    1821             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
    1822             :                  errmsg("user-defined indexes on system catalog tables are not supported")));
    1823             : 
    1824             :     /* primary/unique constraints shouldn't have any expressions */
    1825        5338 :     if (indexInfo->ii_Expressions &&
    1826             :         constraintType != CONSTRAINT_EXCLUSION)
    1827           0 :         elog(ERROR, "constraints cannot have index expressions");
    1828             : 
    1829             :     /*
    1830             :      * If we're manufacturing a constraint for a pre-existing index, we need
    1831             :      * to get rid of the existing auto dependencies for the index (the ones
    1832             :      * that index_create() would have made instead of calling this function).
    1833             :      *
    1834             :      * Note: this code would not necessarily do the right thing if the index
    1835             :      * has any expressions or predicate, but we'd never be turning such an
    1836             :      * index into a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY constraint.
    1837             :      */
    1838        5338 :     if (constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_REMOVE_OLD_DEPS)
    1839          24 :         deleteDependencyRecordsForClass(RelationRelationId, indexRelationId,
    1840             :                                         RelationRelationId, DEPENDENCY_AUTO);
    1841             : 
    1842        5338 :     if (OidIsValid(parentConstraintId))
    1843             :     {
    1844         414 :         islocal = false;
    1845         414 :         inhcount = 1;
    1846         414 :         noinherit = false;
    1847             :     }
    1848             :     else
    1849             :     {
    1850        4924 :         islocal = true;
    1851        4924 :         inhcount = 0;
    1852        4924 :         noinherit = true;
    1853             :     }
    1854             : 
    1855             :     /*
    1856             :      * Construct a pg_constraint entry.
    1857             :      */
    1858       16014 :     conOid = CreateConstraintEntry(constraintName,
    1859             :                                    namespaceId,
    1860             :                                    constraintType,
    1861             :                                    deferrable,
    1862             :                                    initdeferred,
    1863             :                                    true,
    1864             :                                    parentConstraintId,
    1865             :                                    RelationGetRelid(heapRelation),
    1866        5338 :                                    indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers,
    1867             :                                    indexInfo->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs,
    1868             :                                    indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs,
    1869             :                                    InvalidOid,  /* no domain */
    1870             :                                    indexRelationId, /* index OID */
    1871             :                                    InvalidOid,  /* no foreign key */
    1872             :                                    NULL,
    1873             :                                    NULL,
    1874             :                                    NULL,
    1875             :                                    NULL,
    1876             :                                    0,
    1877             :                                    ' ',
    1878             :                                    ' ',
    1879             :                                    ' ',
    1880        5338 :                                    indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps,
    1881             :                                    NULL,    /* no check constraint */
    1882             :                                    NULL,
    1883             :                                    islocal,
    1884             :                                    inhcount,
    1885             :                                    noinherit,
    1886             :                                    is_internal);
    1887             : 
    1888             :     /*
    1889             :      * Register the index as internally dependent on the constraint.
    1890             :      *
    1891             :      * Note that the constraint has a dependency on the table, so we don't
    1892             :      * need (or want) any direct dependency from the index to the table.
    1893             :      */
    1894        5338 :     ObjectAddressSet(myself, ConstraintRelationId, conOid);
    1895        5338 :     ObjectAddressSet(idxaddr, RelationRelationId, indexRelationId);
    1896        5338 :     recordDependencyOn(&idxaddr, &myself, DEPENDENCY_INTERNAL);
    1897             : 
    1898             :     /*
    1899             :      * Also, if this is a constraint on a partition, give it partition-type
    1900             :      * dependencies on the parent constraint as well as the table.
    1901             :      */
    1902        5338 :     if (OidIsValid(parentConstraintId))
    1903             :     {
    1904             :         ObjectAddress referenced;
    1905             : 
    1906         414 :         ObjectAddressSet(referenced, ConstraintRelationId, parentConstraintId);
    1907         414 :         recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_PARTITION_PRI);
    1908         414 :         ObjectAddressSet(referenced, RelationRelationId,
    1909             :                          RelationGetRelid(heapRelation));
    1910         414 :         recordDependencyOn(&myself, &referenced, DEPENDENCY_PARTITION_SEC);
    1911             :     }
    1912             : 
    1913             :     /*
    1914             :      * If the constraint is deferrable, create the deferred uniqueness
    1915             :      * checking trigger.  (The trigger will be given an internal dependency on
    1916             :      * the constraint by CreateTrigger.)
    1917             :      */
    1918        5338 :     if (deferrable)
    1919             :     {
    1920             :         CreateTrigStmt *trigger;
    1921             : 
    1922          54 :         trigger = makeNode(CreateTrigStmt);
    1923          54 :         trigger->trigname = (constraintType == CONSTRAINT_PRIMARY) ?
    1924          54 :             "PK_ConstraintTrigger" :
    1925             :             "Unique_ConstraintTrigger";
    1926          54 :         trigger->relation = NULL;
    1927          54 :         trigger->funcname = SystemFuncName("unique_key_recheck");
    1928          54 :         trigger->args = NIL;
    1929          54 :         trigger->row = true;
    1930          54 :         trigger->timing = TRIGGER_TYPE_AFTER;
    1931          54 :         trigger->events = TRIGGER_TYPE_INSERT | TRIGGER_TYPE_UPDATE;
    1932          54 :         trigger->columns = NIL;
    1933          54 :         trigger->whenClause = NULL;
    1934          54 :         trigger->isconstraint = true;
    1935          54 :         trigger->deferrable = true;
    1936          54 :         trigger->initdeferred = initdeferred;
    1937          54 :         trigger->constrrel = NULL;
    1938             : 
    1939          54 :         (void) CreateTrigger(trigger, NULL, RelationGetRelid(heapRelation),
    1940             :                              InvalidOid, conOid, indexRelationId, InvalidOid,
    1941             :                              InvalidOid, NULL, true, false);
    1942             :     }
    1943             : 
    1944             :     /*
    1945             :      * If needed, mark the index as primary and/or deferred in pg_index.
    1946             :      *
    1947             :      * Note: When making an existing index into a constraint, caller must have
    1948             :      * a table lock that prevents concurrent table updates; otherwise, there
    1949             :      * is a risk that concurrent readers of the table will miss seeing this
    1950             :      * index at all.
    1951             :      */
    1952        5338 :     if ((constr_flags & INDEX_CONSTR_CREATE_UPDATE_INDEX) &&
    1953           4 :         (mark_as_primary || deferrable))
    1954             :     {
    1955             :         Relation    pg_index;
    1956             :         HeapTuple   indexTuple;
    1957             :         Form_pg_index indexForm;
    1958          20 :         bool        dirty = false;
    1959             : 
    1960          20 :         pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    1961             : 
    1962          20 :         indexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
    1963             :                                          ObjectIdGetDatum(indexRelationId));
    1964          20 :         if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
    1965           0 :             elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexRelationId);
    1966          20 :         indexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple);
    1967             : 
    1968          20 :         if (mark_as_primary && !indexForm->indisprimary)
    1969             :         {
    1970          20 :             indexForm->indisprimary = true;
    1971          20 :             dirty = true;
    1972             :         }
    1973             : 
    1974          20 :         if (deferrable && indexForm->indimmediate)
    1975             :         {
    1976           0 :             indexForm->indimmediate = false;
    1977           0 :             dirty = true;
    1978             :         }
    1979             : 
    1980          20 :         if (dirty)
    1981             :         {
    1982          20 :             CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &indexTuple->t_self, indexTuple);
    1983             : 
    1984          20 :             InvokeObjectPostAlterHookArg(IndexRelationId, indexRelationId, 0,
    1985             :                                          InvalidOid, is_internal);
    1986             :         }
    1987             : 
    1988          20 :         heap_freetuple(indexTuple);
    1989          20 :         table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
    1990             :     }
    1991             : 
    1992        5338 :     return myself;
    1993             : }
    1994             : 
    1995             : /*
    1996             :  *      index_drop
    1997             :  *
    1998             :  * NOTE: this routine should now only be called through performDeletion(),
    1999             :  * else associated dependencies won't be cleaned up.
    2000             :  *
    2001             :  * If concurrent is true, do a DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY.  If concurrent is
    2002             :  * false but concurrent_lock_mode is true, then do a normal DROP INDEX but
    2003             :  * take a lock for CONCURRENTLY processing.  That is used as part of REINDEX
    2004             :  * CONCURRENTLY.
    2005             :  */
    2006             : void
    2007       12358 : index_drop(Oid indexId, bool concurrent, bool concurrent_lock_mode)
    2008             : {
    2009             :     Oid         heapId;
    2010             :     Relation    userHeapRelation;
    2011             :     Relation    userIndexRelation;
    2012             :     Relation    indexRelation;
    2013             :     HeapTuple   tuple;
    2014             :     bool        hasexprs;
    2015             :     LockRelId   heaprelid,
    2016             :                 indexrelid;
    2017             :     LOCKTAG     heaplocktag;
    2018             :     LOCKMODE    lockmode;
    2019             : 
    2020             :     /*
    2021             :      * To drop an index safely, we must grab exclusive lock on its parent
    2022             :      * table.  Exclusive lock on the index alone is insufficient because
    2023             :      * another backend might be about to execute a query on the parent table.
    2024             :      * If it relies on a previously cached list of index OIDs, then it could
    2025             :      * attempt to access the just-dropped index.  We must therefore take a
    2026             :      * table lock strong enough to prevent all queries on the table from
    2027             :      * proceeding until we commit and send out a shared-cache-inval notice
    2028             :      * that will make them update their index lists.
    2029             :      *
    2030             :      * In the concurrent case we avoid this requirement by disabling index use
    2031             :      * in multiple steps and waiting out any transactions that might be using
    2032             :      * the index, so we don't need exclusive lock on the parent table. Instead
    2033             :      * we take ShareUpdateExclusiveLock, to ensure that two sessions aren't
    2034             :      * doing CREATE/DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY on the same index.  (We will get
    2035             :      * AccessExclusiveLock on the index below, once we're sure nobody else is
    2036             :      * using it.)
    2037             :      */
    2038       12358 :     heapId = IndexGetRelation(indexId, false);
    2039       12358 :     lockmode = (concurrent || concurrent_lock_mode) ? ShareUpdateExclusiveLock : AccessExclusiveLock;
    2040       12358 :     userHeapRelation = table_open(heapId, lockmode);
    2041       12358 :     userIndexRelation = index_open(indexId, lockmode);
    2042             : 
    2043             :     /*
    2044             :      * We might still have open queries using it in our own session, which the
    2045             :      * above locking won't prevent, so test explicitly.
    2046             :      */
    2047       12358 :     CheckTableNotInUse(userIndexRelation, "DROP INDEX");
    2048             : 
    2049             :     /*
    2050             :      * Drop Index Concurrently is more or less the reverse process of Create
    2051             :      * Index Concurrently.
    2052             :      *
    2053             :      * First we unset indisvalid so queries starting afterwards don't use the
    2054             :      * index to answer queries anymore.  We have to keep indisready = true so
    2055             :      * transactions that are still scanning the index can continue to see
    2056             :      * valid index contents.  For instance, if they are using READ COMMITTED
    2057             :      * mode, and another transaction makes changes and commits, they need to
    2058             :      * see those new tuples in the index.
    2059             :      *
    2060             :      * After all transactions that could possibly have used the index for
    2061             :      * queries end, we can unset indisready and indislive, then wait till
    2062             :      * nobody could be touching it anymore.  (Note: we need indislive because
    2063             :      * this state must be distinct from the initial state during CREATE INDEX
    2064             :      * CONCURRENTLY, which has indislive true while indisready and indisvalid
    2065             :      * are false.  That's because in that state, transactions must examine the
    2066             :      * index for HOT-safety decisions, while in this state we don't want them
    2067             :      * to open it at all.)
    2068             :      *
    2069             :      * Since all predicate locks on the index are about to be made invalid, we
    2070             :      * must promote them to predicate locks on the heap.  In the
    2071             :      * non-concurrent case we can just do that now.  In the concurrent case
    2072             :      * it's a bit trickier.  The predicate locks must be moved when there are
    2073             :      * no index scans in progress on the index and no more can subsequently
    2074             :      * start, so that no new predicate locks can be made on the index.  Also,
    2075             :      * they must be moved before heap inserts stop maintaining the index, else
    2076             :      * the conflict with the predicate lock on the index gap could be missed
    2077             :      * before the lock on the heap relation is in place to detect a conflict
    2078             :      * based on the heap tuple insert.
    2079             :      */
    2080       12358 :     if (concurrent)
    2081             :     {
    2082             :         /*
    2083             :          * We must commit our transaction in order to make the first pg_index
    2084             :          * state update visible to other sessions.  If the DROP machinery has
    2085             :          * already performed any other actions (removal of other objects,
    2086             :          * pg_depend entries, etc), the commit would make those actions
    2087             :          * permanent, which would leave us with inconsistent catalog state if
    2088             :          * we fail partway through the following sequence.  Since DROP INDEX
    2089             :          * CONCURRENTLY is restricted to dropping just one index that has no
    2090             :          * dependencies, we should get here before anything's been done ---
    2091             :          * but let's check that to be sure.  We can verify that the current
    2092             :          * transaction has not executed any transactional updates by checking
    2093             :          * that no XID has been assigned.
    2094             :          */
    2095          26 :         if (GetTopTransactionIdIfAny() != InvalidTransactionId)
    2096           0 :             ereport(ERROR,
    2097             :                     (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
    2098             :                      errmsg("DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY must be first action in transaction")));
    2099             : 
    2100             :         /*
    2101             :          * Mark index invalid by updating its pg_index entry
    2102             :          */
    2103          26 :         index_set_state_flags(indexId, INDEX_DROP_CLEAR_VALID);
    2104             : 
    2105             :         /*
    2106             :          * Invalidate the relcache for the table, so that after this commit
    2107             :          * all sessions will refresh any cached plans that might reference the
    2108             :          * index.
    2109             :          */
    2110          26 :         CacheInvalidateRelcache(userHeapRelation);
    2111             : 
    2112             :         /* save lockrelid and locktag for below, then close but keep locks */
    2113          26 :         heaprelid = userHeapRelation->rd_lockInfo.lockRelId;
    2114          26 :         SET_LOCKTAG_RELATION(heaplocktag, heaprelid.dbId, heaprelid.relId);
    2115          26 :         indexrelid = userIndexRelation->rd_lockInfo.lockRelId;
    2116             : 
    2117          26 :         table_close(userHeapRelation, NoLock);
    2118          26 :         index_close(userIndexRelation, NoLock);
    2119             : 
    2120             :         /*
    2121             :          * We must commit our current transaction so that the indisvalid
    2122             :          * update becomes visible to other transactions; then start another.
    2123             :          * Note that any previously-built data structures are lost in the
    2124             :          * commit.  The only data we keep past here are the relation IDs.
    2125             :          *
    2126             :          * Before committing, get a session-level lock on the table, to ensure
    2127             :          * that neither it nor the index can be dropped before we finish. This
    2128             :          * cannot block, even if someone else is waiting for access, because
    2129             :          * we already have the same lock within our transaction.
    2130             :          */
    2131          26 :         LockRelationIdForSession(&heaprelid, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    2132          26 :         LockRelationIdForSession(&indexrelid, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    2133             : 
    2134          26 :         PopActiveSnapshot();
    2135          26 :         CommitTransactionCommand();
    2136          26 :         StartTransactionCommand();
    2137             : 
    2138             :         /*
    2139             :          * Now we must wait until no running transaction could be using the
    2140             :          * index for a query.  Use AccessExclusiveLock here to check for
    2141             :          * running transactions that hold locks of any kind on the table. Note
    2142             :          * we do not need to worry about xacts that open the table for reading
    2143             :          * after this point; they will see the index as invalid when they open
    2144             :          * the relation.
    2145             :          *
    2146             :          * Note: the reason we use actual lock acquisition here, rather than
    2147             :          * just checking the ProcArray and sleeping, is that deadlock is
    2148             :          * possible if one of the transactions in question is blocked trying
    2149             :          * to acquire an exclusive lock on our table.  The lock code will
    2150             :          * detect deadlock and error out properly.
    2151             :          *
    2152             :          * Note: we report progress through WaitForLockers() unconditionally
    2153             :          * here, even though it will only be used when we're called by REINDEX
    2154             :          * CONCURRENTLY and not when called by DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY.
    2155             :          */
    2156          26 :         WaitForLockers(heaplocktag, AccessExclusiveLock, true);
    2157             : 
    2158             :         /* Finish invalidation of index and mark it as dead */
    2159          26 :         index_concurrently_set_dead(heapId, indexId);
    2160             : 
    2161             :         /*
    2162             :          * Again, commit the transaction to make the pg_index update visible
    2163             :          * to other sessions.
    2164             :          */
    2165          26 :         CommitTransactionCommand();
    2166          26 :         StartTransactionCommand();
    2167             : 
    2168             :         /*
    2169             :          * Wait till every transaction that saw the old index state has
    2170             :          * finished.  See above about progress reporting.
    2171             :          */
    2172          26 :         WaitForLockers(heaplocktag, AccessExclusiveLock, true);
    2173             : 
    2174             :         /*
    2175             :          * Re-open relations to allow us to complete our actions.
    2176             :          *
    2177             :          * At this point, nothing should be accessing the index, but lets
    2178             :          * leave nothing to chance and grab AccessExclusiveLock on the index
    2179             :          * before the physical deletion.
    2180             :          */
    2181          26 :         userHeapRelation = table_open(heapId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    2182          26 :         userIndexRelation = index_open(indexId, AccessExclusiveLock);
    2183             :     }
    2184             :     else
    2185             :     {
    2186             :         /* Not concurrent, so just transfer predicate locks and we're good */
    2187       12332 :         TransferPredicateLocksToHeapRelation(userIndexRelation);
    2188             :     }
    2189             : 
    2190             :     /*
    2191             :      * Schedule physical removal of the files (if any)
    2192             :      */
    2193       12358 :     if (userIndexRelation->rd_rel->relkind != RELKIND_PARTITIONED_INDEX)
    2194       11724 :         RelationDropStorage(userIndexRelation);
    2195             : 
    2196             :     /*
    2197             :      * Close and flush the index's relcache entry, to ensure relcache doesn't
    2198             :      * try to rebuild it while we're deleting catalog entries. We keep the
    2199             :      * lock though.
    2200             :      */
    2201       12358 :     index_close(userIndexRelation, NoLock);
    2202             : 
    2203       12358 :     RelationForgetRelation(indexId);
    2204             : 
    2205             :     /*
    2206             :      * fix INDEX relation, and check for expressional index
    2207             :      */
    2208       12358 :     indexRelation = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    2209             : 
    2210       12358 :     tuple = SearchSysCache1(INDEXRELID, ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
    2211       12358 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
    2212           0 :         elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
    2213             : 
    2214       24716 :     hasexprs = !heap_attisnull(tuple, Anum_pg_index_indexprs,
    2215       12358 :                                RelationGetDescr(indexRelation));
    2216             : 
    2217       12358 :     CatalogTupleDelete(indexRelation, &tuple->t_self);
    2218             : 
    2219       12358 :     ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
    2220       12358 :     table_close(indexRelation, RowExclusiveLock);
    2221             : 
    2222             :     /*
    2223             :      * if it has any expression columns, we might have stored statistics about
    2224             :      * them.
    2225             :      */
    2226       12358 :     if (hasexprs)
    2227         292 :         RemoveStatistics(indexId, 0);
    2228             : 
    2229             :     /*
    2230             :      * fix ATTRIBUTE relation
    2231             :      */
    2232       12358 :     DeleteAttributeTuples(indexId);
    2233             : 
    2234             :     /*
    2235             :      * fix RELATION relation
    2236             :      */
    2237       12358 :     DeleteRelationTuple(indexId);
    2238             : 
    2239             :     /*
    2240             :      * fix INHERITS relation
    2241             :      */
    2242       12358 :     DeleteInheritsTuple(indexId, InvalidOid);
    2243             : 
    2244             :     /*
    2245             :      * We are presently too lazy to attempt to compute the new correct value
    2246             :      * of relhasindex (the next VACUUM will fix it if necessary). So there is
    2247             :      * no need to update the pg_class tuple for the owning relation. But we
    2248             :      * must send out a shared-cache-inval notice on the owning relation to
    2249             :      * ensure other backends update their relcache lists of indexes.  (In the
    2250             :      * concurrent case, this is redundant but harmless.)
    2251             :      */
    2252       12358 :     CacheInvalidateRelcache(userHeapRelation);
    2253             : 
    2254             :     /*
    2255             :      * Close owning rel, but keep lock
    2256             :      */
    2257       12358 :     table_close(userHeapRelation, NoLock);
    2258             : 
    2259             :     /*
    2260             :      * Release the session locks before we go.
    2261             :      */
    2262       12358 :     if (concurrent)
    2263             :     {
    2264          26 :         UnlockRelationIdForSession(&heaprelid, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    2265          26 :         UnlockRelationIdForSession(&indexrelid, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    2266             :     }
    2267       12358 : }
    2268             : 
    2269             : /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
    2270             :  *                      index_build support
    2271             :  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
    2272             :  */
    2273             : 
    2274             : /* ----------------
    2275             :  *      BuildIndexInfo
    2276             :  *          Construct an IndexInfo record for an open index
    2277             :  *
    2278             :  * IndexInfo stores the information about the index that's needed by
    2279             :  * FormIndexDatum, which is used for both index_build() and later insertion
    2280             :  * of individual index tuples.  Normally we build an IndexInfo for an index
    2281             :  * just once per command, and then use it for (potentially) many tuples.
    2282             :  * ----------------
    2283             :  */
    2284             : IndexInfo *
    2285     3703866 : BuildIndexInfo(Relation index)
    2286             : {
    2287             :     IndexInfo  *ii;
    2288     3703866 :     Form_pg_index indexStruct = index->rd_index;
    2289             :     int         i;
    2290             :     int         numAtts;
    2291             : 
    2292             :     /* check the number of keys, and copy attr numbers into the IndexInfo */
    2293     3703866 :     numAtts = indexStruct->indnatts;
    2294     3703866 :     if (numAtts < 1 || numAtts > INDEX_MAX_KEYS)
    2295           0 :         elog(ERROR, "invalid indnatts %d for index %u",
    2296             :              numAtts, RelationGetRelid(index));
    2297             : 
    2298             :     /*
    2299             :      * Create the node, fetching any expressions needed for expressional
    2300             :      * indexes and index predicate if any.
    2301             :      */
    2302    14815460 :     ii = makeIndexInfo(indexStruct->indnatts,
    2303     3703864 :                        indexStruct->indnkeyatts,
    2304     3703864 :                        index->rd_rel->relam,
    2305             :                        RelationGetIndexExpressions(index),
    2306             :                        RelationGetIndexPredicate(index),
    2307     3703866 :                        indexStruct->indisunique,
    2308     3703866 :                        indexStruct->indisready,
    2309             :                        false);
    2310             : 
    2311             :     /* fill in attribute numbers */
    2312    11917760 :     for (i = 0; i < numAtts; i++)
    2313     8213896 :         ii->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] = indexStruct->indkey.values[i];
    2314             : 
    2315             :     /* fetch exclusion constraint info if any */
    2316     3703864 :     if (indexStruct->indisexclusion)
    2317             :     {
    2318         228 :         RelationGetExclusionInfo(index,
    2319             :                                  &ii->ii_ExclusionOps,
    2320             :                                  &ii->ii_ExclusionProcs,
    2321             :                                  &ii->ii_ExclusionStrats);
    2322             :     }
    2323             : 
    2324     3703864 :     return ii;
    2325             : }
    2326             : 
    2327             : /*
    2328             :  * CompareIndexInfo
    2329             :  *      Return whether the properties of two indexes (in different tables)
    2330             :  *      indicate that they have the "same" definitions.
    2331             :  *
    2332             :  * Note: passing collations and opfamilies separately is a kludge.  Adding
    2333             :  * them to IndexInfo may result in better coding here and elsewhere.
    2334             :  *
    2335             :  * Use convert_tuples_by_name_map(index2, index1) to build the attmap.
    2336             :  */
    2337             : bool
    2338         308 : CompareIndexInfo(IndexInfo *info1, IndexInfo *info2,
    2339             :                  Oid *collations1, Oid *collations2,
    2340             :                  Oid *opfamilies1, Oid *opfamilies2,
    2341             :                  AttrNumber *attmap, int maplen)
    2342             : {
    2343             :     int         i;
    2344             : 
    2345         308 :     if (info1->ii_Unique != info2->ii_Unique)
    2346           0 :         return false;
    2347             : 
    2348             :     /* indexes are only equivalent if they have the same access method */
    2349         308 :     if (info1->ii_Am != info2->ii_Am)
    2350           8 :         return false;
    2351             : 
    2352             :     /* and same number of attributes */
    2353         300 :     if (info1->ii_NumIndexAttrs != info2->ii_NumIndexAttrs)
    2354          16 :         return false;
    2355             : 
    2356             :     /* and same number of key attributes */
    2357         284 :     if (info1->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs != info2->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs)
    2358           0 :         return false;
    2359             : 
    2360             :     /*
    2361             :      * and columns match through the attribute map (actual attribute numbers
    2362             :      * might differ!)  Note that this implies that index columns that are
    2363             :      * expressions appear in the same positions.  We will next compare the
    2364             :      * expressions themselves.
    2365             :      */
    2366         582 :     for (i = 0; i < info1->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
    2367             :     {
    2368         322 :         if (maplen < info2->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i])
    2369           0 :             elog(ERROR, "incorrect attribute map");
    2370             : 
    2371             :         /* ignore expressions at this stage */
    2372         620 :         if ((info1->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] != InvalidAttrNumber) &&
    2373         298 :             (attmap[info2->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i] - 1] !=
    2374         298 :              info1->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i]))
    2375           8 :             return false;
    2376             : 
    2377             :         /* collation and opfamily is not valid for including columns */
    2378         314 :         if (i >= info1->ii_NumIndexKeyAttrs)
    2379          12 :             continue;
    2380             : 
    2381         302 :         if (collations1[i] != collations2[i])
    2382           8 :             return false;
    2383         294 :         if (opfamilies1[i] != opfamilies2[i])
    2384           8 :             return false;
    2385             :     }
    2386             : 
    2387             :     /*
    2388             :      * For expression indexes: either both are expression indexes, or neither
    2389             :      * is; if they are, make sure the expressions match.
    2390             :      */
    2391         260 :     if ((info1->ii_Expressions != NIL) != (info2->ii_Expressions != NIL))
    2392           4 :         return false;
    2393         256 :     if (info1->ii_Expressions != NIL)
    2394             :     {
    2395             :         bool        found_whole_row;
    2396             :         Node       *mapped;
    2397             : 
    2398          20 :         mapped = map_variable_attnos((Node *) info2->ii_Expressions,
    2399             :                                      1, 0, attmap, maplen,
    2400             :                                      InvalidOid, &found_whole_row);
    2401          20 :         if (found_whole_row)
    2402             :         {
    2403             :             /*
    2404             :              * we could throw an error here, but seems out of scope for this
    2405             :              * routine.
    2406             :              */
    2407           4 :             return false;
    2408             :         }
    2409             : 
    2410          20 :         if (!equal(info1->ii_Expressions, mapped))
    2411           4 :             return false;
    2412             :     }
    2413             : 
    2414             :     /* Partial index predicates must be identical, if they exist */
    2415         252 :     if ((info1->ii_Predicate == NULL) != (info2->ii_Predicate == NULL))
    2416           8 :         return false;
    2417         244 :     if (info1->ii_Predicate != NULL)
    2418             :     {
    2419             :         bool        found_whole_row;
    2420             :         Node       *mapped;
    2421             : 
    2422          12 :         mapped = map_variable_attnos((Node *) info2->ii_Predicate,
    2423             :                                      1, 0, attmap, maplen,
    2424             :                                      InvalidOid, &found_whole_row);
    2425          12 :         if (found_whole_row)
    2426             :         {
    2427             :             /*
    2428             :              * we could throw an error here, but seems out of scope for this
    2429             :              * routine.
    2430             :              */
    2431           4 :             return false;
    2432             :         }
    2433          12 :         if (!equal(info1->ii_Predicate, mapped))
    2434           4 :             return false;
    2435             :     }
    2436             : 
    2437             :     /* No support currently for comparing exclusion indexes. */
    2438         240 :     if (info1->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL || info2->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL)
    2439           0 :         return false;
    2440             : 
    2441         240 :     return true;
    2442             : }
    2443             : 
    2444             : /* ----------------
    2445             :  *      BuildSpeculativeIndexInfo
    2446             :  *          Add extra state to IndexInfo record
    2447             :  *
    2448             :  * For unique indexes, we usually don't want to add info to the IndexInfo for
    2449             :  * checking uniqueness, since the B-Tree AM handles that directly.  However,
    2450             :  * in the case of speculative insertion, additional support is required.
    2451             :  *
    2452             :  * Do this processing here rather than in BuildIndexInfo() to not incur the
    2453             :  * overhead in the common non-speculative cases.
    2454             :  * ----------------
    2455             :  */
    2456             : void
    2457        1142 : BuildSpeculativeIndexInfo(Relation index, IndexInfo *ii)
    2458             : {
    2459             :     int         indnkeyatts;
    2460             :     int         i;
    2461             : 
    2462        1142 :     indnkeyatts = IndexRelationGetNumberOfKeyAttributes(index);
    2463             : 
    2464             :     /*
    2465             :      * fetch info for checking unique indexes
    2466             :      */
    2467             :     Assert(ii->ii_Unique);
    2468             : 
    2469        1142 :     if (index->rd_rel->relam != BTREE_AM_OID)
    2470           0 :         elog(ERROR, "unexpected non-btree speculative unique index");
    2471             : 
    2472        1142 :     ii->ii_UniqueOps = (Oid *) palloc(sizeof(Oid) * indnkeyatts);
    2473        1142 :     ii->ii_UniqueProcs = (Oid *) palloc(sizeof(Oid) * indnkeyatts);
    2474        1142 :     ii->ii_UniqueStrats = (uint16 *) palloc(sizeof(uint16) * indnkeyatts);
    2475             : 
    2476             :     /*
    2477             :      * We have to look up the operator's strategy number.  This provides a
    2478             :      * cross-check that the operator does match the index.
    2479             :      */
    2480             :     /* We need the func OIDs and strategy numbers too */
    2481        2524 :     for (i = 0; i < indnkeyatts; i++)
    2482             :     {
    2483        1382 :         ii->ii_UniqueStrats[i] = BTEqualStrategyNumber;
    2484        2764 :         ii->ii_UniqueOps[i] =
    2485        4146 :             get_opfamily_member(index->rd_opfamily[i],
    2486        1382 :                                 index->rd_opcintype[i],
    2487        1382 :                                 index->rd_opcintype[i],
    2488        1382 :                                 ii->ii_UniqueStrats[i]);
    2489        1382 :         if (!OidIsValid(ii->ii_UniqueOps[i]))
    2490           0 :             elog(ERROR, "missing operator %d(%u,%u) in opfamily %u",
    2491             :                  ii->ii_UniqueStrats[i], index->rd_opcintype[i],
    2492             :                  index->rd_opcintype[i], index->rd_opfamily[i]);
    2493        1382 :         ii->ii_UniqueProcs[i] = get_opcode(ii->ii_UniqueOps[i]);
    2494             :     }
    2495        1142 : }
    2496             : 
    2497             : /* ----------------
    2498             :  *      FormIndexDatum
    2499             :  *          Construct values[] and isnull[] arrays for a new index tuple.
    2500             :  *
    2501             :  *  indexInfo       Info about the index
    2502             :  *  slot            Heap tuple for which we must prepare an index entry
    2503             :  *  estate          executor state for evaluating any index expressions
    2504             :  *  values          Array of index Datums (output area)
    2505             :  *  isnull          Array of is-null indicators (output area)
    2506             :  *
    2507             :  * When there are no index expressions, estate may be NULL.  Otherwise it
    2508             :  * must be supplied, *and* the ecxt_scantuple slot of its per-tuple expr
    2509             :  * context must point to the heap tuple passed in.
    2510             :  *
    2511             :  * Notice we don't actually call index_form_tuple() here; we just prepare
    2512             :  * its input arrays values[] and isnull[].  This is because the index AM
    2513             :  * may wish to alter the data before storage.
    2514             :  * ----------------
    2515             :  */
    2516             : void
    2517    28758426 : FormIndexDatum(IndexInfo *indexInfo,
    2518             :                TupleTableSlot *slot,
    2519             :                EState *estate,
    2520             :                Datum *values,
    2521             :                bool *isnull)
    2522             : {
    2523             :     ListCell   *indexpr_item;
    2524             :     int         i;
    2525             : 
    2526    29121952 :     if (indexInfo->ii_Expressions != NIL &&
    2527      363526 :         indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState == NIL)
    2528             :     {
    2529             :         /* First time through, set up expression evaluation state */
    2530         398 :         indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState =
    2531         398 :             ExecPrepareExprList(indexInfo->ii_Expressions, estate);
    2532             :         /* Check caller has set up context correctly */
    2533             :         Assert(GetPerTupleExprContext(estate)->ecxt_scantuple == slot);
    2534             :     }
    2535    28758426 :     indexpr_item = list_head(indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState);
    2536             : 
    2537    85111486 :     for (i = 0; i < indexInfo->ii_NumIndexAttrs; i++)
    2538             :     {
    2539    56353068 :         int         keycol = indexInfo->ii_IndexAttrNumbers[i];
    2540             :         Datum       iDatum;
    2541             :         bool        isNull;
    2542             : 
    2543    56353068 :         if (keycol < 0)
    2544           0 :             iDatum = slot_getsysattr(slot, keycol, &isNull);
    2545    56353068 :         else if (keycol != 0)
    2546             :         {
    2547             :             /*
    2548             :              * Plain index column; get the value we need directly from the
    2549             :              * heap tuple.
    2550             :              */
    2551    55989506 :             iDatum = slot_getattr(slot, keycol, &isNull);
    2552             :         }
    2553             :         else
    2554             :         {
    2555             :             /*
    2556             :              * Index expression --- need to evaluate it.
    2557             :              */
    2558      363562 :             if (indexpr_item == NULL)
    2559           0 :                 elog(ERROR, "wrong number of index expressions");
    2560      363562 :             iDatum = ExecEvalExprSwitchContext((ExprState *) lfirst(indexpr_item),
    2561      363562 :                                                GetPerTupleExprContext(estate),
    2562             :                                                &isNull);
    2563      363554 :             indexpr_item = lnext(indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState, indexpr_item);
    2564             :         }
    2565    56353060 :         values[i] = iDatum;
    2566    56353060 :         isnull[i] = isNull;
    2567             :     }
    2568             : 
    2569    28758418 :     if (indexpr_item != NULL)
    2570           0 :         elog(ERROR, "wrong number of index expressions");
    2571    28758418 : }
    2572             : 
    2573             : 
    2574             : /*
    2575             :  * index_update_stats --- update pg_class entry after CREATE INDEX or REINDEX
    2576             :  *
    2577             :  * This routine updates the pg_class row of either an index or its parent
    2578             :  * relation after CREATE INDEX or REINDEX.  Its rather bizarre API is designed
    2579             :  * to ensure we can do all the necessary work in just one update.
    2580             :  *
    2581             :  * hasindex: set relhasindex to this value
    2582             :  * reltuples: if >= 0, set reltuples to this value; else no change
    2583             :  *
    2584             :  * If reltuples >= 0, relpages and relallvisible are also updated (using
    2585             :  * RelationGetNumberOfBlocks() and visibilitymap_count()).
    2586             :  *
    2587             :  * NOTE: an important side-effect of this operation is that an SI invalidation
    2588             :  * message is sent out to all backends --- including me --- causing relcache
    2589             :  * entries to be flushed or updated with the new data.  This must happen even
    2590             :  * if we find that no change is needed in the pg_class row.  When updating
    2591             :  * a heap entry, this ensures that other backends find out about the new
    2592             :  * index.  When updating an index, it's important because some index AMs
    2593             :  * expect a relcache flush to occur after REINDEX.
    2594             :  */
    2595             : static void
    2596      145126 : index_update_stats(Relation rel,
    2597             :                    bool hasindex,
    2598             :                    double reltuples)
    2599             : {
    2600      145126 :     Oid         relid = RelationGetRelid(rel);
    2601             :     Relation    pg_class;
    2602             :     HeapTuple   tuple;
    2603             :     Form_pg_class rd_rel;
    2604             :     bool        dirty;
    2605             : 
    2606             :     /*
    2607             :      * We always update the pg_class row using a non-transactional,
    2608             :      * overwrite-in-place update.  There are several reasons for this:
    2609             :      *
    2610             :      * 1. In bootstrap mode, we have no choice --- UPDATE wouldn't work.
    2611             :      *
    2612             :      * 2. We could be reindexing pg_class itself, in which case we can't move
    2613             :      * its pg_class row because CatalogTupleInsert/CatalogTupleUpdate might
    2614             :      * not know about all the indexes yet (see reindex_relation).
    2615             :      *
    2616             :      * 3. Because we execute CREATE INDEX with just share lock on the parent
    2617             :      * rel (to allow concurrent index creations), an ordinary update could
    2618             :      * suffer a tuple-concurrently-updated failure against another CREATE
    2619             :      * INDEX committing at about the same time.  We can avoid that by having
    2620             :      * them both do nontransactional updates (we assume they will both be
    2621             :      * trying to change the pg_class row to the same thing, so it doesn't
    2622             :      * matter which goes first).
    2623             :      *
    2624             :      * It is safe to use a non-transactional update even though our
    2625             :      * transaction could still fail before committing.  Setting relhasindex
    2626             :      * true is safe even if there are no indexes (VACUUM will eventually fix
    2627             :      * it).  And of course the new relpages and reltuples counts are correct
    2628             :      * regardless.  However, we don't want to change relpages (or
    2629             :      * relallvisible) if the caller isn't providing an updated reltuples
    2630             :      * count, because that would bollix the reltuples/relpages ratio which is
    2631             :      * what's really important.
    2632             :      */
    2633             : 
    2634      145126 :     pg_class = table_open(RelationRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    2635             : 
    2636             :     /*
    2637             :      * Make a copy of the tuple to update.  Normally we use the syscache, but
    2638             :      * we can't rely on that during bootstrap or while reindexing pg_class
    2639             :      * itself.
    2640             :      */
    2641      192364 :     if (IsBootstrapProcessingMode() ||
    2642       47238 :         ReindexIsProcessingHeap(RelationRelationId))
    2643       98208 :     {
    2644             :         /* don't assume syscache will work */
    2645             :         TableScanDesc pg_class_scan;
    2646             :         ScanKeyData key[1];
    2647             : 
    2648       98208 :         ScanKeyInit(&key[0],
    2649             :                     Anum_pg_class_oid,
    2650             :                     BTEqualStrategyNumber, F_OIDEQ,
    2651             :                     ObjectIdGetDatum(relid));
    2652             : 
    2653       98208 :         pg_class_scan = table_beginscan_catalog(pg_class, 1, key);
    2654       98208 :         tuple = heap_getnext(pg_class_scan, ForwardScanDirection);
    2655       98208 :         tuple = heap_copytuple(tuple);
    2656       98208 :         table_endscan(pg_class_scan);
    2657             :     }
    2658             :     else
    2659             :     {
    2660             :         /* normal case, use syscache */
    2661       46918 :         tuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(RELOID, ObjectIdGetDatum(relid));
    2662             :     }
    2663             : 
    2664      145126 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
    2665           0 :         elog(ERROR, "could not find tuple for relation %u", relid);
    2666      145126 :     rd_rel = (Form_pg_class) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
    2667             : 
    2668             :     /* Should this be a more comprehensive test? */
    2669             :     Assert(rd_rel->relkind != RELKIND_PARTITIONED_INDEX);
    2670             : 
    2671             :     /* Apply required updates, if any, to copied tuple */
    2672             : 
    2673      145126 :     dirty = false;
    2674      145126 :     if (rd_rel->relhasindex != hasindex)
    2675             :     {
    2676       47198 :         rd_rel->relhasindex = hasindex;
    2677       47198 :         dirty = true;
    2678             :     }
    2679             : 
    2680      145126 :     if (reltuples >= 0)
    2681             :     {
    2682      143984 :         BlockNumber relpages = RelationGetNumberOfBlocks(rel);
    2683             :         BlockNumber relallvisible;
    2684             : 
    2685      143984 :         if (rd_rel->relkind != RELKIND_INDEX)
    2686       71992 :             visibilitymap_count(rel, &relallvisible, NULL);
    2687             :         else                    /* don't bother for indexes */
    2688       71992 :             relallvisible = 0;
    2689             : 
    2690      143984 :         if (rd_rel->relpages != (int32) relpages)
    2691             :         {
    2692       80566 :             rd_rel->relpages = (int32) relpages;
    2693       80566 :             dirty = true;
    2694             :         }
    2695      143984 :         if (rd_rel->reltuples != (float4) reltuples)
    2696             :         {
    2697       30548 :             rd_rel->reltuples = (float4) reltuples;
    2698       30548 :             dirty = true;
    2699             :         }
    2700      143984 :         if (rd_rel->relallvisible != (int32) relallvisible)
    2701             :         {
    2702          80 :             rd_rel->relallvisible = (int32) relallvisible;
    2703          80 :             dirty = true;
    2704             :         }
    2705             :     }
    2706             : 
    2707             :     /*
    2708             :      * If anything changed, write out the tuple
    2709             :      */
    2710      145126 :     if (dirty)
    2711             :     {
    2712      118474 :         heap_inplace_update(pg_class, tuple);
    2713             :         /* the above sends a cache inval message */
    2714             :     }
    2715             :     else
    2716             :     {
    2717             :         /* no need to change tuple, but force relcache inval anyway */
    2718       26652 :         CacheInvalidateRelcacheByTuple(tuple);
    2719             :     }
    2720             : 
    2721      145126 :     heap_freetuple(tuple);
    2722             : 
    2723      145126 :     table_close(pg_class, RowExclusiveLock);
    2724      145126 : }
    2725             : 
    2726             : 
    2727             : /*
    2728             :  * index_build - invoke access-method-specific index build procedure
    2729             :  *
    2730             :  * On entry, the index's catalog entries are valid, and its physical disk
    2731             :  * file has been created but is empty.  We call the AM-specific build
    2732             :  * procedure to fill in the index contents.  We then update the pg_class
    2733             :  * entries of the index and heap relation as needed, using statistics
    2734             :  * returned by ambuild as well as data passed by the caller.
    2735             :  *
    2736             :  * isreindex indicates we are recreating a previously-existing index.
    2737             :  * parallel indicates if parallelism may be useful.
    2738             :  *
    2739             :  * Note: before Postgres 8.2, the passed-in heap and index Relations
    2740             :  * were automatically closed by this routine.  This is no longer the case.
    2741             :  * The caller opened 'em, and the caller should close 'em.
    2742             :  */
    2743             : void
    2744       72040 : index_build(Relation heapRelation,
    2745             :             Relation indexRelation,
    2746             :             IndexInfo *indexInfo,
    2747             :             bool isreindex,
    2748             :             bool parallel)
    2749             : {
    2750             :     IndexBuildResult *stats;
    2751             :     Oid         save_userid;
    2752             :     int         save_sec_context;
    2753             :     int         save_nestlevel;
    2754             : 
    2755             :     /*
    2756             :      * sanity checks
    2757             :      */
    2758             :     Assert(RelationIsValid(indexRelation));
    2759             :     Assert(PointerIsValid(indexRelation->rd_indam));
    2760             :     Assert(PointerIsValid(indexRelation->rd_indam->ambuild));
    2761             :     Assert(PointerIsValid(indexRelation->rd_indam->ambuildempty));
    2762             : 
    2763             :     /*
    2764             :      * Determine worker process details for parallel CREATE INDEX.  Currently,
    2765             :      * only btree has support for parallel builds.
    2766             :      *
    2767             :      * Note that planner considers parallel safety for us.
    2768             :      */
    2769       95108 :     if (parallel && IsNormalProcessingMode() &&
    2770       23068 :         indexRelation->rd_rel->relam == BTREE_AM_OID)
    2771       22238 :         indexInfo->ii_ParallelWorkers =
    2772       22238 :             plan_create_index_workers(RelationGetRelid(heapRelation),
    2773             :                                       RelationGetRelid(indexRelation));
    2774             : 
    2775       72040 :     if (indexInfo->ii_ParallelWorkers == 0)
    2776       71956 :         ereport(DEBUG1,
    2777             :                 (errmsg("building index \"%s\" on table \"%s\" serially",
    2778             :                         RelationGetRelationName(indexRelation),
    2779             :                         RelationGetRelationName(heapRelation))));
    2780             :     else
    2781          84 :         ereport(DEBUG1,
    2782             :                 (errmsg_plural("building index \"%s\" on table \"%s\" with request for %d parallel worker",
    2783             :                                "building index \"%s\" on table \"%s\" with request for %d parallel workers",
    2784             :                                indexInfo->ii_ParallelWorkers,
    2785             :                                RelationGetRelationName(indexRelation),
    2786             :                                RelationGetRelationName(heapRelation),
    2787             :                                indexInfo->ii_ParallelWorkers)));
    2788             : 
    2789             :     /*
    2790             :      * Switch to the table owner's userid, so that any index functions are run
    2791             :      * as that user.  Also lock down security-restricted operations and
    2792             :      * arrange to make GUC variable changes local to this command.
    2793             :      */
    2794       72040 :     GetUserIdAndSecContext(&save_userid, &save_sec_context);
    2795       72040 :     SetUserIdAndSecContext(heapRelation->rd_rel->relowner,
    2796             :                            save_sec_context | SECURITY_RESTRICTED_OPERATION);
    2797       72040 :     save_nestlevel = NewGUCNestLevel();
    2798             : 
    2799             :     /* Set up initial progress report status */
    2800             :     {
    2801       72040 :         const int   index[] = {
    2802             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE,
    2803             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_SUBPHASE,
    2804             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_TUPLES_DONE,
    2805             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_TUPLES_TOTAL,
    2806             :             PROGRESS_SCAN_BLOCKS_DONE,
    2807             :             PROGRESS_SCAN_BLOCKS_TOTAL
    2808             :         };
    2809       72040 :         const int64 val[] = {
    2810             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE_BUILD,
    2811             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_SUBPHASE_INITIALIZE,
    2812             :             0, 0, 0, 0
    2813             :         };
    2814             : 
    2815       72040 :         pgstat_progress_update_multi_param(6, index, val);
    2816             :     }
    2817             : 
    2818             :     /*
    2819             :      * Call the access method's build procedure
    2820             :      */
    2821       72040 :     stats = indexRelation->rd_indam->ambuild(heapRelation, indexRelation,
    2822             :                                              indexInfo);
    2823             :     Assert(PointerIsValid(stats));
    2824             : 
    2825             :     /*
    2826             :      * If this is an unlogged index, we may need to write out an init fork for
    2827             :      * it -- but we must first check whether one already exists.  If, for
    2828             :      * example, an unlogged relation is truncated in the transaction that
    2829             :      * created it, or truncated twice in a subsequent transaction, the
    2830             :      * relfilenode won't change, and nothing needs to be done here.
    2831             :      */
    2832       72084 :     if (indexRelation->rd_rel->relpersistence == RELPERSISTENCE_UNLOGGED &&
    2833          92 :         !smgrexists(indexRelation->rd_smgr, INIT_FORKNUM))
    2834             :     {
    2835          92 :         RelationOpenSmgr(indexRelation);
    2836          92 :         smgrcreate(indexRelation->rd_smgr, INIT_FORKNUM, false);
    2837          92 :         indexRelation->rd_indam->ambuildempty(indexRelation);
    2838             :     }
    2839             : 
    2840             :     /*
    2841             :      * If we found any potentially broken HOT chains, mark the index as not
    2842             :      * being usable until the current transaction is below the event horizon.
    2843             :      * See src/backend/access/heap/README.HOT for discussion.  Also set this
    2844             :      * if early pruning/vacuuming is enabled for the heap relation.  While it
    2845             :      * might become safe to use the index earlier based on actual cleanup
    2846             :      * activity and other active transactions, the test for that would be much
    2847             :      * more complex and would require some form of blocking, so keep it simple
    2848             :      * and fast by just using the current transaction.
    2849             :      *
    2850             :      * However, when reindexing an existing index, we should do nothing here.
    2851             :      * Any HOT chains that are broken with respect to the index must predate
    2852             :      * the index's original creation, so there is no need to change the
    2853             :      * index's usability horizon.  Moreover, we *must not* try to change the
    2854             :      * index's pg_index entry while reindexing pg_index itself, and this
    2855             :      * optimization nicely prevents that.  The more complex rules needed for a
    2856             :      * reindex are handled separately after this function returns.
    2857             :      *
    2858             :      * We also need not set indcheckxmin during a concurrent index build,
    2859             :      * because we won't set indisvalid true until all transactions that care
    2860             :      * about the broken HOT chains or early pruning/vacuuming are gone.
    2861             :      *
    2862             :      * Therefore, this code path can only be taken during non-concurrent
    2863             :      * CREATE INDEX.  Thus the fact that heap_update will set the pg_index
    2864             :      * tuple's xmin doesn't matter, because that tuple was created in the
    2865             :      * current transaction anyway.  That also means we don't need to worry
    2866             :      * about any concurrent readers of the tuple; no other transaction can see
    2867             :      * it yet.
    2868             :      */
    2869       72032 :     if ((indexInfo->ii_BrokenHotChain || EarlyPruningEnabled(heapRelation)) &&
    2870          80 :         !isreindex &&
    2871          40 :         !indexInfo->ii_Concurrent)
    2872             :     {
    2873          40 :         Oid         indexId = RelationGetRelid(indexRelation);
    2874             :         Relation    pg_index;
    2875             :         HeapTuple   indexTuple;
    2876             :         Form_pg_index indexForm;
    2877             : 
    2878          40 :         pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    2879             : 
    2880          40 :         indexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
    2881             :                                          ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
    2882          40 :         if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
    2883           0 :             elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
    2884          40 :         indexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple);
    2885             : 
    2886             :         /* If it's a new index, indcheckxmin shouldn't be set ... */
    2887             :         Assert(!indexForm->indcheckxmin);
    2888             : 
    2889          40 :         indexForm->indcheckxmin = true;
    2890          40 :         CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &indexTuple->t_self, indexTuple);
    2891             : 
    2892          40 :         heap_freetuple(indexTuple);
    2893          40 :         table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
    2894             :     }
    2895             : 
    2896             :     /*
    2897             :      * Update heap and index pg_class rows
    2898             :      */
    2899       71992 :     index_update_stats(heapRelation,
    2900             :                        true,
    2901             :                        stats->heap_tuples);
    2902             : 
    2903       71992 :     index_update_stats(indexRelation,
    2904             :                        false,
    2905             :                        stats->index_tuples);
    2906             : 
    2907             :     /* Make the updated catalog row versions visible */
    2908       71992 :     CommandCounterIncrement();
    2909             : 
    2910             :     /*
    2911             :      * If it's for an exclusion constraint, make a second pass over the heap
    2912             :      * to verify that the constraint is satisfied.  We must not do this until
    2913             :      * the index is fully valid.  (Broken HOT chains shouldn't matter, though;
    2914             :      * see comments for IndexCheckExclusion.)
    2915             :      */
    2916       71992 :     if (indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL)
    2917         106 :         IndexCheckExclusion(heapRelation, indexRelation, indexInfo);
    2918             : 
    2919             :     /* Roll back any GUC changes executed by index functions */
    2920       71984 :     AtEOXact_GUC(false, save_nestlevel);
    2921             : 
    2922             :     /* Restore userid and security context */
    2923       71984 :     SetUserIdAndSecContext(save_userid, save_sec_context);
    2924       71984 : }
    2925             : 
    2926             : /*
    2927             :  * IndexCheckExclusion - verify that a new exclusion constraint is satisfied
    2928             :  *
    2929             :  * When creating an exclusion constraint, we first build the index normally
    2930             :  * and then rescan the heap to check for conflicts.  We assume that we only
    2931             :  * need to validate tuples that are live according to an up-to-date snapshot,
    2932             :  * and that these were correctly indexed even in the presence of broken HOT
    2933             :  * chains.  This should be OK since we are holding at least ShareLock on the
    2934             :  * table, meaning there can be no uncommitted updates from other transactions.
    2935             :  * (Note: that wouldn't necessarily work for system catalogs, since many
    2936             :  * operations release write lock early on the system catalogs.)
    2937             :  */
    2938             : static void
    2939         106 : IndexCheckExclusion(Relation heapRelation,
    2940             :                     Relation indexRelation,
    2941             :                     IndexInfo *indexInfo)
    2942             : {
    2943             :     TableScanDesc scan;
    2944             :     Datum       values[INDEX_MAX_KEYS];
    2945             :     bool        isnull[INDEX_MAX_KEYS];
    2946             :     ExprState  *predicate;
    2947             :     TupleTableSlot *slot;
    2948             :     EState     *estate;
    2949             :     ExprContext *econtext;
    2950             :     Snapshot    snapshot;
    2951             : 
    2952             :     /*
    2953             :      * If we are reindexing the target index, mark it as no longer being
    2954             :      * reindexed, to forestall an Assert in index_beginscan when we try to use
    2955             :      * the index for probes.  This is OK because the index is now fully valid.
    2956             :      */
    2957         106 :     if (ReindexIsCurrentlyProcessingIndex(RelationGetRelid(indexRelation)))
    2958          40 :         ResetReindexProcessing();
    2959             : 
    2960             :     /*
    2961             :      * Need an EState for evaluation of index expressions and partial-index
    2962             :      * predicates.  Also a slot to hold the current tuple.
    2963             :      */
    2964         106 :     estate = CreateExecutorState();
    2965         106 :     econtext = GetPerTupleExprContext(estate);
    2966         106 :     slot = table_slot_create(heapRelation, NULL);
    2967             : 
    2968             :     /* Arrange for econtext's scan tuple to be the tuple under test */
    2969         106 :     econtext->ecxt_scantuple = slot;
    2970             : 
    2971             :     /* Set up execution state for predicate, if any. */
    2972         106 :     predicate = ExecPrepareQual(indexInfo->ii_Predicate, estate);
    2973             : 
    2974             :     /*
    2975             :      * Scan all live tuples in the base relation.
    2976             :      */
    2977         106 :     snapshot = RegisterSnapshot(GetLatestSnapshot());
    2978         106 :     scan = table_beginscan_strat(heapRelation,  /* relation */
    2979             :                                  snapshot,  /* snapshot */
    2980             :                                  0, /* number of keys */
    2981             :                                  NULL,  /* scan key */
    2982             :                                  true,  /* buffer access strategy OK */
    2983             :                                  true); /* syncscan OK */
    2984             : 
    2985         232 :     while (table_scan_getnextslot(scan, ForwardScanDirection, slot))
    2986             :     {
    2987          28 :         CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPTS();
    2988             : 
    2989             :         /*
    2990             :          * In a partial index, ignore tuples that don't satisfy the predicate.
    2991             :          */
    2992          28 :         if (predicate != NULL)
    2993             :         {
    2994          20 :             if (!ExecQual(predicate, econtext))
    2995           8 :                 continue;
    2996             :         }
    2997             : 
    2998             :         /*
    2999             :          * Extract index column values, including computing expressions.
    3000             :          */
    3001          20 :         FormIndexDatum(indexInfo,
    3002             :                        slot,
    3003             :                        estate,
    3004             :                        values,
    3005             :                        isnull);
    3006             : 
    3007             :         /*
    3008             :          * Check that this tuple has no conflicts.
    3009             :          */
    3010          20 :         check_exclusion_constraint(heapRelation,
    3011             :                                    indexRelation, indexInfo,
    3012             :                                    &(slot->tts_tid), values, isnull,
    3013             :                                    estate, true);
    3014             : 
    3015          12 :         MemoryContextReset(econtext->ecxt_per_tuple_memory);
    3016             :     }
    3017             : 
    3018          98 :     table_endscan(scan);
    3019          98 :     UnregisterSnapshot(snapshot);
    3020             : 
    3021          98 :     ExecDropSingleTupleTableSlot(slot);
    3022             : 
    3023          98 :     FreeExecutorState(estate);
    3024             : 
    3025             :     /* These may have been pointing to the now-gone estate */
    3026          98 :     indexInfo->ii_ExpressionsState = NIL;
    3027          98 :     indexInfo->ii_PredicateState = NULL;
    3028          98 : }
    3029             : 
    3030             : 
    3031             : /*
    3032             :  * validate_index - support code for concurrent index builds
    3033             :  *
    3034             :  * We do a concurrent index build by first inserting the catalog entry for the
    3035             :  * index via index_create(), marking it not indisready and not indisvalid.
    3036             :  * Then we commit our transaction and start a new one, then we wait for all
    3037             :  * transactions that could have been modifying the table to terminate.  Now
    3038             :  * we know that any subsequently-started transactions will see the index and
    3039             :  * honor its constraints on HOT updates; so while existing HOT-chains might
    3040             :  * be broken with respect to the index, no currently live tuple will have an
    3041             :  * incompatible HOT update done to it.  We now build the index normally via
    3042             :  * index_build(), while holding a weak lock that allows concurrent
    3043             :  * insert/update/delete.  Also, we index only tuples that are valid
    3044             :  * as of the start of the scan (see table_index_build_scan), whereas a normal
    3045             :  * build takes care to include recently-dead tuples.  This is OK because
    3046             :  * we won't mark the index valid until all transactions that might be able
    3047             :  * to see those tuples are gone.  The reason for doing that is to avoid
    3048             :  * bogus unique-index failures due to concurrent UPDATEs (we might see
    3049             :  * different versions of the same row as being valid when we pass over them,
    3050             :  * if we used HeapTupleSatisfiesVacuum).  This leaves us with an index that
    3051             :  * does not contain any tuples added to the table while we built the index.
    3052             :  *
    3053             :  * Next, we mark the index "indisready" (but still not "indisvalid") and
    3054             :  * commit the second transaction and start a third.  Again we wait for all
    3055             :  * transactions that could have been modifying the table to terminate.  Now
    3056             :  * we know that any subsequently-started transactions will see the index and
    3057             :  * insert their new tuples into it.  We then take a new reference snapshot
    3058             :  * which is passed to validate_index().  Any tuples that are valid according
    3059             :  * to this snap, but are not in the index, must be added to the index.
    3060             :  * (Any tuples committed live after the snap will be inserted into the
    3061             :  * index by their originating transaction.  Any tuples committed dead before
    3062             :  * the snap need not be indexed, because we will wait out all transactions
    3063             :  * that might care about them before we mark the index valid.)
    3064             :  *
    3065             :  * validate_index() works by first gathering all the TIDs currently in the
    3066             :  * index, using a bulkdelete callback that just stores the TIDs and doesn't
    3067             :  * ever say "delete it".  (This should be faster than a plain indexscan;
    3068             :  * also, not all index AMs support full-index indexscan.)  Then we sort the
    3069             :  * TIDs, and finally scan the table doing a "merge join" against the TID list
    3070             :  * to see which tuples are missing from the index.  Thus we will ensure that
    3071             :  * all tuples valid according to the reference snapshot are in the index.
    3072             :  *
    3073             :  * Building a unique index this way is tricky: we might try to insert a
    3074             :  * tuple that is already dead or is in process of being deleted, and we
    3075             :  * mustn't have a uniqueness failure against an updated version of the same
    3076             :  * row.  We could try to check the tuple to see if it's already dead and tell
    3077             :  * index_insert() not to do the uniqueness check, but that still leaves us
    3078             :  * with a race condition against an in-progress update.  To handle that,
    3079             :  * we expect the index AM to recheck liveness of the to-be-inserted tuple
    3080             :  * before it declares a uniqueness error.
    3081             :  *
    3082             :  * After completing validate_index(), we wait until all transactions that
    3083             :  * were alive at the time of the reference snapshot are gone; this is
    3084             :  * necessary to be sure there are none left with a transaction snapshot
    3085             :  * older than the reference (and hence possibly able to see tuples we did
    3086             :  * not index).  Then we mark the index "indisvalid" and commit.  Subsequent
    3087             :  * transactions will be able to use it for queries.
    3088             :  *
    3089             :  * Doing two full table scans is a brute-force strategy.  We could try to be
    3090             :  * cleverer, eg storing new tuples in a special area of the table (perhaps
    3091             :  * making the table append-only by setting use_fsm).  However that would
    3092             :  * add yet more locking issues.
    3093             :  */
    3094             : void
    3095         160 : validate_index(Oid heapId, Oid indexId, Snapshot snapshot)
    3096             : {
    3097             :     Relation    heapRelation,
    3098             :                 indexRelation;
    3099             :     IndexInfo  *indexInfo;
    3100             :     IndexVacuumInfo ivinfo;
    3101             :     ValidateIndexState state;
    3102             :     Oid         save_userid;
    3103             :     int         save_sec_context;
    3104             :     int         save_nestlevel;
    3105             : 
    3106             :     {
    3107         160 :         const int   index[] = {
    3108             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE,
    3109             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_TUPLES_DONE,
    3110             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_TUPLES_TOTAL,
    3111             :             PROGRESS_SCAN_BLOCKS_DONE,
    3112             :             PROGRESS_SCAN_BLOCKS_TOTAL
    3113             :         };
    3114         160 :         const int64 val[] = {
    3115             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE_VALIDATE_IDXSCAN,
    3116             :             0, 0, 0, 0
    3117             :         };
    3118             : 
    3119         160 :         pgstat_progress_update_multi_param(5, index, val);
    3120             :     }
    3121             : 
    3122             :     /* Open and lock the parent heap relation */
    3123         160 :     heapRelation = table_open(heapId, ShareUpdateExclusiveLock);
    3124             :     /* And the target index relation */
    3125         160 :     indexRelation = index_open(indexId, RowExclusiveLock);
    3126             : 
    3127             :     /*
    3128             :      * Fetch info needed for index_insert.  (You might think this should be
    3129             :      * passed in from DefineIndex, but its copy is long gone due to having
    3130             :      * been built in a previous transaction.)
    3131             :      */
    3132         160 :     indexInfo = BuildIndexInfo(indexRelation);
    3133             : 
    3134             :     /* mark build is concurrent just for consistency */
    3135         160 :     indexInfo->ii_Concurrent = true;
    3136             : 
    3137             :     /*
    3138             :      * Switch to the table owner's userid, so that any index functions are run
    3139             :      * as that user.  Also lock down security-restricted operations and
    3140             :      * arrange to make GUC variable changes local to this command.
    3141             :      */
    3142         160 :     GetUserIdAndSecContext(&save_userid, &save_sec_context);
    3143         160 :     SetUserIdAndSecContext(heapRelation->rd_rel->relowner,
    3144             :                            save_sec_context | SECURITY_RESTRICTED_OPERATION);
    3145         160 :     save_nestlevel = NewGUCNestLevel();
    3146             : 
    3147             :     /*
    3148             :      * Scan the index and gather up all the TIDs into a tuplesort object.
    3149             :      */
    3150         160 :     ivinfo.index = indexRelation;
    3151         160 :     ivinfo.analyze_only = false;
    3152         160 :     ivinfo.report_progress = true;
    3153         160 :     ivinfo.estimated_count = true;
    3154         160 :     ivinfo.message_level = DEBUG2;
    3155         160 :     ivinfo.num_heap_tuples = heapRelation->rd_rel->reltuples;
    3156         160 :     ivinfo.strategy = NULL;
    3157             : 
    3158             :     /*
    3159             :      * Encode TIDs as int8 values for the sort, rather than directly sorting
    3160             :      * item pointers.  This can be significantly faster, primarily because TID
    3161             :      * is a pass-by-reference type on all platforms, whereas int8 is
    3162             :      * pass-by-value on most platforms.
    3163             :      */
    3164         160 :     state.tuplesort = tuplesort_begin_datum(INT8OID, Int8LessOperator,
    3165             :                                             InvalidOid, false,
    3166             :                                             maintenance_work_mem,
    3167             :                                             NULL, false);
    3168         160 :     state.htups = state.itups = state.tups_inserted = 0;
    3169             : 
    3170             :     /* ambulkdelete updates progress metrics */
    3171         160 :     (void) index_bulk_delete(&ivinfo, NULL,
    3172             :                              validate_index_callback, (void *) &state);
    3173             : 
    3174             :     /* Execute the sort */
    3175             :     {
    3176         160 :         const int   index[] = {
    3177             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE,
    3178             :             PROGRESS_SCAN_BLOCKS_DONE,
    3179             :             PROGRESS_SCAN_BLOCKS_TOTAL
    3180             :         };
    3181         160 :         const int64 val[] = {
    3182             :             PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE_VALIDATE_SORT,
    3183             :             0, 0
    3184             :         };
    3185             : 
    3186         160 :         pgstat_progress_update_multi_param(3, index, val);
    3187             :     }
    3188         160 :     tuplesort_performsort(state.tuplesort);
    3189             : 
    3190             :     /*
    3191             :      * Now scan the heap and "merge" it with the index
    3192             :      */
    3193         160 :     pgstat_progress_update_param(PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE,
    3194             :                                  PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_PHASE_VALIDATE_TABLESCAN);
    3195         160 :     table_index_validate_scan(heapRelation,
    3196             :                               indexRelation,
    3197             :                               indexInfo,
    3198             :                               snapshot,
    3199             :                               &state);
    3200             : 
    3201             :     /* Done with tuplesort object */
    3202         160 :     tuplesort_end(state.tuplesort);
    3203             : 
    3204         160 :     elog(DEBUG2,
    3205             :          "validate_index found %.0f heap tuples, %.0f index tuples; inserted %.0f missing tuples",
    3206             :          state.htups, state.itups, state.tups_inserted);
    3207             : 
    3208             :     /* Roll back any GUC changes executed by index functions */
    3209         160 :     AtEOXact_GUC(false, save_nestlevel);
    3210             : 
    3211             :     /* Restore userid and security context */
    3212         160 :     SetUserIdAndSecContext(save_userid, save_sec_context);
    3213             : 
    3214             :     /* Close rels, but keep locks */
    3215         160 :     index_close(indexRelation, NoLock);
    3216         160 :     table_close(heapRelation, NoLock);
    3217         160 : }
    3218             : 
    3219             : /*
    3220             :  * validate_index_callback - bulkdelete callback to collect the index TIDs
    3221             :  */
    3222             : static bool
    3223       10568 : validate_index_callback(ItemPointer itemptr, void *opaque)
    3224             : {
    3225       10568 :     ValidateIndexState *state = (ValidateIndexState *) opaque;
    3226       10568 :     int64       encoded = itemptr_encode(itemptr);
    3227             : 
    3228       10568 :     tuplesort_putdatum(state->tuplesort, Int64GetDatum(encoded), false);
    3229       10568 :     state->itups += 1;
    3230       10568 :     return false;               /* never actually delete anything */
    3231             : }
    3232             : 
    3233             : /*
    3234             :  * index_set_state_flags - adjust pg_index state flags
    3235             :  *
    3236             :  * This is used during CREATE/DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY to adjust the pg_index
    3237             :  * flags that denote the index's state.  Because the update is not
    3238             :  * transactional and will not roll back on error, this must only be used as
    3239             :  * the last step in a transaction that has not made any transactional catalog
    3240             :  * updates!
    3241             :  *
    3242             :  * Note that heap_inplace_update does send a cache inval message for the
    3243             :  * tuple, so other sessions will hear about the update as soon as we commit.
    3244             :  *
    3245             :  * NB: In releases prior to PostgreSQL 9.4, the use of a non-transactional
    3246             :  * update here would have been unsafe; now that MVCC rules apply even for
    3247             :  * system catalog scans, we could potentially use a transactional update here
    3248             :  * instead.
    3249             :  */
    3250             : void
    3251         372 : index_set_state_flags(Oid indexId, IndexStateFlagsAction action)
    3252             : {
    3253             :     Relation    pg_index;
    3254             :     HeapTuple   indexTuple;
    3255             :     Form_pg_index indexForm;
    3256             : 
    3257             :     /* Assert that current xact hasn't done any transactional updates */
    3258             :     Assert(GetTopTransactionIdIfAny() == InvalidTransactionId);
    3259             : 
    3260             :     /* Open pg_index and fetch a writable copy of the index's tuple */
    3261         372 :     pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    3262             : 
    3263         372 :     indexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
    3264             :                                      ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
    3265         372 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
    3266           0 :         elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
    3267         372 :     indexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple);
    3268             : 
    3269             :     /* Perform the requested state change on the copy */
    3270         372 :     switch (action)
    3271             :     {
    3272             :         case INDEX_CREATE_SET_READY:
    3273             :             /* Set indisready during a CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY sequence */
    3274             :             Assert(indexForm->indislive);
    3275             :             Assert(!indexForm->indisready);
    3276             :             Assert(!indexForm->indisvalid);
    3277         160 :             indexForm->indisready = true;
    3278         160 :             break;
    3279             :         case INDEX_CREATE_SET_VALID:
    3280             :             /* Set indisvalid during a CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY sequence */
    3281             :             Assert(indexForm->indislive);
    3282             :             Assert(indexForm->indisready);
    3283             :             Assert(!indexForm->indisvalid);
    3284          32 :             indexForm->indisvalid = true;
    3285          32 :             break;
    3286             :         case INDEX_DROP_CLEAR_VALID:
    3287             : 
    3288             :             /*
    3289             :              * Clear indisvalid during a DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY sequence
    3290             :              *
    3291             :              * If indisready == true we leave it set so the index still gets
    3292             :              * maintained by active transactions.  We only need to ensure that
    3293             :              * indisvalid is false.  (We don't assert that either is initially
    3294             :              * true, though, since we want to be able to retry a DROP INDEX
    3295             :              * CONCURRENTLY that failed partway through.)
    3296             :              *
    3297             :              * Note: the CLUSTER logic assumes that indisclustered cannot be
    3298             :              * set on any invalid index, so clear that flag too.
    3299             :              */
    3300          26 :             indexForm->indisvalid = false;
    3301          26 :             indexForm->indisclustered = false;
    3302          26 :             break;
    3303             :         case INDEX_DROP_SET_DEAD:
    3304             : 
    3305             :             /*
    3306             :              * Clear indisready/indislive during DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY
    3307             :              *
    3308             :              * We clear both indisready and indislive, because we not only
    3309             :              * want to stop updates, we want to prevent sessions from touching
    3310             :              * the index at all.
    3311             :              */
    3312             :             Assert(!indexForm->indisvalid);
    3313         154 :             indexForm->indisready = false;
    3314         154 :             indexForm->indislive = false;
    3315         154 :             break;
    3316             :     }
    3317             : 
    3318             :     /* ... and write it back in-place */
    3319         372 :     heap_inplace_update(pg_index, indexTuple);
    3320             : 
    3321         372 :     table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
    3322         372 : }
    3323             : 
    3324             : 
    3325             : /*
    3326             :  * IndexGetRelation: given an index's relation OID, get the OID of the
    3327             :  * relation it is an index on.  Uses the system cache.
    3328             :  */
    3329             : Oid
    3330       21554 : IndexGetRelation(Oid indexId, bool missing_ok)
    3331             : {
    3332             :     HeapTuple   tuple;
    3333             :     Form_pg_index index;
    3334             :     Oid         result;
    3335             : 
    3336       21554 :     tuple = SearchSysCache1(INDEXRELID, ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
    3337       21554 :     if (!HeapTupleIsValid(tuple))
    3338             :     {
    3339          12 :         if (missing_ok)
    3340          12 :             return InvalidOid;
    3341           0 :         elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
    3342             :     }
    3343       21542 :     index = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(tuple);
    3344             :     Assert(index->indexrelid == indexId);
    3345             : 
    3346       21542 :     result = index->indrelid;
    3347       21542 :     ReleaseSysCache(tuple);
    3348       21542 :     return result;
    3349             : }
    3350             : 
    3351             : /*
    3352             :  * reindex_index - This routine is used to recreate a single index
    3353             :  */
    3354             : void
    3355        6828 : reindex_index(Oid indexId, bool skip_constraint_checks, char persistence,
    3356             :               int options)
    3357             : {
    3358             :     Relation    iRel,
    3359             :                 heapRelation;
    3360             :     Oid         heapId;
    3361             :     IndexInfo  *indexInfo;
    3362        6828 :     volatile bool skipped_constraint = false;
    3363             :     PGRUsage    ru0;
    3364        6828 :     bool        progress = (options & REINDEXOPT_REPORT_PROGRESS) != 0;
    3365             : 
    3366        6828 :     pg_rusage_init(&ru0);
    3367             : 
    3368             :     /*
    3369             :      * Open and lock the parent heap relation.  ShareLock is sufficient since
    3370             :      * we only need to be sure no schema or data changes are going on.
    3371             :      */
    3372        6828 :     heapId = IndexGetRelation(indexId, false);
    3373        6828 :     heapRelation = table_open(heapId, ShareLock);
    3374             : 
    3375        6828 :     if (progress)
    3376             :     {
    3377        4808 :         pgstat_progress_start_command(PROGRESS_COMMAND_CREATE_INDEX,
    3378             :                                       heapId);
    3379        4808 :         pgstat_progress_update_param(PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_COMMAND,
    3380             :                                      PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_COMMAND_REINDEX);
    3381        4808 :         pgstat_progress_update_param(PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_INDEX_OID,
    3382             :                                      indexId);
    3383             :     }
    3384             : 
    3385             :     /*
    3386             :      * Open the target index relation and get an exclusive lock on it, to
    3387             :      * ensure that no one else is touching this particular index.
    3388             :      */
    3389        6828 :     iRel = index_open(indexId, AccessExclusiveLock);
    3390             : 
    3391        6828 :     if (progress)
    3392        4808 :         pgstat_progress_update_param(PROGRESS_CREATEIDX_ACCESS_METHOD_OID,
    3393        4808 :                                      iRel->rd_rel->relam);
    3394             : 
    3395             :     /*
    3396             :      * The case of reindexing partitioned tables and indexes is handled
    3397             :      * differently by upper layers, so this case shouldn't arise.
    3398             :      */
    3399        6828 :     if (iRel->rd_rel->relkind == RELKIND_PARTITIONED_INDEX)
    3400           0 :         elog(ERROR, "unsupported relation kind for index \"%s\"",
    3401             :              RelationGetRelationName(iRel));
    3402             : 
    3403             :     /*
    3404             :      * Don't allow reindex on temp tables of other backends ... their local
    3405             :      * buffer manager is not going to cope.
    3406             :      */
    3407        6828 :     if (RELATION_IS_OTHER_TEMP(iRel))
    3408           0 :         ereport(ERROR,
    3409             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
    3410             :                  errmsg("cannot reindex temporary tables of other sessions")));
    3411             : 
    3412             :     /*
    3413             :      * Also check for active uses of the index in the current transaction; we
    3414             :      * don't want to reindex underneath an open indexscan.
    3415             :      */
    3416        6828 :     CheckTableNotInUse(iRel, "REINDEX INDEX");
    3417             : 
    3418             :     /*
    3419             :      * All predicate locks on the index are about to be made invalid. Promote
    3420             :      * them to relation locks on the heap.
    3421             :      */
    3422        6828 :     TransferPredicateLocksToHeapRelation(iRel);
    3423             : 
    3424             :     /* Fetch info needed for index_build */
    3425        6828 :     indexInfo = BuildIndexInfo(iRel);
    3426             : 
    3427             :     /* If requested, skip checking uniqueness/exclusion constraints */
    3428        6828 :     if (skip_constraint_checks)
    3429             :     {
    3430        1660 :         if (indexInfo->ii_Unique || indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps != NULL)
    3431        1402 :             skipped_constraint = true;
    3432        1660 :         indexInfo->ii_Unique = false;
    3433        1660 :         indexInfo->ii_ExclusionOps = NULL;
    3434        1660 :         indexInfo->ii_ExclusionProcs = NULL;
    3435        1660 :         indexInfo->ii_ExclusionStrats = NULL;
    3436             :     }
    3437             : 
    3438             :     /* ensure SetReindexProcessing state isn't leaked */
    3439        6828 :     PG_TRY();
    3440             :     {
    3441             :         /* Suppress use of the target index while rebuilding it */
    3442        6828 :         SetReindexProcessing(heapId, indexId);
    3443             : 
    3444             :         /* Create a new physical relation for the index */
    3445        6828 :         RelationSetNewRelfilenode(iRel, persistence);
    3446             : 
    3447             :         /* Initialize the index and rebuild */
    3448             :         /* Note: we do not need to re-establish pkey setting */
    3449        6828 :         index_build(heapRelation, iRel, indexInfo, true, true);
    3450             :     }
    3451          16 :     PG_FINALLY();
    3452             :     {
    3453             :         /* Make sure flag gets cleared on error exit */
    3454        6828 :         ResetReindexProcessing();
    3455             :     }
    3456        6828 :     PG_END_TRY();
    3457             : 
    3458             :     /*
    3459             :      * If the index is marked invalid/not-ready/dead (ie, it's from a failed
    3460             :      * CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY, or a DROP INDEX CONCURRENTLY failed midway),
    3461             :      * and we didn't skip a uniqueness check, we can now mark it valid.  This
    3462             :      * allows REINDEX to be used to clean up in such cases.
    3463             :      *
    3464             :      * We can also reset indcheckxmin, because we have now done a
    3465             :      * non-concurrent index build, *except* in the case where index_build
    3466             :      * found some still-broken HOT chains. If it did, and we don't have to
    3467             :      * change any of the other flags, we just leave indcheckxmin alone (note
    3468             :      * that index_build won't have changed it, because this is a reindex).
    3469             :      * This is okay and desirable because not updating the tuple leaves the
    3470             :      * index's usability horizon (recorded as the tuple's xmin value) the same
    3471             :      * as it was.
    3472             :      *
    3473             :      * But, if the index was invalid/not-ready/dead and there were broken HOT
    3474             :      * chains, we had better force indcheckxmin true, because the normal
    3475             :      * argument that the HOT chains couldn't conflict with the index is
    3476             :      * suspect for an invalid index.  (A conflict is definitely possible if
    3477             :      * the index was dead.  It probably shouldn't happen otherwise, but let's
    3478             :      * be conservative.)  In this case advancing the usability horizon is
    3479             :      * appropriate.
    3480             :      *
    3481             :      * Another reason for avoiding unnecessary updates here is that while
    3482             :      * reindexing pg_index itself, we must not try to update tuples in it.
    3483             :      * pg_index's indexes should always have these flags in their clean state,
    3484             :      * so that won't happen.
    3485             :      *
    3486             :      * If early pruning/vacuuming is enabled for the heap relation, the
    3487             :      * usability horizon must be advanced to the current transaction on every
    3488             :      * build or rebuild.  pg_index is OK in this regard because catalog tables
    3489             :      * are not subject to early cleanup.
    3490             :      */
    3491        6812 :     if (!skipped_constraint)
    3492             :     {
    3493             :         Relation    pg_index;
    3494             :         HeapTuple   indexTuple;
    3495             :         Form_pg_index indexForm;
    3496             :         bool        index_bad;
    3497        5410 :         bool        early_pruning_enabled = EarlyPruningEnabled(heapRelation);
    3498             : 
    3499        5410 :         pg_index = table_open(IndexRelationId, RowExclusiveLock);
    3500             : 
    3501        5410 :         indexTuple = SearchSysCacheCopy1(INDEXRELID,
    3502             :                                          ObjectIdGetDatum(indexId));
    3503        5410 :         if (!HeapTupleIsValid(indexTuple))
    3504           0 :             elog(ERROR, "cache lookup failed for index %u", indexId);
    3505        5410 :         indexForm = (Form_pg_index) GETSTRUCT(indexTuple);
    3506             : 
    3507       16226 :         index_bad = (!indexForm->indisvalid ||
    3508       10816 :                      !indexForm->indisready ||
    3509        5406 :                      !indexForm->indislive);
    3510       10816 :         if (index_bad ||
    3511        5406 :             (indexForm->indcheckxmin && !indexInfo->ii_BrokenHotChain) ||
    3512             :             early_pruning_enabled)
    3513             :         {
    3514           4 :             if (!indexInfo->ii_BrokenHotChain && !early_pruning_enabled)
    3515           4 :                 indexForm->indcheckxmin = false;
    3516           0 :             else if (index_bad || early_pruning_enabled)
    3517           0 :                 indexForm->indcheckxmin = true;
    3518           4 :             indexForm->indisvalid = true;
    3519           4 :             indexForm->indisready = true;
    3520           4 :             indexForm->indislive = true;
    3521           4 :             CatalogTupleUpdate(pg_index, &indexTuple->t_self, indexTuple);
    3522             : 
    3523             :             /*
    3524             :              * Invalidate the relcache for the table, so that after we commit
    3525             :              * all sessions will refresh the table's index list.  This ensures
    3526             :              * that if anyone misses seeing the pg_index row during this
    3527             :              * update, they'll refresh their list before attempting any update
    3528             :              * on the table.
    3529             :              */
    3530           4 :             CacheInvalidateRelcache(heapRelation);
    3531             :         }
    3532             : 
    3533        5410 :         table_close(pg_index, RowExclusiveLock);
    3534             :     }
    3535             : 
    3536             :     /* Log what we did */
    3537        6812 :     if (options & REINDEXOPT_VERBOSE)
    3538           8 :         ereport(INFO,
    3539             :                 (errmsg("index \"%s\" was reindexed",
    3540             :                         get_rel_name(indexId)),
    3541             :                  errdetail_internal("%s",
    3542             :                                     pg_rusage_show(&ru0))));
    3543             : 
    3544        6812 :     if (progress)
    3545        4804 :         pgstat_progress_end_command();
    3546             : 
    3547             :     /* Close rels, but keep locks */
    3548        6812 :     index_close(iRel, NoLock);
    3549        6812 :     table_close(heapRelation, NoLock);
    3550        6812 : }
    3551             : 
    3552             : /*
    3553             :  * reindex_relation - This routine is used to recreate all indexes
    3554             :  * of a relation (and optionally its toast relation too, if any).
    3555             :  *
    3556             :  * "flags" is a bitmask that can include any combination of these bits:
    3557             :  *
    3558             :  * REINDEX_REL_PROCESS_TOAST: if true, process the toast table too (if any).
    3559             :  *
    3560             :  * REINDEX_REL_SUPPRESS_INDEX_USE: if true, the relation was just completely
    3561             :  * rebuilt by an operation such as VACUUM FULL or CLUSTER, and therefore its
    3562             :  * indexes are inconsistent with it.  This makes things tricky if the relation
    3563             :  * is a system catalog that we might consult during the reindexing.  To deal
    3564             :  * with that case, we mark all of the indexes as pending rebuild so that they
    3565             :  * won't be trusted until rebuilt.  The caller is required to call us *without*
    3566             :  * having made the rebuilt table visible by doing CommandCounterIncrement;
    3567             :  * we'll do CCI after having collected the index list.  (This way we can still
    3568             :  * use catalog indexes while collecting the list.)
    3569             :  *
    3570             :  * REINDEX_REL_CHECK_CONSTRAINTS: if true, recheck unique and exclusion
    3571             :  * constraint conditions, else don't.  To avoid deadlocks, VACUUM FULL or
    3572             :  * CLUSTER on a system catalog must omit this flag.  REINDEX should be used to
    3573             :  * rebuild an index if constraint inconsistency is suspected.  For optimal
    3574             :  * performance, other callers should include the flag only after transforming
    3575             :  * the data in a manner that risks a change in constraint validity.
    3576             :  *
    3577             :  * REINDEX_REL_FORCE_INDEXES_UNLOGGED: if true, set the persistence of the
    3578             :  * rebuilt indexes to unlogged.
    3579             :  *
    3580             :  * REINDEX_REL_FORCE_INDEXES_PERMANENT: if true, set the persistence of the
    3581             :  * rebuilt indexes to permanent.
    3582             :  *
    3583             :  * Returns true if any indexes were rebuilt (including toast table's index
    3584             :  * when relevant).  Note that a CommandCounterIncrement will occur after each
    3585             :  * index rebuild.
    3586             :  */
    3587             : bool
    3588        6136 : reindex_relation(Oid relid, int flags, int options)
    3589             : {
    3590             :     Relation    rel;
    3591             :     Oid         toast_relid;
    3592             :     List       *indexIds;
    3593             :     bool        result;
    3594             :     int         i;
    3595             : 
    3596             :     /*
    3597             :      * Open and lock the relation.  ShareLock is sufficient since we only need
    3598             :      * to prevent schema and data changes in it.  The lock level used here
    3599             :      * should match ReindexTable().
    3600             :      */
    3601        6136 :     rel = table_open(relid, ShareLock);
    3602             : 
    3603             :     /*
    3604             :      * This may be useful when implemented someday; but that day is not today.
    3605             :      * For now, avoid erroring out when called in a multi-table context
    3606             :      * (REINDEX SCHEMA) and happen to come across a partitioned table.  The
    3607             :      * partitions may be reindexed on their own anyway.
    3608             :      */
    3609        6136 :     if (rel->rd_rel->relkind == RELKIND_PARTITIONED_TABLE)
    3610             :     {
    3611           4 :         ereport(WARNING,
    3612             :                 (errcode(ERRCODE_FEATURE_NOT_SUPPORTED),
    3613             :                  errmsg("REINDEX of partitioned tables is not yet implemented, skipping \"%s\"",
    3614             :                         RelationGetRelationName(rel))));
    3615           4 :         table_close(rel, ShareLock);
    3616           4 :         return false;
    3617             :     }
    3618             : 
    3619        6132 :     toast_relid = rel->rd_rel->reltoastrelid;
    3620             : 
    3621             :     /*
    3622             :      * Get the list of index OIDs for this relation.  (We trust to the
    3623             :      * relcache to get this with a sequential scan if ignoring system
    3624             :      * indexes.)
    3625             :      */
    3626        6132 :     indexIds = RelationGetIndexList(rel);
    3627             : 
    3628        6132 :     PG_TRY();
    3629             :     {
    3630             :         ListCell   *indexId;
    3631             :         char        persistence;
    3632             : 
    3633        6132 :         if (flags & REINDEX_REL_SUPPRESS_INDEX_USE)
    3634             :         {
    3635             :             /* Suppress use of all the indexes until they are rebuilt */
    3636         750 :             SetReindexPending(indexIds);
    3637             : 
    3638             :             /*
    3639             :              * Make the new heap contents visible --- now things might be
    3640             :              * inconsistent!
    3641             :              */
    3642         750 :             CommandCounterIncrement();
    3643             :         }
    3644             : 
    3645             :         /*
    3646             :          * Compute persistence of indexes: same as that of owning rel, unless
    3647             :          * caller specified otherwise.
    3648             :          */
    3649        6132 :         if (flags & REINDEX_REL_FORCE_INDEXES_UNLOGGED)
    3650          12 :             persistence = RELPERSISTENCE_UNLOGGED;
    3651        6120 :         else if (flags & REINDEX_REL_FORCE_INDEXES_PERMANENT)
    3652         714 :             persistence = RELPERSISTENCE_PERMANENT;
    3653             :         else
    3654        5406 :             persistence = rel->rd_rel->relpersistence;
    3655             : 
    3656             :         /* Reindex all the indexes. */
    3657        6132 :         i = 1;
    3658       12910 :         foreach(indexId, indexIds)
    3659             :         {
    3660        6794 :             Oid         indexOid = lfirst_oid(indexId);
    3661             : 
    3662        6794 :             reindex_index(indexOid, !(flags & REINDEX_REL_CHECK_CONSTRAINTS),
    3663             :                           persistence, options);
    3664             : 
    3665        6778 :             CommandCounterIncrement();
    3666             : 
    3667             :             /* Index should no longer be in the pending list */
    3668             :             Assert(!ReindexIsProcessingIndex(indexOid));
    3669             : 
    3670             :             /* Set index rebuild count */
    3671        6778 :             pgstat_progress_update_param(PROGRESS_CLUSTER_INDEX_REBUILD_COUNT,
    3672             :                                          i);
    3673        6778 :             i++;
    3674             :         }
    3675             :     }
    3676          16 :     PG_FINALLY();
    3677             :     {
    3678             :         /* Make sure list gets cleared on error exit */
    3679        6132 :         ResetReindexPending();
    3680             :     }
    3681        6132 :     PG_END_TRY();
    3682             : 
    3683             :     /*
    3684             :      * Close rel, but continue to hold the lock.
    3685             :      */
    3686        6116 :     table_close(rel, NoLock);
    3687             : 
    3688        6116 :     result = (indexIds != NIL);
    3689             : 
    3690             :     /*
    3691             :      * If the relation has a secondary toast rel, reindex that too while we
    3692             :      * still hold the lock on the master table.
    3693             :      */
    3694        6116 :     if ((flags & REINDEX_REL_PROCESS_TOAST) && OidIsValid(toast_relid))
    3695        1966 :         result |= reindex_relation(toast_relid, flags, options);
    3696             : 
    3697        6116 :     return result;
    3698             : }
    3699             : 
    3700             : 
    3701             : /* ----------------------------------------------------------------
    3702             :  *      System index reindexing support
    3703             :  *
    3704             :  * When we are busy reindexing a system index, this code provides support
    3705             :  * for preventing catalog lookups from using that index.  We also make use
    3706             :  * of this to catch attempted uses of user indexes during reindexing of
    3707             :  * those indexes.  This information is propagated to parallel workers;
    3708             :  * attempting to change it during a parallel operation is not permitted.
    3709             :  * ----------------------------------------------------------------
    3710             :  */
    3711             : 
    3712             : static Oid  currentlyReindexedHeap = InvalidOid;
    3713             : static Oid  currentlyReindexedIndex = InvalidOid;
    3714             : static List *pendingReindexedIndexes = NIL;
    3715             : 
    3716             : /*
    3717             :  * ReindexIsProcessingHeap
    3718             :  *      True if heap specified by OID is currently being reindexed.
    3719             :  */
    3720             : bool
    3721       47238 : ReindexIsProcessingHeap(Oid heapOid)
    3722             : {
    3723       47238 :     return heapOid == currentlyReindexedHeap;
    3724             : }
    3725             : 
    3726             : /*
    3727             :  * ReindexIsCurrentlyProcessingIndex
    3728             :  *      True if index specified by OID is currently being reindexed.
    3729             :  */
    3730             : static bool
    3731         106 : ReindexIsCurrentlyProcessingIndex(Oid indexOid)
    3732             : {
    3733         106 :     return indexOid == currentlyReindexedIndex;
    3734             : }
    3735             : 
    3736             : /*
    3737             :  * ReindexIsProcessingIndex
    3738             :  *      True if index specified by OID is currently being reindexed,
    3739             :  *      or should be treated as invalid because it is awaiting reindex.
    3740             :  */
    3741             : bool
    3742     9822588 : ReindexIsProcessingIndex(Oid indexOid)
    3743             : {
    3744    19640604 :     return indexOid == currentlyReindexedIndex ||
    3745     9818016 :         list_member_oid(pendingReindexedIndexes, indexOid);
    3746             : }
    3747             : 
    3748             : /*
    3749             :  * SetReindexProcessing
    3750             :  *      Set flag that specified heap/index are being reindexed.
    3751             :  *
    3752             :  * NB: caller must use a PG_TRY block to ensure ResetReindexProcessing is done.
    3753             :  */
    3754             : static void
    3755        6828 : SetReindexProcessing(Oid heapOid, Oid indexOid)
    3756             : {
    3757             :     Assert(OidIsValid(heapOid) && OidIsValid(indexOid));
    3758             :     /* Reindexing is not re-entrant. */
    3759        6828 :     if (OidIsValid(currentlyReindexedHeap))
    3760           0 :         elog(ERROR, "cannot reindex while reindexing");
    3761        6828 :     currentlyReindexedHeap = heapOid;
    3762        6828 :     currentlyReindexedIndex = indexOid;
    3763             :     /* Index is no longer "pending" reindex. */
    3764        6828 :     RemoveReindexPending(indexOid);
    3765        6828 : }
    3766             : 
    3767             : /*
    3768             :  * ResetReindexProcessing
    3769             :  *      Unset reindexing status.
    3770             :  */
    3771             : static void
    3772        6868 : ResetReindexProcessing(void)
    3773             : {
    3774             :     /* This may be called in leader error path */
    3775        6868 :     currentlyReindexedHeap = InvalidOid;
    3776        6868 :     currentlyReindexedIndex = InvalidOid;
    3777        6868 : }
    3778             : 
    3779             : /*
    3780             :  * SetReindexPending
    3781             :  *      Mark the given indexes as pending reindex.
    3782             :  *
    3783             :  * NB: caller must use a PG_TRY block to ensure ResetReindexPending is done.
    3784             :  * Also, we assume that the current memory context stays valid throughout.
    3785             :  */
    3786             : static void
    3787         750 : SetReindexPending(List *indexes)
    3788             : {
    3789             :     /* Reindexing is not re-entrant. */
    3790         750 :     if (pendingReindexedIndexes)
    3791           0 :         elog(ERROR, "cannot reindex while reindexing");
    3792         750 :     if (IsInParallelMode())
    3793           0 :         elog(ERROR, "cannot modify reindex state during a parallel operation");
    3794         750 :     pendingReindexedIndexes = list_copy(indexes);
    3795         750 : }
    3796             : 
    3797             : /*
    3798             :  * RemoveReindexPending
    3799             :  *      Remove the given index from the pending list.
    3800             :  */
    3801             : static void
    3802        6828 : RemoveReindexPending(Oid indexOid)
    3803             : {
    3804        6828 :     if (IsInParallelMode())
    3805           0 :         elog(ERROR, "cannot modify reindex state during a parallel operation");
    3806        6828 :     pendingReindexedIndexes = list_delete_oid(pendingReindexedIndexes,
    3807             :                                               indexOid);
    3808        6828 : }
    3809             : 
    3810             : /*
    3811             :  * ResetReindexPending
    3812             :  *      Unset reindex-pending status.
    3813             :  */
    3814             : static void
    3815        6132 : ResetReindexPending(void)
    3816             : {
    3817             :     /* This may be called in leader error path */
    3818        6132 :     pendingReindexedIndexes = NIL;
    3819        6132 : }
    3820             : 
    3821             : /*
    3822             :  * EstimateReindexStateSpace
    3823             :  *      Estimate space needed to pass reindex state to parallel workers.
    3824             :  */
    3825             : Size
    3826         446 : EstimateReindexStateSpace(void)
    3827             : {
    3828             :     return offsetof(SerializedReindexState, pendingReindexedIndexes)
    3829         446 :         + mul_size(sizeof(Oid), list_length(pendingReindexedIndexes));
    3830             : }
    3831             : 
    3832             : /*
    3833             :  * SerializeReindexState
    3834             :  *      Serialize reindex state for parallel workers.
    3835             :  */
    3836             : void
    3837         446 : SerializeReindexState(Size maxsize, char *start_address)
    3838             : {
    3839         446 :     SerializedReindexState *sistate = (SerializedReindexState *) start_address;
    3840         446 :     int         c = 0;
    3841             :     ListCell   *lc;
    3842             : 
    3843         446 :     sistate->currentlyReindexedHeap = currentlyReindexedHeap;
    3844         446 :     sistate->currentlyReindexedIndex = currentlyReindexedIndex;
    3845         446 :     sistate->numPendingReindexedIndexes = list_length(pendingReindexedIndexes);
    3846         446 :     foreach(lc, pendingReindexedIndexes)
    3847           0 :         sistate->pendingReindexedIndexes[c++] = lfirst_oid(lc);
    3848         446 : }
    3849             : 
    3850             : /*
    3851             :  * RestoreReindexState
    3852             :  *      Restore reindex state in a parallel worker.
    3853             :  */
    3854             : void
    3855        1520 : RestoreReindexState(void *reindexstate)
    3856             : {
    3857        1520 :     SerializedReindexState *sistate = (SerializedReindexState *) reindexstate;
    3858        1520 :     int         c = 0;
    3859             :     MemoryContext oldcontext;
    3860             : 
    3861        1520 :     currentlyReindexedHeap = sistate->currentlyReindexedHeap;
    3862        1520 :     currentlyReindexedIndex = sistate->currentlyReindexedIndex;
    3863             : 
    3864             :     Assert(pendingReindexedIndexes == NIL);
    3865        1520 :     oldcontext = MemoryContextSwitchTo(TopMemoryContext);
    3866        1520 :     for (c = 0; c < sistate->numPendingReindexedIndexes; ++c)
    3867           0 :         pendingReindexedIndexes =
    3868           0 :             lappend_oid(pendingReindexedIndexes,
    3869             :                         sistate->pendingReindexedIndexes[c]);
    3870        1520 :     MemoryContextSwitchTo(oldcontext);
    3871        1520 : }

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